Gazi Medical Journal
Latest articles in this journal
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.63
Objective: The spread of COVID-19 disease which had been declared as pandemic on 11th March 2020 currently already affected 212 countries around the world. Thus, the prevention and control measures are being established at national level thru the combined action of containment and mitigation. The aim of this study, to summarize on the rapid response and the public health measure among the Asian countries. Method: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science which is published in advanced of 29th April 2020. The keywords search used 'Rapid response' OR 'public health measures' OR 'public health policies' OR 'preventive measures' AND 'Coronavirus Disease 2019' OR 'COVID-19 ' OR 'novel coronavirus' OR 'SARS-COV2'. The inclusion criteria were English language articles with the availability of full text. Results: There were 43 articles included in this review. Eleven main domains were identified as the public health measures done among the Asian countries, which are screening, quarantine, isolation, contact tracing, repeated sampling, personal protective equipment, personal hygiene and symptom-based screening, social distancing, movement control, border control and disinfection at public places. Conclusion: The rapid response and public health measures are different from one another of these Asian Countries. Thus, which of the prevention and control are effective and feasible can be applied to the other countries in controlling the spread of COVID-19 disease.
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.61
The ongoing pandemic due to SARS CoV2 is really a big one, which would never welcomed from any countries but knocked the door all of a sudden! The SARS CoV-2 first appeared in China in late December 2019, virus isolated on January 7, 2020, the disease named as COVID-19 afterwards. Since this was a SARS virus not an influenza, nobody seem to expect it as a pandemic agent, spread so fast and so globally. But actually it did spread to many countries and declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The pandemic hit the universities hard. The most important topic for universities during the pandemic was of course distance and remote learning, which become widespread already. The pandemic will cause profound impacts and changes on the higher education system around the world in terms of education-teaching method, research, internationalization, and mobility. The response of Council of Higher Education of Turkey to pandemic could be evaluated in 4 phases: 1) Close monitoring, 2) Preparing, 3) Action, 4) New normalization. In this paper we will review the response of Turkish higher education institutions and Council of Higher Education to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.73
Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (curtailed "COVID-19") is an enormous group of infection which causes sickness in creatures or people and later recognized in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. This examination was attempted to explore the knowledge, awareness, and practices towards COVID-19 among occupants in Nigeria during the fast ascent time of the COVID-19 episode. Methods: One thousand and eighty-six (1086) members who were of Nigerian origin, age 18 years or more who comprehended the substance of the banner took an interest in the examination. Depending on the writers' systems with neighborhood individuals living in Nigeria, a two-page enlistment banner was posted/reposted to groups in Whatsapp, twitter and, Facebook. This banner contained a short presentation on the background, objective, methodology, voluntary nature of participation, declarations of anonymity and privacy as well as the link speedy reaction code of the online questionnaire. Results: The outcomes indicated that after samples, majority of respondents ages were 30-50years (44.4%); 51.7% were males and 47.6% were females, and 15.3% of the total respondents from the 36 States in Nigeria, were Benue residents, with leading part of the respondent, 57.4% holding a Bachelor certificate, 23.7% postgraduates and 16% undergraduate. In light of information, majority of the respondents, 92.1% concurred that COVID-19 is a viral contamination, as respect, the method of transmission, lion's share of the respondent, 155(14.3%) concurred sneezing or coughing by infected persons are the major mode of transmission. Conclusion: Majority of the participants claimed that they frequently wash their hands (84.1%) and agreed that they usually employ the use of face masks (59.1%). 59.3% claimed that they took their immunity through diet and 46.5% of the participants preferredthe use of surgical mask.
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.71
Throughout human history, many pandemics have broken out and caused great numbers of deaths. As the technological development made quite a huge advancement by the twentieth century, the medical treatment armamentarium had widened its facilities and resources. This brought with sophisticated and competent health care services for people which provided the medical practitioners with higher success rates when fighting against diseases and improved recovery and survival rates. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the high transmission rate of the novel SARS-Cov-2 virus has led to the paralysis of the health system and running out of the resources and healthcare workers. Thus, local government healthcare service regulators have begun building up plans to create management algorithms to use the limited resources more efficiently. This paper presents preliminary practical instructions for healthcare providers as a basic foundation for COVID-19 and potential future pandemics. İnsanlık tarihi boyunca çok sayıda salgın ortaya çıkmış ve pek çok ölüme neden olmuştur. 20. Yüzyılda teknolojik gelişmelerde büyük ilerlemeler olmasıyla birlikte tıbbi tedavi usul ve araç kaynakları ve imkanları da genişledi. Bu durum insanlar için sofistike ve yetkin sağlık hizmetini getirdi ve sağlık çalışanlarının hastalıklarla mücadelede yüksek başarı oranları ve daha iyi sağaltma ve sağkalım oranları elde etmelerini sağladı. Fakat, COVID-19 salgını sırasında, yeni tip SARS-Cov-2 virüsünün yüksek bulaş hızı sağlık sistemini felç etti ve kaynakların ve sağlık çalışanlarının yetersiz kalmasına neden oldu. Bu yüzden yerel sağlık hizmeti düzenleyicileri sınırlı miktardaki kaynakları daha etkin bir şekilde kullanabilmek için yönetim algoritması oluşturma planları yapmaya başladılar. Bu makale de sağlık hizmeti sunanlar için COVID-19 ve ileride ortaya çıkabilecek diğer salgınlar için temel oluşturacak öncül pratik öneriler vermektedir.
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.69
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.64
Gonderilen makale, Italya'nin SARS-CoV-2 virusu ile olan mucadelesinin kronolojisini ve son verileri aktarmayi amaclayan bir makaledir.
