Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2161-4881 / 2161-489X
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 229
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Latest articles in this journal

Philipp I. Vysikaylo, Valeriy S. Mitin, Alexey A. Yakushkin
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 11, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2021.111001

The fundamental scientific problem for micro- and nano-electronics has been solved—methods for creating and investigating properties of physically doped materials with spatially inhomogeneous structure at the micro- and nano-meter scale have been developed. For the application of functional nanocomposite film coatings based on carbides of various transition metals structured by nanocarbon, for the first time in the world, we developed a new technique for their plasma deposition on a substrate without the use of reaction gases (hydrocarbons such as propane, acetylene, etc.). We have created nanostructured film materials, including those with increased strength and wear resistance, heterogeneous at the nanoscale, physically doped with nanostructures—quantum traps for free electrons. We learned how to simultaneously spray (in a plasma of a stationary magnetron discharge) carbides and graphite from a special mosaic target (carbide + carbon) made mechanically. As a result of such stationary sputtering of carbides and carbon, plasma nanostructured coatings were obtained from nanocarbides, metal nanocrystals and nanocarbon. Our design of such a target made it possible to intensively cool it in the magnetron body and spray its parts (carbide + carbon) simultaneously with a high power density of a constant plasma discharge—in the range of values from 40 W/cm2 to 125 W/cm2. Such sputtering with a change in the power or the initial relative surface areas of various parts of the mosaic target (carbon and carbide) made it possible to change the average density of carbide, metal and carbon in a nanostructured (nanocarbon and metal nanostructures) coating. The changed relative density of various components of the nanocomposite (nanostructures of carbide, metal, and carbon in the form of graphite) significantly affected the physical properties of the nanocomposite coating. The creating method of multiphase nanostructured composite coatings (based on carbides of transition metals) with high hardness of 30 GPa, a low coefficient of friction to dry 0.13 - 0.16, with high heat resistance up to 3000°C and thermal stability in the nanocrystalline state over 1200°C is developed. It is established that the presence of nanographite in the composite significantly improves the impact strength and extends the range of possible applications, compared with pure carbides. The solution to this problem will allow creating new nanostructured materials, investigating their various physical parameters with high accuracy, designing, manufacturing and operating devices with new technical and functional capabilities, including for the nuclear industry and rocket science.
Yazmin Francisco, Dulce Medina, Miguel Barron, Joan Reyes, Pedro Adrian Martinez, Angel De Jesus Morales, Elizabeth Garfias
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 10, pp 63-74; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2020.104005

The synthesis of the thenoyltrifluoroacetone compound doped with terbium, dysprosium and europium encapsulated in a silica matrix (TTA:Tb:Dy:[email protected]) were performed by the sol-gel method. The precursors to obtain the vitreous phase (SiO2) were: Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, C8H2O4Si, 98%, Aldrich), and ethyl alcohol (CH3CH2OH, 99.5%, Meyer), distilled water and 0.05 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl, Meyer). The sample with molar ratio 20:80 TTA:Tb:Dy:[email protected] has the best emission intensity. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shown that silica encapsulated samples decompose at lower temperatures than pure TTA:Tb:Dy:Eu luminescent material. Fourier Transform Infrared (IR-TF) shown the characteristic Si-O-Si bands that are presented at a wavelength of 1049, 853 and 440 cmǃ confirming that the luminescent material is encapsulated in a silica matrix, finally X-ray diffraction (XRD) shown that TTA:Tb:Dy:[email protected] composite is amorphous.
Al C. Farao, Rachel Fanelwa Ajayi, Meryck Ward, Priscilla Gl Baker
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 10, pp 34-54; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2020.102003

