JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

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ISSN / EISSN : 2369-2960 / 2369-2960
Current Publisher: JMIR Publications Inc. (10.2196)
Total articles ≅ 689
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Dax Gerts, Courtney D Shelley, Nidhi Parikh, Travis Pitts, Chrysm Watson Ross, , Nidia Yadria Vaquera Chavez,
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; doi:10.2196/26527

Abstract:
Background The COVID-19 outbreak has left many people isolated within their homes; these people are turning to social media for news and social connection, which leaves them vulnerable to believing and sharing misinformation. Health-related misinformation threatens adherence to public health messaging, and monitoring its spread on social media is critical to understanding the evolution of ideas that have potentially negative public health impacts. Objective The aim of this study is to use Twitter data to explore methods to characterize and classify four COVID-19 conspiracy theories and to provide context for each of these conspiracy theories through the first 5 months of the pandemic. Methods We began with a corpus of COVID-19 tweets (approximately 120 million) spanning late January to early May 2020. We first filtered tweets using regular expressions (n=1.8 million) and used random forest classification models to identify tweets related to four conspiracy theories. Our classified data sets were then used in downstream sentiment analysis and dynamic topic modeling to characterize the linguistic features of COVID-19 conspiracy theories as they evolve over time. Results Analysis using model-labeled data was beneficial for increasing the proportion of data matching misinformation indicators. Random forest classifier metrics varied across the four conspiracy theories considered (F1 scores between 0.347 and 0.857); this performance increased as the given conspiracy theory was more narrowly defined. We showed that misinformation tweets demonstrate more negative sentiment when compared to nonmisinformation tweets and that theories evolve over time, incorporating details from unrelated conspiracy theories as well as real-world events. Conclusions Although we focus here on health-related misinformation, this combination of approaches is not specific to public health and is valuable for characterizing misinformation in general, which is an important first step in creating targeted messaging to counteract its spread. Initial messaging should aim to preempt generalized misinformation before it becomes widespread, while later messaging will need to target evolving conspiracy theories and the new facets of each as they become incorporated.
Alexander S Dennis, Patricia L Moravec, ,
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; doi:10.2196/25762

Abstract:
Background Public health campaigns aimed at curbing the spread of COVID-19 are important in reducing disease transmission, but traditional information-based campaigns have received unexpectedly extreme backlash. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether customizing of public service announcements (PSAs) providing health guidelines to match individuals’ identities increases their compliance. Methods We conducted a within- and between-subjects, randomized controlled cross-sectional, web-based study in July 2020. Participants viewed two PSAs: one advocating wearing a mask in public settings and one advocating staying at home. The control PSA only provided information, and the treatment PSAs were designed to appeal to the identities held by individuals; that is, either a Christian identity or an economically motivated identity. Participants were asked about their identity and then provided a control PSA and treatment PSA matching their identity, in random order. The PSAs were of approximately 100 words. Results We recruited 300 social media users from Amazon Mechanical Turk in accordance with usual protocols to ensure data quality. In total, 8 failed the data quality checks, and the remaining 292 were included in the analysis. In the identity-based PSA, the source of the PSA was changed, and a phrase of approximately 12 words relevant to the individual’s identity was inserted. A PSA tailored for Christians, when matched with a Christian identity, increased the likelihood of compliance by 12 percentage points. A PSA that focused on economic values, when shown to individuals who identified as economically motivated, increased the likelihood of compliance by 6 points. Conclusions Using social media to deliver COVID-19 public health announcements customized to individuals’ identities is a promising measure to increase compliance with public health guidelines. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry 22331899; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN22331899.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; doi:10.2196/26330

