International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review

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EISSN : 2231-086X
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 746
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Temitope Esther Oladimeji, Ezekiel Tejumola Otunola,
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i430312

Abstract:
In this work, orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), rich in β-carotene and other micronutrients was used in producing pupuru analogue with the aim of improving the micronutrient and other quality attributes of the product. an analogue of pupuru normally a cassava-based food was developed from Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP). The OFSP tubers were peeled, washed, grated and fermented with Rhizopus oligosporous for varying periods (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h). After fermentation period, each sample was subsequently smoke-dried and milled into pupuru analogue flour. The flour was analysed for proximate, physicochemical, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutritional factors. Sensory evaluation was carried out on the pupuru meals prepared from the flour samples by reconstituting in boiling water. The protein content ranged from 3.4 to 5.41% with increased in fermentation period. Similarly, there was increase in β-carotene content from 117-126 mg/100g after 120 h fermentation period. Vitamins B6 and C ranged from 1.73 to 3.20 mg100g and 12 .3 to 21.1 mg/100g respectively. Oxalate, tannin and phytate decreased from 123.0 to 72.5 mg/100g, 1.10 to 1.05mg/100g and 1.62 to 1.16mg/100g respectively. Sensory scores showed that pupuru analogue fermented for 96 and 120 h were preferred most in terms of overall acceptability.
, Ayat A. Sayed, Mohamed Abdel Ghany, Ahmed Farouk, Ahmed H. Hussein, Abdel-Raheim M.A. Meki
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 39-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i330310

Abstract:
Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Altered amino acids metabolism is linked to cardiovascular disorders. A cross-sectional case control study was set to profile amino acids explore their potential as diagnostic and prognostic tool. Methods: Total of 60 subjects was recruited, comprising 40 myocardial infarction patients and 20 controls. High pressure liquid chromatography was applied to quantify the plasma amino acids. Results: Fourteen amino acids exhibited discriminative values between cases and controls. Leucine, isoleucine, methionine, glycine, threonine, serine, ornithine, arginine, histidine, and tyrosine exhibited low levels compared to healthy controls (p ≤0.001). Meanwhile, cases displayed higher abundance of cysteine, taurine (p ≤ 0.05), total aromatic amino acids (p ≤ 0.01), and asparagine (p ≤ 0.001). Only leucine, isoleucine, and asparagine were correlated to GRACE risk score. Methionine and glycine scored highly (AUC > 0.95), sensitivity (>97%), and specificity (>95%) followed by histidine (AUC > 0.92), sensitivity (>82%), and specificity (>85%). Conclusion: Our study designated a panel of 14 plasma circulating amino acids. Methionine, glycine and histidine were found to be potential markers to differentiate cases from healthy Individuals. Plasma amino acids profiling could help in the diagnosis but is less powerful as a prognostic tool of Myocardial infarction.
Mihir Gadani, Ratna Upadhyay, Supriya Raut,
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i330309

Abstract:
A standardized extract from Sesbania agati leaves (SESAL) was developed by Zenherb labs Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, and is one of its kind plant-based biotin supplements. The current work aimed at characterization of SESAL using chromatographic techniques (like HPLC & HPTLC) and DNA authentication. Additionally, an in-silico approach (docking) was also adopted to predict the molecular interactions and probable mechanisms involved in potential role of SESAL in hair care products range. Drug likeliness was assessed on the basis of ADMET properties and Lipinski’s Rule of 5. DNA fingerprinting followed by HPTLC confirmed the identification and authentication. The biotin content in SesZenBio was estimated to be 0.5% by validated HPLC method. Mechanistically, biotin along with 2 other cofactors in SesZenBioTM is predicted to stimulate the hair follicle growth and differentiation, thus improving hair health. SesZenBioTM might hold 2x potential as against synthetic biotin in hair care applications.
Kouamé Désiré, Niamketchi Gilles Léonce, Konan Constant, Konan Ysidor, Biego Henri Marius
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 18-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i330308