In the construction of biosensors, enzymes function as mediators converting biological signals generated by specific biological processes, into electrochemical signals. The ideology of bio-sensor design is retention of electron transfer activity of the enzyme utilizing superior interfacial architecture. In this work a Schiff-base macromolecule has been synthesized by reflux of 2, 3-diaminonaphthalene and pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde starting materials. The Schiff-base ligand was subsequently complexed with FeCl2∙4H2O under reflux, to produce the Fe-Schiff-base complex. The Schiff-base ligand and Fe-Schiff-base complex were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Ultra Violet/Visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transfer infrared resonance (FTIR) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to confirm the structure of the synthesis products. NMR spectroscopy confirmed the imide linkage of Schiff-base formation as two symmetrical peaks at 8.1 and 7.7 ppm respectively. Comparison of starting materials and product spectra by UV/Vis spectroscopy confirmed the disappearance of the diaminonaphthalene peak at 250 nm as evidence of complete conversion to product. FTIR spectroscopy of the Schiff-base ligand confirmed the formation of the imine bond at 1595 cm-1. EELS spectra comparing FeCl2∙4H2O and the Fe-Schiff-base complex, showed good agreement in the energy loss profiles associated with changes to the electronic arrangement of Fe d-orbitals. EDS clearly identified a spectral band for Fe (7 - 8 eV) in the Fe-Schiff-base complex. Electrochemical evaluation of the Fe-Schiff-base complex was compared to the electrochemical signature of denatured cytochrome-C using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. The Fe2+/Fe3+ quasi-reversible behavior for iron in the metallated complex was observed at -0.430 V vs. Ag/AgCl, which is consistent with reference values for iron in macromolecular structures.
Jae-Wook Kang, Kensuke Kuroda, Masazumi Okido
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 10, pp 1-19; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2020.101001

Most reports on the fabrication of high-quality Gallium nitride (GaN) are typically based on physical techniques that require very expensive equipment. Therefore, the electrodeposition was adopted and examined to develop a simple and economical method for GaN synthesis. GaN films are synthesized on aluminum substrates that are heat-treated at various temperatures using a low-cost and low-temperature electrochemical deposition technique. The electrochemical behavior of source ions in aqueous solutions is examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In the solution at pH 1.5 containing 0.1M Ga(NO3)3, 2.5 M NH4NO3 and 0.6 M H3BO3, reduction of gallium and nitrate ions are observed in CV. The presence of hexagonal GaN and gallium oxide (Ga2O3) phases is detected for the films deposited on Al substrates at -3.5 mA•cm-2 for 3 h. The energy dispersive X-ray and mapping results reveal that Ga, O, and N coexist in these films. Raman analysis shows hexagonal GaN formation on Al substrates. The changes in the morphology and preferred orientation of GaN were found, which was caused by the reactivity of aluminum surface and the aluminum oxide layer formed by the heat treatment.
M. M. Reddy, S. R. Kostka, N. S. Reddy
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 10, pp 55-62; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2020.103004

Titanium alloys are widely used in the aerospace industries because of their excellent strength-to-weight ratio, high resistance to corrosion, high chemical reactivity and low thermal conductivity and ability to withstand high temperatures. However, these properties make titanium alloys difficult to machine. Drilling of titanium alloy may generate high temperature and high cutting forces. This paper is aimed at determining the suitable cutting parameters in the drilling of titanium alloys to minimize the cutting temperature and cutting forces. A finite element 3D model of the drilling process is simulated in this research. A combination of drilling speeds and feed rates are simulated to obtain the resulting responses of cutting force and temperature. The central composite design (CCD) is used to generate different combinations of cutting parameters to reduce the number of experiments and optimize the temperature and cutting force responses. Results show at the drilling speed of 5000 rpm with a feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev, temperature and cutting force significantly reduced.
Marcel Simons, Tim Radel, Raj Shanta Kajsaravally, Frank Vollertsen
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 10, pp 21-33; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2020.102002

Laser Chemical Machining (LCM) is a non-conventional processing method, which enables very accurate and precise ablation of metallic surfaces. Material ablation results from laser-induced thermal activation of heterogeneous chemical reactions between electrolytes and a metallic surface. However, when processing metallic surfaces with LCM, large fluctuations in ablation quality can occur due to rising bubbles. The for-mation of bubbles during laser chemical machining and their influence on the ablation quality has not been investigated. For a more detailed investigation of the bubbles, ablation experiments on Titanium and Ce-ramic under different thermal process conditions were performed. The experiments were recorded by a high-speed camera. The evaluation of the video sequences was performed using Matlab. The resulting bubbles were analyzed regarding their size and frequency. The results show that boil-ing bubbles formed on both materials during processing. Titanium also produces smaller bubbles, which can be identified as process bubbles ac-cording to their size. Furthermore, it was found that undisturbed laser chemical ablation can be achieved in the presence of a boiling process, since both boiling bubbles and process bubbles were detected during machining within the process window.
Toshihito Ohtake, Ken-Ichiro Iijima
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 09, pp 29-37; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2019.93003

