International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review

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EISSN : 2231-086X
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 719
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F. N. Okpara, E. O. Nwaichi, J. O. Akaninwor
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i830281

Abstract:
Proximate analysis and phytochemical screening of Triclisia subcordata Oliv leaf were investigated using standard analytical methods. Results of the proximate analysis showed contents for moisture (79.28±2.32%), ash (1.91±0.21%), crude fibre (1.83±0.13%), lipid (1.81±0.16%), crude protein (8.32±1.20%) and carbohydrate (6.91±0.74%). Phytochemical screening showed the presence of all six metabolites studied but at different concentrations. Saponin and flavonoids > alkaloids > phenol, tannin and cyanogenic glycoside. Tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides and phenol gave 0.01±0.00%, 5.81±0.23%, 2.32±0.13%, 6.01±0.36%, 0.20±0.00% and 0.03±0.00%. Given observed high contents of moisture, flavonoids and saponins, moderate amounts of alkaloids and low contents of lipid, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins and phenols in Triclisia subcordata Oliv leaf, this study rationalises the medicinal use of the plant, and unveils its potential as a source of micronutrients.
, Aasia Sikander, Umema Murtaza, Ashir Masroor, Filza Ghafoor
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 68-74; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730280

Abstract:
A study was designed to investigate the presence of nanoferrites in Cryptolepis buchanani. In this study, various leaves and stem organic extracts were prepared separately using the solvents viz., n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. Different phytochemical tests for alkaloids, carbohydrates, oils, amino acids and others were performed to determine their presence in the extracts. These plant extracts were used for screening of sample via UV and HPLC techniques to compare the wavelength and absorbance, and retention time on chromatogram by extracts, respectively. The results showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates and proteins in all the samples. However, other compounds were present randomly. Spectroscopy showed highest peaks with ethyl acetate extracts and the lowest with water. The surface properties and size of nickel-zinc nano ferrites were evaluated by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The former, showed the presence of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) weighing 4.27⁒ of N ,6.89⁒ of C and 35.5⁒ of O in the sample which confirmed the presence of nano ferrites in leaves and stem of C. buchanani.
Peramachi Palanivelu
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 15-59; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730278

Abstract:
Aim: To analyze the active sites of the proofreading (PR) functions in the multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (MSU RNAPs) from prokaryotes, chloroplasts and eukaryotes, and propose a plausible unified catalytic mechanism for these enzymes. Study Design: Data collected on these enzymes from bioinformatics, biochemical, site-directed mutagenesis (SDM), X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) were used for the analyses. Methodology: The protein sequence data of MSU RNAPs from prokaryotes, prokaryotic-types (plant chloroplasts) and eukaryotes were obtained from PUBMED and SWISS-PROT databases. The advanced version of Clustal Omega was used for protein sequence analysis. Along with the conserved motifs identified by the bioinformatics analysis, the data already available from biochemical and SDM experiments, and X-ray crystallographic and cryo-EM data on these enzymes are also used to confirm the possible amino acids involved in the active site of the PR function in these MSU RNAPs Results: All the seven types of MSU RNAPs (I-VII) reported from prokaryotes to eukaryotes were analyzed by the multiple sequence alignment (MSA) software, Clustal Omega, to find out conservations among them. The MSA analysis showed many conserved amino acid motifs including small and large peptide regions from the MSU RNAPs of prokaryotes, eukaryotes and plant chloroplasts. Interestingly, the catalytic amino acid and template-binding pairs are highly conserved in all these polymerases, with a few exceptions. Most of them use a basic amino acid (R/K/H) for initiating catalysis and an -YG/FG- pair for template-binding. Some odd type of catalytic amino acids and template-binding pairs are observed in human pathogens, parasites and organisms which cannot ferment sugars. In all the MSU RNAPs, the proposed polymerase catalytic region also possessed three invariant Cs and an invariant H within it. The invariant Cs is shown to bind a zinc atom and proposed to involve in the PR function by excising any misincorporated nucleotide during the transcription process. In the plant-specific MSU RNAPs IV and V, which involve in transcriptional gene silencing in plants, the catalytic and template-binding pairs do not follow the regular distance conservations as observed with other five of the MSU RNAPs. Their polymerase/PR active site regions are similar to RNAP III rather than to RNAP II, as all three make only low molecular weight RNAs. Conclusions: All the known MSU RNAPs possess three invariant Cs and an invariant H embedded within the polymerase active site itself. The three invariant Cs are shown to bind a zinc atom and the invariant H could act as the proton acceptor from a metal-bound water molecule, for initiating excision of the mismatches by a Zn-mediated hydrolysis. Thus, the PR function in MSU RNAPs is integrated within the polymerase active site itself, which is in sharp contrast to the PR functions reported in DNA-dependent DNA polymerases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Therefore, all the seven MSU RNAPs from prokaryotes and eukaryotes are proposed to follow a unified mechanism to excise the mismatches during transcription. The discovery of intrinsic self-correcting RNA transcription mechanism fulfils the missing link in molecular evolution.
Himabindu Beeram, Tumu Venkat Reddy, Suresh Govatati, Swapna Siddamalla, Mamata Deenadayal, Sisinthy Shivaji,
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 60-67; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730279