Abstract:
Aims: Maize (Zea mays) is a staple food in the traditional diet of rural populations in Cote d'Ivoire. It is a good source of nutrients. However, sometimes inefficient storage methods hamper its quality. It’s in this context that this study was conducted to assess the essential mineral content of maize produced and stored in five regions of Côte d’Ivoire. Study Design: A total of 1500 samples of maize as grains, epis and spathes were collected at rate of 500 samples by region (Gbêkê, Poro, Hambol, Indénié-Djuablin and Gontougo) and sent to the laboratory in order to analyse their mineral’s composition. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out during March 2016 to January 2017. The collected samples were carried out at the Biochemistry and Food Sciences Laboratory of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan. Methodology: The determination of minerals was carried out using the energy dispersive spectrophotometry method. Results: The results show a significant difference (P<0.001) between mineral contents of the different maize forms and regions. The average values are between: K (289.99±28.98-324±4.07 mg/100 g), P (256.98±28.99-302.1±3.10 mg/100 g), Na (46.08±15.08-63.87±4.09 mg/100 g), Ca (40.08±26.97 to 51.20±3.89 mg/100 g), Mg (100.78±4.89-111±2.08 mg/100 g) for macroelements and Fe (3.08±3.00-5.02±1.08 mg/100 g), Zn (3.78±3.00-5.20±0.47 mg/100 g), Cu (1.00±0.60-1.42±0.02 mg/100 g), Mn (0.68±0.52-1.01±0.03 mg/100 g), Se (0.05±0.01-0.25±0.04 mg/100 g) for oligoelements. Conclusion: Maize grains have the highest contents of mineral element from overall samples except for selenium (Se). Oppositely, samples from Indénié-Djuablin and Gontougo regions showed lowest concentrations. Therefore, mineral content of maize sampled seems to be related to post-harvest treatments (drying), type of storage (grains, epis and spathes) and storage structure.
S. I. Omeodu, H. Eruotor, J. N. Akpede
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i330307

Abstract:
The study investigated the effect of combined leaves extract of Mentha spicata and Murray koenigii leaves on acetaminophen induced hepatic damage on wistar rat. Twenty five (25) wistar rats with weights range of 100g-130g were used for this study. They were obtained from the animal house of the Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, rivers State, Nigeria. They were kept in the animal house of the University. They had free access to water and feed during the period of the experiment. Treatment of test animal with 80mg/kg, 120mg/kg, 150mg/kg dose of the leaf extract showed ameliorative effect on the animals with specified dose producing the best result. The significant increase in liver marker enzymes (AST, ALP, and AST) activities of acetaminophen-induced rats caused by liver injuries which resulted in leakage of liver enzymes to the extra hepatic tissue due to compromised liver architecture and permeability. The improvement of the effect of the acetaminophen suggests that these combined leaves action can be of valuable use in the management of hepatic injury caused by this toxic action.
K. Gurupadappa, Geetha Bhaktha, S. Prashanth, B. Manjula, D. S. Hemantha Kumara
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 35-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i230305

Abstract:
Osteocalcin is a product of osteoblasts that is considered a marker of bone formation. However, osteocalcin is also released from the bone matrix into the blood during bone resorption, suggesting that osteocalcin is also a marker of bone turnover. Studies on this marker have shown both favoring and contradicting reports about different levels of osteocalcin and Alkaline Phosphate (ALP) among postmenopausal women. Aim and Objective: To determine the diagnostic use of Osteocalcin and ALP in post-menopausal women and to evaluate the association of osteocalcin in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with two groups of postmenopausal women. Group I of 10 subjects within first 5 yr after the onset of menopause and Group II of 8 subjects following 5yr or more after the onset of menopause. Serum uncarboxylated Osteocalcin, carboxylated Osteocalcin and ALP were estimated using the ELISA technique. Results: The serum ALP, carboxylated Osteocalcin(C-OC), uncarboxylated Osteocalcin (Uc-OC) values were higher in post-menopausal < 5years than those in > 5 years. ALP values correlated positively with C-OC but negatively with PM more >5 years(r=0.159: r= -0.369) Conclusion: Bone turnover gets higher as the years progress among the post-menopausal state which is reflected in ALP, Uc-OC and C-OC. More insight into this state is required to be studied with larger sample size.
, Niloufar Emami, Alireza Lashani
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i330306

Abstract:
Introduction: Analysis of the prescription patterns is essential to improve rational prescribing in cardiac patients to decrease the risk associated with cardiovascular drugs & also to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, this type of study is progressively more important because of a boost in marketing of new medicines, variations in the prescribing and consumption of drugs, growing concern about delayed adverse effects, cost of drugs, and volume of prescription provokes us to carry out this study. Objectives: To evaluate cardiovascular disease (Myocardial Infarction (MI), ANGINA, and Congestive Cardiac Failure (CCF) drugs prescribing pattern & its cost. Methods: This study is a Retrospective case study carried out for a period of 6months at Sagar Hospitals, Bangalore, by collecting the required data in a structured questionnaire. Results: Out of 250 patient cases observed, patients aged 60-69 were 31.6%, followed by 50-59 (26.8%) are more prone to CAD & males were more when compared to females. The study showed the highest number of patients suffering from Angina and the second highest in MI, and few patients have been diagnosed with CCF. Conclusion: This study showed that Coronary artery disease was managed by antiplatelets, antihypertensives, statins, and diuretics; Angina has the highest diagnosis rate under this study. However, the antianginal drug class does not practice well. However, these studies also show the path for the pharmacist's role in promoting rational drug promotion in cardiac disease management.
, H. O. Eruotor, C. M. Agbai
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 27-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i230304

