Beneficial Microbes

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ISSN / EISSN : 1876-2883 / 1876-2891
Published by: Wageningen Academic Publishers (10.3920)
Total articles ≅ 750
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M.J. Ruiz, N.E. Sirini, M.L. Signorini, A. Etcheverría, M.V. Zbrun, L.P. Soto, J.A. Zimmermann,
Published: 30 September 2021
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2021.0010

Abstract:
Thermotolerant Campylobacter species are the leading cause of foodborne bacterial diarrheal disease worldwide. Campylobacter coli, abundant in pigs and pork products, have been identified as a source of human infection. In this study, we propose the use of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LP5 as a probiotic to reduce colonisation of this intestinal pathogen in a murine colonisation model of C. coli DSPV458. Six-week-old adult female Balb/cCmedc mice were housed in groups: Control, Campy and Pro-Campy. Control and Pro-Campy groups received antibiotics for 5 days and the Campy group for 12 days. Pro-Campy group was inoculated for 7 days with 8.78 log10 cfu total of L. plantarum LP5 suspended in De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth. All groups were inoculated with 6.72 log10 cfu of C. coli DSPV458 suspended in brain heart infusion broth. L. plantarum LP5 was recovered only in the Pro- Campy group. C. coli DSPV458 was recovered at higher levels in the Control and Campy groups. The differences with the Pro-Campy group were significant. As regards faeces, Control and Campy groups reached 7.41 and 7.84 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and the Pro-Campy group only 4.62 log10 cfu/g. In the caecum, Control and Campy groups reached 8.01 and 9.26 log10cfu/g, respectively, and the Pro-Campy group only 4.51 log10 cfu/g. In the ileum, Control and Campy groups reached 3.43 and 3.26 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and the Pro-Campy group did not show detectable levels. The reduction of C. coli DSPV458 in the Pro-Campy group compared to the Control group in faeces, caecum and ileum was 99.55, 99.98 and 100%, respectively. Animals were maintained under normal health conditions, and haematological parameters were within the standard values for Balb/cCmedc. The incorporation of a probiotic generated a protective effect in the mice colonisation model. The protective effect would also apply to intestinal colonisation by indigenous enterobacteria. Therefore, the strategy used in this study is of great importance to understand the protection mechanisms in a murine model, as well as its application in food-producing animals.
J. Verhoeven, D. Keller, S. Verbruggen, K. Youssef Abboud,
Published: 30 September 2021
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2021.0015

Abstract:
The gut microbiota has been indicated to play a crucial role in health and disease. Apart from changes in composition between healthy individuals and those with a disease or disorder, it has become clear that also microbial activity is important for health. For instance, butyrate has been proven to be beneficial for health, because, amongst others, it is a substrate for the colonocytes, and modulates the host’s immune system and metabolism. Here, we studied the effect of a blend of three mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum GL AM P-38, Grifola frondosa GF AM P36 and Pleurotus ostreatus PO AM-GP37)) on gut microbiota composition and activity in a validated, dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2). Predigested mushroom blend at three doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/day of ingested mushroom blend) was fed to a pooled microbiota of healthy adults for 72 h, and samples were taken every day for microbiota composition (sequencing of amplicons of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene) and activity (short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production). The butyrate producing genera Lachnospiraceae UCG-004, Lachnoclostridium, Ruminococcaceae UCG-002 and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214-group are all dose-dependently increased when the mushroom blend was fed. Entirely in line with the increase of these butyrate-producers, the cumulative amount of butyrate also dose-dependently increased, to roughly twice the amount compared to the control (medium without mushroom blend) on the high-dose mushroom blend. Butyrate proportionally made up 53.1% of the total SCFA upon feeding the high-dose mushroom blend, compared to 27% on the control medium. In conclusion, the (polysaccharides in the) mushroom blend led to substantial increase in butyrate by the gut microbiota. These results warrant future mechanistic research on the mushroom blend, as butyrate is considered to be one of the microbial metabolites that contributes to health, by increasing barrier function and modulating inflammation.
M. Engevik, W. Ruan, C. Visuthranukul, Z. Shi, K.A. Engevik, A.C. Engevik, R. Fultz, D.A. Schady, J.K. Spinler, J. Versalovic
Published: 22 September 2021
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0216