Abstract:
Aim: The Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number variations are known to contribute in disease development. Genetic factors play an important role in the development of endometriosis. Therefore, this case–control study aimed to analyze the association of TFAM+35G/C polymorphism and mitochondrial copy number with the risk of endometriosis in Indian women. Study Design: This study was carried out on 418 subjects including 200 endometriosis cases and 218 controls. Methodology: Genotyping of TFAM +35G/C polymorphism (rs1937) was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Quantification of mtDNA copy number was carried out using a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Osmania University, 2014 to 2020. Results: TFAM genotype as well as allele distributions were all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results indicated a significant reduction of GG genotype frequency (P=0.009), high ‘C’ allele frequency (P=0.017) and significantly decreased mtDNA copy number in endometriosis cases compared to controls (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: Present study revealed a statistically significant association of decreased GG genotype of TFAM +35G/C polymorphism and mtDNA copy number with the risk of developing endometriosis in Indian women.
, K. H. Adimora, B. A. Anajekwu, C. C. Dike, C. G. Ikimi
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 6-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730277

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Guava (Psidium guajava) belongs to the family Myrtaceae. It has been cultivated in Nigeria one of the most common fruits in Nigeria. It has become popular because of its availability almost throughout the year. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nutritional and vitamin contents of the flesh of the local and improved guava species. Materials and Methods: Proximate components were determined using the AOAC method for the moisture, ash, crude lipid, nitrogen content (crude protein) and Carbohydrate. Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12 were analyzed using standard methods. Results: The result showed that moisture and carbohydrate content of the improved white guava flesh is low compared with the local white guava species (9.8825 and 14.4015%) and (56.378 and 62.802%), respectively. The ash, fat, fibre and protein content of the improved white guava flesh are high compared with the local guava species (11.25 and 5.15%), (5.55 and 1.335%), (6.6145 and 6.5865%) and (10.325 and 8.225%). Improved White guava flesh is relatively low in Vitamin A, vitamin B3, vitamin B6 and vitamin C compared to local white guava flesh, while the local white guava flesh is relatively poor in vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin E compared to improved white guava flesh. Conclusion: The present findings suggest guava flesh as a considerable source of nutrients in the diet and may have health and economic benefits due to its vitamins, and nutritional composition.
, Jeremiah Awotu Zaccheus, Evelyn Mgbeoma Eze, Jonathan Nyebuchi, Friday Ogidigba, Eni-Yimini Solomon Agoro, Christain Atiegha
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730276

Abstract:
Methaemoglobin (Met-Hb) is a type of the oxygen-carrying metalloproteinhemoglobin. The heme group iron exists as ferric (Fe3+) iron, rather than the ferrous (Fe2+) iron of typical hemoglobin. Met-Hb is unable to perform the function of binding to oxygen like oxyhaemoglobin does. The aim of this study was to compare methaemoglobin levels between AA and AS haemoglobin variants among the Ijaw, Igbo and Yoruba ethnic groups residing in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A total of 150 subjects were enrolled for the study. One hundred and sixteen subjects constituted the Ijaws; 21 Igbos and 13 Yorubas. For each subject, 4mls of blood sample collected in EDTA bottle was assayed for methaemoglobin using a spectrophotometric method. Results revealed there was no significant difference in the methaemoglobin mean levels between the AA and AS haemoglobin variants (P-value>0.05) of the ethnic groups except the Igbo ethnic group (P-value <0.05). However, comparing the methaemoglobin mean levels among the ethnic groups showed a significant mean difference of methaemoglobin (P-value 0.05). In conclusion, this study has revealed that methaemoglobin levels changes significantly based on studied tribes but does not change based on studied haemoglobin variants.
, Liliane Mfeukeu Kuate, Manuela Eko, Daryl N. Tcheutchoua, Mbono Samba, Jan Réné Nkeck, Christian Ouankou Ngongang, Virginie Poka, Batakeh Ba Agoons, Honoré Kemnang, et al.
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630275