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.68
The novel coronaviruses disease, namely COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide and resulted in a crucial global health problem. Various studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated that chronic disease, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are considered as risk factors for the disease severity, poor prognosis, and mortality in COVID-19. Although the exact reasons for the association between these comorbidities and disease severity and mortality risk of COVID-19 have not clarified, immune dysregulation and hyperinflammation in these chronic diseases might be contributing factors to the progression of the COVID-19. Furthermore, most of the patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatologic disease have the impairment of immune system and inflammatory response due to underlying pathogenesis of their diseases, and thus they might be prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We have focused the attention on most common chronic diseases frequently observed in COVID-19 and rheumatologic diseases which may be related to infection and their association with course of COVID-19.
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.82
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak that originated in late 2019 and continues to spread as of 2020 is taking a severe toll on human health and has been acknowledged as a worldwide pandemic. There have been no readily available vaccines or drugs that have been approved to combat the disease (COVID-19) as of yet. Chloroquine (CQ), a drug well-known for its effectiveness in treating malarial and autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus, has exhibited a promising inhibitory effect for SARS-CoV-2. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a more tolerable derivative of CQ, has also been shown to display potent activity against SARS-CoV-2. Macrolides (MACs) such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin (AZM) not only have the potential for anti-bacterial activity but also have immunomodulatory effects. Lately, the anti-viral effects of MACs have attracted considerable attention. Very recently, HCQ in combination with AZM treatment was reported to be effective for mild form of COVID-19. Because mild form of COVID-19 may take a turn for the worse, resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, or mild COVID-19 patients may infect surrounding people with COVID-19, patients should be treated with HCQ in combination with AZM.
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.62
Türkiye COVID-19’a karşı en erken tedbir alan ülkelerden biridir. Alınan tedbirler ülkemizde ilk vakanın birçok ülkeden daha geç görülmesini ve salgının daha az yayılmasını sağlamıştır. 11 Mart 2020’de ilk COVID-19 vakasının ülkemizdeki tespitinden itibaren bugüne kadar geçen dört 14 günlük periyod ayrı ayrı salgının seyri ve bu dönemlerdeki uygulanan halk sağlığı müdahaleleri açısından incelenmiştir. Ve dönemler arasında oluşturduğu sonuçlar değerlendirilmiştir. Vaka artış oranında istikrarlı düşüş, salgını kontrol altına aldığımızı göstermektedir. Turkey is one of the countries which have taken precautions against the COVID-19. The precautions taken brought the first case in our country to be seen later than many countries and to spread the epidemic less. After the first COVID-19 case was detected in our country on March 11, 2020, the four periods of 14 days have been examined separately about the course of the epidemic and the public health interventions implemented in these periods. And the results it has generated between the periods have been evaluated. The steady decline in case of increase shows we have controlled the epidemic.
Gazi Medical Journal, Volume 31; doi:10.12996/gmj.2020.79
Coronavirus disease outbreak in Wuhan City in Hubei Province, China, in December 2019, soon spread to over a hundred countries. In March 2020, WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Carrying high numbers of cases and mortality rates, far-reaching consequences of the global pandemic continues to be the prime global agenda. Communication efforts were maintained continuously during the epidemic to inform the public, raise awareness, take precautions and to eventually mitigate the pandemic so as to prevent the national health system from collapsing. Media played a key role as the public and health authorities disclosed information. Nevertheless, modern communication technologies and the infodemic spreading from social media hindered the communication of accurate information. Given the insufficient health literacy in Turkey, the rapidly changing and unstable pandemic environment resulted in information gaps and in overlooked information. The significance of critical media literacy and health literacy, particularly in digital media, was once again underlined. This study evaluates the influence of risk communication and media on society during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the study assesses important concerns for media during risk periods, including a pandemic. Aralık 2019'da Çin'in Hubei Eyaleti Wuhan şehrinde başlayan koronavirüs hastalığı kısa sürede 100'den fazla ülkeye yayılmıştır. Mart 2020'de COVID-19 WHO tarafından küresel pandemi olarak ilan edilmiştir. Yüksek vaka sayıları ve ölümler yaşanmakta olan salgın, küresel ölçekte bugünü ve geleceği her alanda etkilemesi nedeniyle, dünyanın en önemli gündem maddesi olmaya devam etmektedir. Salgında halkı bilgilendirmek, farkındalık yaratmak, önlem almak ve böylece salgını kontrol ederek ulusal sağlık sisteminin çökmesini engellemek amacıyla iletişim çalışmaları aralıksız olarak sürdürülmüş; kamu ve sağlık otoritelerinin bu bilgileri kamuoyu ile paylaşımında, medya önemli bir rol oynamıştır. Ancak, yeni iletişim teknolojileri ve sosyal medya kaynaklı infodemi bu süreçte sağlıklı bilgi akışında zorluklar yaşanmasına yol açmıştır. Türkiye'de sağlık okuryazarlığı düzeyinin yeterli olmadığı göz önüne alındığında, hızlı değişen ve belirsizliğin hakim olduğu bu pandemi süreci, bazı bilgilerin gözden kaçmasına ve bilgi boşluklarının oluşmasına neden olmuştur. Dijital medya başta olmak üzere, eleştirel medya okuryazarlığı ve sağlık okuryazarlığı konularının önemi bir kez daha ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu çalışmada COVID-19 pandemisinde risk iletişimi ve medyanın toplum üzerindeki rolü değerlendirilmiştir. Aynı zamanda pandemi gibi risk dönemlerinde medyanın dikkat etmesi gereken konular gözden geçirilmiştir.