Abstract:
The serotonin transporter (SERT) readily takes up serotonin (5-HT), thereby regulating the availability of 5-HT within the intestine. In the absence of SERT, 5-HT remains in the interstitial space and has the potential to aberrantly activate the many 5-HT receptors distributed on the epithelium, immune cells and enteric neurons. Perturbation of SERT is common in many gastrointestinal disorders as well as mouse models of colitis. Select commensal microbes regulate intestinal SERT levels, but the mechanism of this regulation is poorly understood. Additionally, ethanol upregulates SERT in the brain and dendritic cells, but its effects in the intestine have never been examined. We report that the intestinal commensal microbe Limosilactobacillus (previously classified as Lactobacillus) reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 secretes 83.4 mM ethanol. Consistent with the activity of L. reuteri alcohol dehydrogenases, we found that L. reuteri tolerated various levels of ethanol. Application of L. reuteri conditioned media or exogenous ethanol to human colonic T84 cells was found to upregulate SERT at the level of mRNA. A 4-(4-(dimethylamino) phenyl)-1-methylpyridinium (APP+) uptake assay confirmed the functional activity of SERT. These findings were mirrored in mouse colonic organoids, where L. reuteri metabolites and ethanol were found to upregulate SERT at the apical membrane. Finally, in a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid model of acute colitis, we observed that mice treated with L. reuteri maintained SERT at the colon membrane compared with mice receiving phosphate buffered saline vehicle control. These data suggest that L. reuteri metabolites, including ethanol, can upregulate SERT and may be beneficial for maintaining intestinal homeostasis with respect to serotonin signalling.
K. Chen, G. Zhang, H. Xie, L. You, H. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Du, S. Xu, C. Melsaether, S. Yuan
Published: 22 September 2021
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0233

Abstract:
To evaluate the administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12® (BB-12) on infant colic in breastfed infants, a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study was conducted in Chengdu, China from April 2016 to October 2017 with 192 full-term infants less than 3 months of age and meeting the ROME III criteria for infant colic. After a 1-week run-in the infants were randomly assigned to receive daily BB-12 (1×109 cfu/day) or placebo for 3 weeks. Crying/fussing time were recorded using a 24 h structured diary. The primary endpoint was the proportion of infants achieving a reduction in crying and fussing time of ≥50% from baseline. Parent’s/caregiver’s health related quality of life was measured using a modified PedsQL™ 2.0 Family Impact Module and immunological biomarkers were evaluated from faecal samples at baseline and after the 21-day intervention. The percentage of infants achieving a reduction in the daily crying/fussing time ≥50% after the 21-day intervention was significantly higher in the infants supplemented with BB-12 (P<0.001). The mean number of crying episodes was significantly reduced in the BB-12 group compared to the placebo group (10.0±3.0 to 5.0±1.87 vs 10.5±2.6 to 7.5±2.8, respectively) (P<0.001) and the mean daily sleep duration was markedly increased from baseline to end of intervention in the BB-12 group compared to the infants in the placebo group (60.7±104.0 vs 31.9±102.7 min/day, respectively) (P<0.001). The faecal levels of human beta defensin 2, cathelicidin, slgA, calprotectin and butyrate were statistically higher in the BB-12 group compared to the placebo group after the 21-day intervention. At the end of the intervention the parent’s/caregiver’s physical, emotional and social functioning scores were significantly higher for the BB-12 group compared to the placebo group (all P<0.05). Supplementation of BB-12 is effective in reducing crying and fussing in infants diagnosed with infant colic.
S.-W. Yun, J.-K. Kim, M.J. Han,
Published: 13 September 2021
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0109