Abstract:
Background: Heart failure (HF) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are two conditions frequently responsible of dyspnea. The clinical distinction between these two etiologies is challenging in clinical practice, particularly in developing countries where access to imagery is limited. Thus, natriopeptides, secreted during the stretching of cardiomyocytes, could be a more accessible method for the etiological diagnosis of dyspnea. Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NT-pro BNP in the assessment of dyspnea during heart failure and COPD. Methods: The population consisted of patients with dyspnea caused by heart failure according to Framingham criteria or COPD diagnosed according to GOLD criteria. The NT-pro BNP levels and left ventricular ejection fraction was assessed. The ROC curve and the Youden index was used to determine the diagnostic performance of the test and the threshold of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Of the 45 subjects recruited, 32 had heart failure and 13 had COPD. The NT-pro BNP levels were higher in HF patients (3725.5 [651 – 9945] pg/ml) compared to the COPD patients (316 [32- 1307] pg/ml); p=0.02. The NT-pro BNP levels was correlated to dyspnea in both groups (r=0.75; p<0.001 in HF patients and r=0.91; p<0,001 in COPD patients). The diagnostic threshold obtained was 497 pg/ml with a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 69% and a Youden’s index of 0.5. Conclusion: The diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP is acceptable in distinguishing between heart failure and COPD.
, Christina Pacheco, Stela Mirla Da Silva Felipe, Jannison Karlly Ribeiro Cavalcante, Paulo Elesson Oliveira, Denner Silvino Da Silva, Vânia Marilande Ceccatto
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 31-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630274

Abstract:
Aims: The present study aimed to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in rats submitted to strenuous exercise and in silico investigation of the biological implication of the findings. Place and Duration of Study: The in vivo experiments and analyses were performed in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Gene Expression – LABIEX of the Superior Institute of Biomedical Science – ISCB from the State University of Ceará. Between 2017-2020. Methodology: The study was performed using as subjects 2-month-old male wistar rats, which initially were submitted to 2-week adaptation training. Later the animals were separated in two distinct groups, control (C) and trained (T), where only T performed a single session of strenuous exercise, while C were not submitted to this treatment. The applied exercise protocol consisted in a running training in treadmill with speed constant increasing until the animal exhaustion which was measured by the animal refusal to keep running. After 24h, soleus muscle was desiccated and submitted to RNAseq sequencing protocols. Obtained data were statistically evaluated in R environment with EBSeq package, to characterize and predict the miRNAs and their targets were used bioinformatics tools Gene Cards, mi RBase enrichR and KEGG. Results: Two differentially expressed miRNAs were found, mir145 and mir 186, both with downregulated expression pattern in strenuous exercise. These miRNAs have a total of 1201 predicted target genes, 67 were repeated and mostly correlate to cardiovascular disease pathways, between those 5 were differentially expressed as down-regulated. Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings suggest that mir186 and mir145 down-regulation profile mediated by strenuous exercise implicates in the non-alteration of the target genes expression profile, and consequently did not mediate alterations in the pathways they are evolved, which are mainly related to signaling and disorders.
C. O. Ekwemba, N. Nwachukwu, C. O. Ibegbulem
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 19-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630273

Abstract:
Aims: Ethyl acetate fraction of total phenols from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves was evaluated for its effects in alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats. Methodology: Diabetes was induced in rats by administrating alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 130 mg/kg body weight. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered to rats at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. daily for 15 days. Blood glucose, lipid profile and pancreatic histopathology were monitored using standard methods. Results: Results indicated that two weeks after treatment with Z. zanthoxyloides, significant (p<0.05) reductions in hyperglycemic blood glucose, total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were recorded; with lowest values recorded in the group treated with the highest concentration of the extract. Histopathological examination of pancreatic tissues supported the protective effect of Z. zanthoxyloides phenol extract against diabetic damage. Conclusion: In conclusion, total phenols of Z. zanthoxyloides exerted antidiabetic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and protected pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage.
, Adjaratou C. Coulibaly, Aboubacar Yaro, Esther W. L. M. Kabre, Noufou Ouedraogo, Martin Kiendrebeogo, Richard W. Sawadogo
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630271

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant and 15-lipoxygenase inhibition effects of methanolic extract and its fractions of Daniellia. oliveri stem bark. Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out in the Department of Traditional Pharmacopoeia and Pharmacy (MEPHATRA / PH) of the Institute for Research in Health Sciences (IRSS) and LABIOCA from Université Joseph KI-ZERBO in Ouagadougou between February 2018 and June 2019 Methodology: The phytochemical screening and phenolic content were determined by the methods described in the literature. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,20-azinobis 3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonate), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The anti-inflammatory activities were measured on the ability of the extract to inhibit the activity of enzymes such as 15-lipoxygenase Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthocyanosides, triterpenes and sterols. The extract and its fractions showed a good content of phenolic compounds with values ranging from 773.97 ± 22.91 to 505.51 mg EAG / g for total polyphenols; from 24.38 ± 0.34 to 12.04 ± 0.08 mg EQ / g in total flavonoids, 311.65 ± 6.70 to 221 ± 0.52 mg EC / g in condensed tannins; 681.81 ± 3.97 to 421.29 ± 8.73 mg EUA / g in total triterpenes and from 280.29 ± 21.72 to 222.04 ± 20.99 mg EC / g for total sterols. The methanol fraction showed the best antioxidant activity as well as the best inhibitory effect on 15-lipoxygenase activity. Conclusion: These results showed that Daniellia. oliveri possessed an antioxidant power, an inhibitory effect of 15 lipoxygenase. Daniellia oliveri could be used in the management of inflammatory pathologies and oxidative stress.
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