Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine

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ISSN / EISSN : 0007-4888 / 1573-8221
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E. M. Frantsiyants, , L. K. Trepitaki, E. I. Surikova, V. A. Bandovkina, I. V. Neskubina, I. М. Коtievа, K. А. Shumarin
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-3; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05229-w

Abstract:
The phenomenon of multiple primary malignant tumors (MPMT) is characterized by the presence of several primary neoplasms in the same patient. An experimental model of MPMT with one dominating tumor was developed. Female BALB/c nude mice received simultaneous subcutaneous inoculation of Guerin’s carcinoma (5×105 tumor cells in 0.5 ml saline) and B16/F10 melanoma (0.5 ml suspension diluted 1:20 with saline). Control females received transplantation of either melanoma or carcinoma alone in the same doses and volumes. In animals with MPMT model, tumors appeared 3-fold faster than after isolated transplantation of melanoma or Guerin’s carcinoma and were larger by 7.5 and 2.2 times, respectively; the survival of mice with MPMT was lower. Guerin’s carcinoma in the MPMT model metastasized to melanoma and almost completely suppressed its growth. Thus, a MPMT model was created with carcinoma suppressing the malignant growth of melanoma.
S. Q. Zhang, Y. N. Bao, L. Y. Lv, X. H. Du,
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-7; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05217-0

Abstract:
We studied the effects and mechanisms of action of conophylline in different concentrations in the original in vitro model of myocardial fibrosis (treatment of cardiac fibroblasts isolated form the hearts of newborn rats with angiotensin II). Viability, collagen content, and expression of related protein in cardiac fibroblasts were assessed using the MTT-test, Sircol assay, and Western blotting, respectively. Conophylline markedly protected the cultured cells against the development of angiotensin II-induced fibrosis, which was seen from reduced viability of fibroblasts, decreased collagen content, and down-regulation of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Conophylline did not affect the TGF-β pathway altered by angiotensin II, but markedly decreased the level of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) enhanced by angiotensin II and BMP4 itself. Conophylline produced no effect on phosphorylation of α-SMA and Smad homologue-1/5/8, the classic BMP4 downstream pathway elements, but reduced the level of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) elevated by BMP4. Conophylline did not inhibit the development of myocardial fibrosis in the presence of JNK activator anisomycin. Thus, conophylline inhibited angiotensin II-provoked myocardial fibrosis via the BMP4/JNK pathway.
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-5; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05234-z

Abstract:
The study examined the changes in intraperitoneal body temperature of laboratory mice, Jungar hamsters, European greenfinch Chloris chloris, and starlings. In a few minutes range, these changes significantly correlated not only between the animals of the same species, but also between the different classes such as birds and mammals, which were isolated from each other and maintained under different illumination regimen. This phenomenon indicates some external influence(s) on the central mechanisms of the thermal control system not related to illumination regiment. In 80% cases, the phases of most pronounced rhythms of body temperature oscillating with the periods of 8-9 and 12-13 min coincided with those of geomagnetic field within the accuracy of ±1 min. However, the amplitude of body temperature oscillations did not depend on the amplitude of geomagnetic field (GMF) oscillations. Synchronicity of the changes in body temperature and GMF was observed at the amplitude of GMF oscillation of 0.4 nT, which is extremely low value. In contrast, there was no reaction of body temperature to greater (6-10 nT) but irregular and abrupt perturbations of GMF.
Yu. S. Taskaeva, N. P. Bgatova, , A. S. Grebenshchikova, N. G. Oshchepkova, E. V. Kuznetsov
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-6; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05235-y

Abstract:
We studied ultrastructure and vesicular structures in endothelial cells of myocardial micro-vessels in burn patients. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in volume density of vesicular structures in the endotheliocytes of myocardial capillaries in patients with burn septicotoxemia. The observed structural signs of endothelial dysfunction revealed in this category of patients can be a promising area for further research and for the development of methods of pathogenetic correction of myocardial disorders in the case of burn injury.
L. V. Shurygina, E. I. Zlishcheva, , S. V. Kozin
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-4; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05223-2

Abstract:
The neurotrophic properties of magnesium comenate were studied under standard conditions and under conditions of oxidative stress. It was found that magnesium comenate has a stimulating effect on the neurotrophic processes of the spinal ganglia under normal conditions and under conditions of oxidative stress. Under standard conditions, magnesium comenate exhibits neurotrophic activity at a concentration of 0.0001 mM, under conditions of oxidative stress, magnesium comenate exhibits neurotrophic activity at concentration 0.1 mM.
E. L. Al’Perina, M. M. Gevorgyan, S. Ya. Zhanaeva, T. V. Lipina,
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-5; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05225-0