Abstract:
The gut microbiota communicates with the brain through microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes and other pathways. Excessive expression of interleukin (IL)-6 is closely associated with the occurrence of the psychiatric disorders depression and dementia. Therefore, to understand whether IL-6 expression-suppressing probiotics could alleviate psychiatric disorders, we isolated IL-6 expression-inhibiting Lacticaseibacillus paracasei (formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) NK112 from the human faecal bacteria strain collection (Neurobiota Research Center, Seoul, Korea) and examined its therapeutic effect for the depression and cognitive impairment in mice. C57 BL/6J mice with depression and cognitive impairment were prepared by exposure to Escherichia coli K1. Oral gavage of NK112 significantly alleviated K1-induced anxious, depressive, and memory-impaired behaviours in the elevated plus maze, tail-suspension and Y-maze tasks, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression, and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) activation in the hippocampus, while K1-suppressed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression increased. Treatment with NK112 also improved K1-induced myeloperoxidase activity, IL-6 and TNF-α expression, and NF-κB activation in the colon and reduced K1-induced Proteobacteria population in the gut microbiota. Heat-killed NK112 and its lysate supernatant, and precipitate fractions also improved anxiety/depression, cognitive impairment, and colitis in mice. In conclusion, NK112, even if heat-killed or lysed, alleviated K1 stress-induced colitis, anxiety/depression, and cognitive impairment by suppressing IL-6, TNF-α, and BDNF expression through the regulation of gut microbiota and NF-κB activation.
I. Garaiova, Z. Paduchová, Z. Nagyová, D. Wang, D.R. Michael, S.F. Plummer, J.R. Marchesi, Z. Ďuračková,
Published: 13 September 2021
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0185

Abstract:
In a double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study, healthy school children aged 3-10 years received a probiotic based supplement daily for 6 months to assess the impact on the incidence and duration of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms. The intervention comprised Lab4 probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 and CUL60, Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CUL34) at 12.5 billion cfu/day plus 50 mg vitamin C or a matching placebo. 171 children were included in the analysis (85 in placebo and 86 in active group). Incidence of coughing was 16% (P=0.0300) significantly lower in the children receiving the active intervention compared to the placebo. No significant differences in the incidence rate of other URTI symptoms were observed. There was significantly lower risk of experiencing five different URTI related symptoms in one day favouring the active group (Risk ratio: 0.31, 95% confidence interval: 0.12, 0.81, P=0.0163). Absenteeism from school and the use of antibiotics was also significantly reduced for those in the active group (-16%, P=0.0060 and -27%, P=0.0203, respectively). Our findings indicate that six months daily supplementation with the Lab4 probiotic and vitamin C combination reduces the incidence of coughing, absenteeism and antibiotic usage in 3 to 10 year old children.
H. Jin, X. Xu, B. Pang, R. Yang, H. Sun, C. Jiang, D. Shao, J. Shi
Published: 13 September 2021
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0183

Abstract:
Many studies have associated altered intestinal bacterial communities and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but the putative effects are inconclusive. The purpose of this network meta-analysis (NMA) was to evaluate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through randomised intervention trials. Literature searches were performed until March 2020. For each outcome, a random NMA was performed, the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was determined. A total of 22 randomised trials comparing prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic treatments included 1301 participants. Considering all seven results (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, body mass index, weight, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together, the highest SUCRA values are probiotics (94%), synbiotics (61%) and prebiotics (56%), respectively. NMA results provide evidence that probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, due to the lack of high-quality randomised trials, this research also has some limitations.
E.Y. Lim, E.-J. Song, J.G. Kim, S.Y. Jung, S.-Y. Lee, H.S. Shin, Y.-D. Nam,
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0217