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Background The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 led to the COVID-19 pandemic starting in January 2020. The Swiss Federal Council prescribed a lockdown of nonessential businesses. Students and employees of higher education institutions had to install home offices and participate in online lectures. Objective The aim of this survey study was to evaluate lifestyle habits, such as physical activity (PA), sitting time, nutritional habits (expressed as median modified Mediterranean Diet Score [mMDS]), alcohol consumption habits, and sleeping behavior during a 2-month period of confinement and social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Survey participants were students and employees of a Swiss university of applied sciences. Methods All students and employees from Bern University of Applied Sciences, Department of Health Professions (ie, nursing, nutrition and dietetics, midwifery, and physiotherapy divisions) were invited to complete an anonymous online survey during the COVID-19 confinement period. Information on the lifestyle dimensions of PA, sitting time, nutritional and alcohol consumption habits, and sleep behavior was gathered using adaptations of validated questionnaires. Frequency analyses and nonparametric statistical methods were used for data analysis. Significance was set at 5% α level of error. Results Prevalence of non-health-enhancing PA was 37.1%, with participants of the division of physiotherapy showing the lowest prevalence. Prevalence of long sitting time (>8 hours/day) was 36.1%. The median mMDS was 9, where the maximal score was 15, with participants of the division of nutrition and dietetics being more adherent to a Mediterranean diet as compared to the other groups. Prevalence of nonadherence to the Swiss alcohol consumption recommendations was 8.3%. Prevalence of low sleeping quality was 44.7%, while the median sleeping duration was 8 hours, which is considered healthy for adult populations. Conclusions In the group analysis, differences in PA, sitting time, and mMDS were observed between different divisions of health professions as well as between Bachelor of Science students, Master of Science students, and employees. Therefore, public health messages regarding healthy lifestyle habits during home confinement should be more group specific. The results of this study may provide support for the implementation of group-specific health promotion interventions at universities in pandemic conditions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04502108; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04502108
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; doi:10.2196/26780

Abstract:
Background Despite scientific evidence supporting the importance of wearing masks to curtail the spread of COVID-19, wearing masks has stirred up a significant debate particularly on social media. Objective This study aimed to investigate the topics associated with the public discourse against wearing masks in the United States. We also studied the relationship between the anti-mask discourse on social media and the number of new COVID-19 cases. Methods We collected a total of 51,170 English tweets between January 1, 2020, and October 27, 2020, by searching for hashtags against wearing masks. We used machine learning techniques to analyze the data collected. We investigated the relationship between the volume of tweets against mask-wearing and the daily volume of new COVID-19 cases using a Pearson correlation analysis between the two-time series. Results The results and analysis showed that social media could help identify important insights related to wearing masks. The results of topic mining identified 10 categories or themes of user concerns dominated by (1) constitutional rights and freedom of choice; (2) conspiracy theory, population control, and big pharma; and (3) fake news, fake numbers, and fake pandemic. Altogether, these three categories represent almost 65% of the volume of tweets against wearing masks. The relationship between the volume of tweets against wearing masks and newly reported COVID-19 cases depicted a strong correlation wherein the rise in the volume of negative tweets led the rise in the number of new cases by 9 days. Conclusions These findings demonstrated the potential of mining social media for understanding the public discourse about public health issues such as wearing masks during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results emphasized the relationship between the discourse on social media and the potential impact on real events such as changing the course of the pandemic. Policy makers are advised to proactively address public perception and work on shaping this perception through raising awareness, debunking negative sentiments, and prioritizing early policy intervention toward the most prevalent topics.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; doi:10.2196/25859

Abstract:
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed life in the United States, as the country has recorded over 23 million cases and 383,000 deaths to date. In the leadup to widespread vaccine deployment, testing and surveillance are critical for detecting and stopping possible routes of transmission. Contact tracing has become an important surveillance measure to control COVID-19 in the United States, and mobile health interventions have found increased prominence in this space. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the use and usability of MyCOVIDKey, a mobile-based web app to assist COVID-19 contact tracing efforts, during the 6-week pilot period. Methods A 6-week study was conducted on the Vanderbilt University campus in Nashville, Tennessee. The study participants, consisting primarily of graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and faculty in the Chemistry Department at Vanderbilt University, were asked to use the MyCOVIDKey web app during the course of the study period. Paradata were collected as users engaged with the MyCOVIDKey web app. At the end of the study, all participants were asked to report on their user experience in a survey, and the results were analyzed in the context of the user paradata. Results During the pilot period, 45 users enrolled in MyCOVIDKey. An analysis of their enrollment suggests that initial recruiting efforts were effective; however, participant recruitment and engagement efforts at the midpoint of the study were less effective. App use paralleled the number of users, indicating that incentives were useful for recruiting new users to sign up but did not result in users attempting to artificially inflate their use as a result of prize offers. Times to completion of key tasks were low, indicating that the main features of the app could be used quickly. Of the 45 users, 30 provided feedback through a postpilot survey, with 26 (58%) completing it in its entirety. The MyCOVIDKey app as a whole was rated 70.0 on the System Usability Scale, indicating that it performed above the accepted threshold for usability. When the key-in and self-assessment features were examined on their own, it was found that they individually crossed the same thresholds for acceptable usability but that the key-in feature had a higher margin for improvement. Conclusions The MyCOVIDKey app was found overall to be a useful tool for COVID-19 contact tracing in a university setting. Most users suggested simple-to-implement improvements, such as replacing the web app framework with a native app format or changing the placement of the scanner within the app workflow. After these updates, this tool could be readily deployed and easily adapted to other settings across the country. The need for digital contact tracing tools is becoming increasingly apparent, particularly as COVID-19 case numbers continue to increase while more businesses begin to reopen.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; doi:10.2196/26293