Abstract:
Intact Disc1-L100P mice carrying a point mutation DISC1Rgsc1390 in the second exon of the DISC1 gene (genetic model of schizophrenia) differ from the parental C57BL/6NCrl strain by higher content of CD3+ T cells and reduced number of CD19+B cells in the peripheral blood and spleen. Analysis of T cell subpopulations revealed an increase in the number of CD3+CD4+ T helpers in the blood of mutant mice and a decrease in the level of CD3+CD8+ suppressor/cytotoxic T cells and CD3+CD4+CD25+ T-regulatory cells. The distribution pattern of inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IFNγ, and TNFα) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines specific for Disc1-L100P mice was revealed in the brain structures involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. A possible implication of immune mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia-like endophenotype of Disc1-L100P mice is discussed.
, O. S. Tsymbal, E. V. Bronikovskaya, N. V. Litviakov, I. V. Milto, R. М. Takhauov
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-5; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05227-y

Abstract:
We studied the effect of technogenic radiation on the degree of promoter methylation in genes involved in apoptosis in blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to long-term γ-radiation during their professional activities. Blood samples for the analysis were obtained from 11 conventionally healthy men aged from 54 to 71 years (mean 66 years), workers of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises working experience from 27 to 40 years (mean 30 years); the external exposure dose was 175.88 mSv (158.20-207.81 mSv). In all examined subjects, the degree of methylation of the promoters of apoptosis-related genes ranged from 0.22 to 50.00%. A correlation was found between the degree of methylation of BCLAF1 promoters (p=0.035) with the age of workers, BAX promoters (p=0.0289) with high content of aberrant cells, and APAF1 promoters (p=0.0152) with increased number of dicentric chromosomes. A relationship was found between the dose of external irradiation and the degree of methylation of gene promoters of BAD (p=0.0388), BID (р=0.0426), and HRK (р=0.0101) genes.
, I. B. Mikheeva, L. V. Shubina, S. S. Khutsian, V. F. Kitchigina
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-6; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05221-4

Abstract:
We studied the prolonged action of kainic acid on glutamatergic neurons in the dorsal hippocampus and the endocannabinoid-dependent protection against neurodegeneration. The pyramidal neurons of the CA3 field of the hippocampus, as well as granular and mossy cells of the dentate gyrus were examined. Light and electron microscopy revealed substantial damage to the components of the protein-synthesizing (rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and polyribosomes) and catabolic (lysosomes, autophagosomes, multivesicular structures, and lipofuscin formations) systems in all cells. Pyramidal and mossy neurons die mainly by the necrotic pathway. The death of granular cells occurred through both apoptosis and necrosis. The most vulnerable cells are mossy neurons located in the hilus. Activation of the endocannabinoid system induced by intracerebral injection of URB597, an inhibitor of degradation of endocannabinoid anandamide, protected the normal structure of the hippocampus and prevented neuronal damage and death induced by KA.
, A. G. Borisov, V. D. Belenyuk, A. V. Moshev
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-5; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05228-x

Abstract:
We studied changes in the subpopulation composition and phagocytic activity of monocytes in patients with kidney cancer under the influence of metabolites of the tumor microenvironment in vitro (lactate, ADP, and glutamate). Incubation with metabolites caused similar shifts in the monocyte subsets in kidney cancer patients (an increase in the relative content of classical CD14++CD16— monocytes and a decrease in the content of the fraction of intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes), but different changes in their phagocytic activity. The regulatory effect of metabolites on cells is realized by various mechanisms: receptor, metabolic, and epigenomic. The reactions of monocytes to metabolites in vitro confirm the existence of a distant metabolic effect of the tumor on blood cells that should be taken into account when developing new immunotherapeutic methods.
, D. V. Bezryadnov, А. B. Cherepov
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine pp 1-4; doi:10.1007/s10517-021-05215-2

Abstract:
The brain mechanisms underlying conditioned aversion learning in birds were studied using experimental model in young chicks. The learning consisted of a conditioning stimulus presentation followed by a delayed sickness-inducing treatment reinforcement. Intraventricular administration of an NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, a protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, or an inhibitor of glycoprotein fucosylation 2-deoxygalactose just before presentation of the conditioning stimulus prevented aversion learning. Injections of the same chemicals before reinforcement did not affect learning. The obtained results show that the investigated mechanisms underlying aversion learning were critical at the early stage of memory formation. Later processes of association of the conditioning stimulus with the reinforcement appear to be independent of the NMDA receptors and protein synthesis/glycosylation, or alternatively to be located in other brain areas.
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