Since hydrogen-terminated Si surface has hydrophobicity, it is expected that adsorbed monomolecular film of surfactant will be formed on the Si surface in aqueous solution containing the surfactant. Such an adsorbed monolayer film is very effective for the development of a functional electrode. In this study, we have investigated the state of adsorption about an aerosol OT as the monolayer on the electrode surface and its orientation with hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surface by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. At this time, in situ observation performed while imposing bias to the electrode. The results suggested that the aerosol OT were desorbed by the oxidation of back-bonds in the Si atoms on the electrode surface under the imposing noble potential, although no change was observed especially when imposing less-noble potential.
Jianguo Zhang
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 09, pp 45-54; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2019.94005

The frictional resistance and machining quality when cutting carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) laminates are associated with tribological behavior of tool materials. In the present study, the tribological properties of three types of monolayer microcrystalline diamond (MCD) coatings, nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings and dual-layer MCD/NCD coatings sliding against CFRP are investigated under dry lubricated conditions using the rotational friction tester. The coefficients of friction (COF), wear rate and worn surfaces of the contacted surfaces are analyzed for the MCD-CFRP, NCD-CFRP and MCD/NCD-CFRP contacting pairs. The results show that compared with the monolayer MCD and NCD, the bilayer of MCD/NCD coating displays the lowest COF with the value of ~0.13, it is 42% and 55% of the values for MCD and NCD coatings. Due to the rough surfaces of MCD, the wear debris of CFRP on MCD samples exhibits the plowing effect. While for the NCD and MCD/NCD samples, the wear fragments display the planar shapes. The wear rate of CFRP against MCD is more than twice that of CFRP against NCD, due to the excellent loading capacity. While the wear rate of CFRP against MCD/NCD is about twice than that of CFRP-NCD pairs. The bilayer of MCD/NCD combines the excellent advantages of high hardness of MCD and the smooth surface of NCD. It shows the broad application potential for the bilayer coatings.
Marissa MacLean, Zoheir Farhat, George Jarjoura, Eman Fayyad, Aboubakr Abdullah, Mohammad Hassan
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 09, pp 88-106; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2019.94007

The addition of superelastic NiTi to electroless Ni-P coating has been found to toughen the otherwise brittle coatings in static loading conditions, though its effect on erosion behaviour has not yet been explored. In the present study, spherical WC-Co erodent particles were used in single particle impact testing of Ni-P-nano-NiTi composite coatings on API X100 steel substrates at two average velocities—35 m/s and 52 m/s. Erosion tests were performed at impact angles of 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°. The effect of NiTi concentration in the coating was also examined. Through examination of the impact craters and material response at various impact conditions, it was found that the presence of superelastic NiTi in the brittle Ni-P matrix hindered the propagation of cracks and provided a barrier to crack growth. The following toughening mechanisms were identified: crack bridging and deflection, micro-cracking, and transformation toughening.
Shilpa Vaidya, N. C. Debnath
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 09, pp 55-87; doi:10.4236/jsemat.2019.94006

Stainless steel alloy SS-304 is widely used in many engineering applications primarily for its excellent corrosion resistance, ease of fabrication and aesthetic appeal. Many kitchen appliances are made from SS-304 alloy because of its durability, ease of cleaning and beautiful finish. However, over the years of continuous usage and cleaning by detergent bar and abrasive clothes the initial brightness and shine of the plates and dishes undergo considerable degradation. In this work, we report the results of a thorough investigation of the physico-chemical characteristics of the surface regions of both new and old SS-304 plates of known history of continuous usage to identify the key physical and chemical factors that are responsible for the loss of shine. Several analytical techniques viz. SEM/EDX, AFM, XPS, XRD, Reflectance FTIR, Profilometry and Reflectance spectrometry in the visible region have been used for experimental investigation of surface structure, morphology, roughness profile, chemical composition and appearance measurements of several steel samples. In addition, glossmeter has been used to measure the gloss of the samples at certain specific angles. It seems that surface roughness is one of the key physical parameters that play an important role in the reduction of brightness and shine. The other parameter is the presence of a thin surface film on the steel surface. In order to analyze the experimental data and to predict the shine and brightness phenomena quantitatively, we have used Fresnel’s theory to compute first the reflectance from each component of SS-304 alloy assuming it to be a smooth surface and then extended it to compute the reflectance of the alloy surface (SS-304). In order to interpret the reflectance from old and used plates, we have further used Beckmann’s theory of light scattering from random rough surface to analyze and predict the appearance aspects of the alloy surface quantitatively. Both the experimental and computed results show good agreement, thus validating the reflectance model used for computing the reflectance from SS-304 alloy surface and the appropriateness of Beckmann’s model of random rough surface.
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