Abstract:
Background Sedentary behaviors and physical activity are likely to be affected by the COVID-19 outbreak, and sedentary lifestyles can increase subjective fatigue. The nonpharmaceutical policies imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may also have adverse effects on fatigue. Objective This study has two aims: to examine the changes in sedentary behaviors and physical activity of company workers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan and to examine relationships between changes in these sedentary behaviors and physical activity and changes in fatigue. Methods Data from a nationwide prospective online survey conducted in 2019 and 2020 were used. On February 22, 2019, an email with a link to participate in the study was sent to 45,659 workers, aged 20 to 59 years, who were randomly selected from a database of approximately 1 million individuals. A total of 2466 and 1318 participants, who self-reported their occupation as company workers, answered the baseline and follow-up surveys, respectively. Surveys captured fatigue, workday and daily domain-specific sedentary behaviors and physical activity, and total sedentary behaviors and physical activity. We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate associations of changes in sedentary behaviors and physical activity with changes in fatigue. Results Increases in public transportation sitting during workdays, other leisure sitting time during workdays, and other leisure sitting time were associated with an increase in the motivation aspect of fatigue (b=0.29, 95% CI 0-0.57, P=.048; b=0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.62, P<.001; and b=0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.45, P=.007, respectively). Increases in work-related sitting time during workdays, total sitting time during workdays, and total work-related sitting time were significantly associated with an increase in the physical activity aspect of fatigue (b=0.06, 95% CI 0-0.12, P=.03; b=0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.09, P=.02; and b=0.07, 95% CI 0-0.14, P=.04, respectively). The motivation and physical activity aspects of fatigue increased by 0.06 for each 1-hour increase in total sitting time between baseline and follow-up (b=0.06, 95% CI 0-0.11, P=.045; and b=0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.10, P=.009, respectively). Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that sedentary and active behaviors among company workers in Japan were negatively affected during the COVID-19 outbreak. Increases in several domain-specific sedentary behaviors also contributed to unfavorable changes in workers’ fatigue. Social distancing and teleworking amid a pandemic may contribute to the sedentary lifestyle of company workers. Public health interventions are needed to mitigate the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or future pandemics on sedentary and physical activity behaviors and fatigue among company workers.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; doi:10.2196/21606

Abstract:
Background Previous studies on the impact of social distancing on COVID-19 mortality in the United States have predominantly examined this relationship at the national level and have not separated COVID-19 deaths in nursing homes from total COVID-19 deaths. This approach may obscure differences in social distancing behaviors by county in addition to the actual effectiveness of social distancing in preventing COVID-19 deaths. Objective This study aimed to determine the influence of county-level social distancing behavior on COVID-19 mortality (deaths per 100,000 people) across US counties over the period of the implementation of stay-at-home orders in most US states (March-May 2020). Methods Using social distancing data from tracked mobile phones in all US counties, we estimated the relationship between social distancing (average proportion of mobile phone usage outside of home between March and May 2020) and COVID-19 mortality (when the state in which the county is located reported its first confirmed case of COVID-19 and up to May 31, 2020) with a mixed-effects negative binomial model while distinguishing COVID-19 deaths in nursing homes from total COVID-19 deaths and accounting for social distancing– and COVID-19–related factors (including the period between the report of the first confirmed case of COVID-19 and May 31, 2020; population density; social vulnerability; and hospital resource availability). Results from the mixed-effects negative binomial model were then used to generate marginal effects at the mean, which helped separate the influence of social distancing on COVID-19 deaths from other covariates while calculating COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 people. Results We observed that a 1% increase in average mobile phone usage outside of home between March and May 2020 led to a significant increase in COVID-19 mortality by a factor of 1.18 (P<.001), while every 1% increase in the average proportion of mobile phone usage outside of home in February 2020 was found to significantly decrease COVID-19 mortality by a factor of 0.90 (P<.001). Conclusions As stay-at-home orders have been lifted in many US states, continued adherence to other social distancing measures, such as avoiding large gatherings and maintaining physical distance in public, are key to preventing additional COVID-19 deaths in counties across the country.
, Caroline Kery, Laura Baum, Thomas Bukowski, ,
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; doi:10.2196/25807