Abstract:
There are many studies focusing on the alleviation of menopausal symptoms; however, little is known about the role of gut microorganisms in menopausal symptoms. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were administered a novel strain (YT2) of Lactobacillus intestinalis (a species with significantly reduced abundance in OVX rats) and the potential probiotic effect on the improvement of menopausal symptoms was evaluated. Of note, the gut microbial composition completely shifted after ovariectomy in rats. Treatment with L. intestinalis YT2 significantly alleviated menopausal symptoms, such as increased fat mass, decreased bone mineral density, increased pain sensitivity, depression-like behaviour, and cognitive impairment. Additionally, the administration of L. intestinalis YT2 restored the intestinal microbial composition, including an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio. L. intestinalis YT2 also promoted gut barrier integrity by increasing the mRNA levels of tight junction-related markers. In conclusion, L. intestinalis YT2 treatment alleviated menopausal symptoms via the modulation of the gut microbiota. Importantly, these results suggest that L. intestinalis YT2 should be considered as a therapeutic probiotic agent for menopausal women.
, B.F.R. Caetano, L.T. Bidinotto, M.A.M. Rodrigues, L.F. Barbisan
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0209

Abstract:
Indole-3 carbinol (I3C) has shown dual effects on the promotion and progression stages of colon carcinogenesis while synbiotics (Syn) have exerted anti-carcinogenic activities in most rodent studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of I3C given alone or together with a Syn intervention on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis. All animals were given four subcutaneous DMH injections (4×40 mg/kg bodyweight, twice a week for two weeks) and then received either basal diet (G1), basal diet containing I3C (1g/kg chow) (G2) or basal diet containing I3C+Syn (I3C + inulin 50g/kg chow + Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12®), 2.5×1010 cfu/g of basal diet), (G3) for 21 weeks. Dietary I3C (G2) significantly increased tumour volume and cell proliferation when compared to the DMH control group (G1). Syn intervention (G3) significantly reduced tumour volume and cell proliferation when compared to I3C (G2). The colon tumours found were classified into well-differentiated tubular adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Dietary I3C or I3C+Syn did not significantly affect the incidence and the multiplicity of tumours in comparison with the DMH control group. Furthermore, Syn intervention (G3) increased Gstm1 and reduced Mapk9 gene expression in colonic tumours. The findings of the present study show that the dietary I3C shows a weak promoting activity, while the combination with Syn ameliorates I3C effects.
C. Bussolo de Souza, S. M. I. Saad,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 397-411; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0151

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to investigate the potential prebiotic effects of food-by-products (cassava bagasse (n=3), orange bagasse (n=2) and passion fruit peel (n=3)) using an in vitro model simulating the proximal colon, and to assess possible differences in fermentation when using faecal microbiota from lean or obese people. Fermentation of the by-products was compared to a control medium and the prebiotic inulin. The effects of the by-products on the dynamics of the gut microbiota differed according to the type of microbiota, as well as the type of by-product used. Principal Coordinate Analysis of the microbiota showed evidence of a clear separate clustering of lean and obese microbiota before the addition of substrates, which disappeared after fermentation, and instead, distinct clusters due to primary carbohydrate composition of the by-products (starch, fructan and pectin) were present. This is evidence that the substrates drove the obese microbiota to a healthier profile, more similar to that of the lean microbiota. Cassava bagasses enriched the beneficial genus Bifidobacterium in the obese microbiota. The production of total SCFA by cassava bagasses by the obese microbiota was higher than for control medium and inulin. Orange bagasses stimulated the growth of the butyrate-producing genus Coprococcus. Passion fruit peels were poorly fermented and generated negligible amounts of intermediate metabolites, indicating slow fermentation. Nevertheless, passion fruit peel fermentation resulted in a microbiota with the highest diversity and evenness, a positive trait regarding host health. In conclusion, the use of food-by-products could be an important step to tackle obesity and decrease the waste of valuable food material and consequently environmental pollution. They are an inexpensive and non-invasive way to be used as a dietary intervention to improve health, as they were shown here to drive the composition of the obese microbiota to a healthier profile.
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