Abstract:
This investigation was conducted to study the effect of exposure to tyre smoke on serum calcium and albumin of selected abattoir workers in Oginigba town of Obio area of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. A total number of 50 participants were selected for the study (35 experimental group and 15 controls). Blood samples were collected by venipuncture and analyzed in the laboratory for serum calcium and albumin using the colorimetric and bromo cresol-green method respectively. Compared to 3% of the control population, 49% of the experimental population had a serum calcium level below the standard reference of 2.20-2.55 mmol/l. Results from the test on serum albumin showed that 23% of the experimental population had level above the standard references of 3.5-50 g/dl whereas the control population had values within the reference range. The experimental population was grouped into five study groups: 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-15, and above 15 years of service (exposure years) at the abattoir. Serum calcium levels in mmol/l were 2.31, 2.15, 2.20, 2.13, 2.06, 2.16, and serum albumin level in g/dl were 4.63, 4.62, 4.70, 4.79, 4.83, 4.99 for control, groups 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-15 and above 15 years respectively compared with the control, all showed significant increase in the serum albumin levels. The level of significance in agreement with the different standard reference ranges, serum calcium was observed to significantly vary from the control from the last level of exposure (1-3 years) while serum albumin differed significantly from the control, from 7years of exposure for non-smokers and 4years of exposure amongst smokers. The data was group into two study based on genotype as AA and AS. It was observed that participants with genotype AS were most susceptible to the effect of smoke inhalation on lowering serum calcium levels. The result of this research showed that the abattoir workers (roasters) are prone to developing hypocalcaemia and hyperalbuminaemia, and therefore require periodic medical attention.
, , Chinwe E. Oriaku, David U. Iloanusi, Chiamaka J. Ezeh, Thankgod C. Ugboaja, Udeme A. James, Peter O. Ekwunoh, Norah N. Anyadike
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 17-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i230303

Abstract:
Purpose: The study investigated honey's histological assessment and haematological parameters on alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Thirty-six (36) male Wistar rats were assigned into six (6) groups with six (6) animals each, group 1 (Normal control), group 2 (Negative control), group 3 (Glibenclamide), group 4 (treated with 0.2ml of honey) group 5, (treated with 0.5ml of honey and group 6 (treated with 0.8ml of honey). The rats were fed with standard feed and drinking water ad libitum. The diabetic control, diabetic glibenclamide and the treated groups (0.2 mL/kg, 0.5 mL/kg and 0.8 mL/kg) were induced with diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg bodyweight alloxan monohydrate, and confirmation was done using a glucometer. Treatment lasted for three weeks, and blood samples for haematology [red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)] analyses were collected on day 21. On the 21st day, two rats per group were humanely sacrificed, and the vital organs (kidney and liver) were collected for histopathology. Results: Haematologic results obtained showed marked reduction (p < 0.05) in RBC count, PCV, Hb and MCHC, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in MCV compared to the positive control. White blood cell counts showed a reduced level in the test group at a dose-dependent concentration compared to the positive control. Histopathological investigations of diabetic rats' liver and kidney indicated degradation of normal tissue architecture as well as a variety of other problems; however, after treatment with honey, reparative alterations were seen. Conclusions: Overall, the findings suggest that honey could ameliorate metabolic disorders caused by diabetes as no pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to honey.
Ezinne C. Chukwu, Kelechi U. Osuocha, Joseph. C. Njoku
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i230302

Abstract:
Utrica dioca (stinging nettle) and Argemone mexicanna linn are medicinal plants used in most part of Nigeria in treatment of diseases. The present work evaluated bioactive constituents and biochemical effect of Argemone mexicanna linn and Utrica dioca extracts using male albino rat model. A total of eighteen male albino rats were used for the study. Group I served as control, Group II received 300mg/kg of Utrica dioca while Group III received 300mg/kg body weight of Argemone mexicanna linn. Preliminary phytochemical study showed the strong presence of flavoniod, tannin, saponin, alkaloid, cyanogenic glycoside and oxalate while the quantitative phytochemical and vitamin results showed high amount of these active compounds. Biochemical results from this study showed very low hepatotoxic and renal toxicity profile while the lipid profile indicates hypocholestrolemia potentials of the plants. This study suggest that even though there was low observed toxic response from intake of Utrica dioca (stinging nettle ) and Argemone mexicanna linn, proper care should be taken regarding the dose used for medicinal purposes as continuous usage at high quantity may predispose the human health.
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