Abstract:
Background Social media are important for monitoring perceptions of public health issues and for educating target audiences about health; however, limited information about the demographics of social media users makes it challenging to identify conversations among target audiences and limits how well social media can be used for public health surveillance and education outreach efforts. Certain social media platforms provide demographic information on followers of a user account, if given, but they are not always disclosed, and researchers have developed machine learning algorithms to predict social media users’ demographic characteristics, mainly for Twitter. To date, there has been limited research on predicting the demographic characteristics of Reddit users. Objective We aimed to develop a machine learning algorithm that predicts the age segment of Reddit users, as either adolescents or adults, based on publicly available data. Methods This study was conducted between January and September 2020 using publicly available Reddit posts as input data. We manually labeled Reddit users’ age by identifying and reviewing public posts in which Reddit users self-reported their age. We then collected sample posts, comments, and metadata for the labeled user accounts and created variables to capture linguistic patterns, posting behavior, and account details that would distinguish the adolescent age group (aged 13 to 20 years) from the adult age group (aged 21 to 54 years). We split the data into training (n=1660) and test sets (n=415) and performed 5-fold cross validation on the training set to select hyperparameters and perform feature selection. We ran multiple classification algorithms and tested the performance of the models (precision, recall, F1 score) in predicting the age segments of the users in the labeled data. To evaluate associations between each feature and the outcome, we calculated means and confidence intervals and compared the two age groups, with 2-sample t tests, for each transformed model feature. Results The gradient boosted trees classifier performed the best, with an F1 score of 0.78. The test set precision and recall scores were 0.79 and 0.89, respectively, for the adolescent group (n=254) and 0.78 and 0.63, respectively, for the adult group (n=161). The most important feature in the model was the number of sentences per comment (permutation score: mean 0.100, SD 0.004). Members of the adolescent age group tended to have created accounts more recently, have higher proportions of submissions and comments in the r/teenagers subreddit, and post more in subreddits with higher subscriber counts than those in the adult group. Conclusions We created a Reddit age prediction algorithm with competitive accuracy using publicly available data, suggesting machine learning methods can help public health agencies identify age-related target audiences on Reddit. Our results also suggest that there are characteristics of Reddit users’ posting behavior, linguistic patterns, and account features that distinguish adolescents from adults.
Ellen M H Mitchell, , Hussein Abdur-Razzaq, Chidubem Ogbudebe, Nkem Chukwueme, Samson Bamidele Olorunju, Mustapha Gidado
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; doi:10.2196/22352

Abstract:
Background The greatest risk of infectious disease undernotification occurs in settings with limited capacity to detect it reliably. World Health Organization guidance on the measurement of misreporting is paradoxical, requiring robust, independent systems to assess surveillance rigor. Methods are needed to estimate undernotification in settings with incomplete, flawed, or weak surveillance systems. This study attempted to design a tuberculosis (TB) inventory study that balanced rigor with feasibility for high-need settings. Objective This study aims to design a hybrid TB inventory study for contexts without World Health Organization preconditions. We estimated the proportion of TB cases that were not reported to the Ministry of Health in 2015. The study sought to describe TB surveillance coverage and quality at different levels of TB care provision. Finally, we aimed to identify structural-, facility-, and provider-level barriers to notification and reasons for underreporting, nonreporting, and overreporting. Methods Retrospective partial digitalization of paper-based surveillance and facility records preceded deterministic and probabilistic record linkage; a hybrid of health facilities and laboratory census with a stratified sampling of HFs with no capacity to notify leveraged a priori knowledge. Distinct extrapolation methods were applied to the sampled health facilities to estimate bacteriologically confirmed versus clinical TB. In-depth interviews and focus groups were used to identify causal factors responsible for undernotification and test the acceptability of remedies. Results The hybrid approach proved viable and instructive. High-specificity verification of paper-based records in the field was efficient and had minimal errors. Limiting extrapolation to clinical cases improved precision. Probabilistic record linkage is computationally intensive, and the choice of software influences estimates. Record absence, decay, and overestimation of the private sector TB treatment behavior threaten validity, meriting mitigation. Data management demands were underestimated. Treatment success was modest in all sectors (R=37.9%–72.0%) and did not align with treatment success reported by the state (6665/8770, 75.99%). One-fifth of TB providers (36/178, 20%) were doubtful that the low volume of patients with TB treated in their facility merited mastery of the extensive TB notification forms and procedures. Conclusions Subnational inventory studies can be rigorous, relevant, and efficient in countries that need them even in the absence of World Health Organization preconditions, if precautions are taken. The use of triangulation techniques, with minimal recourse to sampling and extrapolation, and the privileging of practical information needs of local decision makers yield reasonable misreporting estimates and viable policy recommendations.
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