Open Journal of Fisheries Research

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ISSN / EISSN : 2373-1443 / 2373-1451
Published by: Hans Publishers (10.12677)
Total articles ≅ 151
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闫 丽
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 53-60; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82006

Abstract:
2019年~2020年每年春夏秋共6次对白洋淀、衡水湖鱼类进行调查,结果显示:白洋淀共发现鱼类44种,隶属6目14科,鲤科鱼类占59.10%;衡水湖共发现39种,隶属于6目13科,鲤科鱼类占61.54%。利用Average Faunal Resemblance和Jaccard系数计算区系指数和相似度指数分别为62.8%和0.456。综合评价两个水域鱼类区系多样性存在紧密并接近周缘关系,群落间相似性属于轻度相似关系。 A total of 44 species of fish, belonging to 6 orders and 14 families, were found in Baiyangdian Lake and Hengshui Lake during the period of 2019~2020. Among them, cyprinids accounted for 59.10%. A total of 39 species were found in Hengshui Lake, belonging to 6 orders and 13 families, of which 61.54% were cyprinids. Using Average Faunal and Jaccard coefficients, the fauna index and similarity index are 62.8% and 0.456 respectively. According to comprehensive evaluation, the diversity of fish fauna in the two waters was close and close to the periphery, and the similarity between the communities was slightly similar.
生朱 天
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.81002

Abstract:
为探究陆生龟类胚胎间是否存在信息交流,本实验以红耳龟(Trachemys scripta elegans)为研究对象,将150枚龟卵随机均分为两组,分别置于27℃和31℃下孵化,分别在孵化15 d (第一个1/4孵化期)、30 d (第二个1/4孵化期)后,从I、II两组各取17枚卵组成第III、第IV组在27℃下混合孵化,检测各组胚胎的心率、孵化期及孵化率。结果显示:第III组整体孵化率和追溯卵的首次分组情况后孵化率都领先于其他各组,第IV组在追溯了卵的第二次分组情况后孵化率也较第I、II组有一定的上升。第I组破壳高峰期在第95~98 d,第II组破壳高峰期在第63~64 d,而第III、IV组破壳时间在I、II组之间。与第I组胚胎心率差异显著性比较可知,第III组和第IV组组合中的第I组的胚胎心率进程明显加快,说明第III、IV两组内的胚胎能够互相影响,推测可能通过信息交流促使发育进度不同的胚胎趋于同步孵化,有助于降低稚龟破壳初期被天敌捕食的比率。 为探究陆生龟类胚胎间是否存在信息交流,本实验以红耳龟(Trachemys scripta elegans)为研究对象,将150枚龟卵随机均分为两组,分别置于27℃和31℃下孵化,分别在孵化15 d (第一个1/4孵化期)、30 d (第二个1/4孵化期)后,从I、II两组各取17枚卵组成第III、第IV组在27℃下混合孵化,检测各组胚胎的心率、孵化期及孵化率。结果显示:第III组整体孵化率和追溯卵的首次分组情况后孵化率都领先于其他各组,第IV组在追溯了卵的第二次分组情况后孵化率也较第I、II组有一定的上升。第I组破壳高峰期在第95~98 d,第II组破壳高峰期在第63~64 d,而第III、IV组破壳时间在I、II组之间。与第I组胚胎心率差异显著性比较可知,第III组和第IV组组合中的第I组的胚胎心率进程明显加快,说明第III、IV两组内的胚胎能够互相影响,推测可能通过信息交流促使发育进度不同的胚胎趋于同步孵化,有助于降低稚龟破壳初期被天敌捕食的比率。
栋罗 国
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 95-102; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83011

Abstract:
近年来我国沿海水产养殖业蓬勃发展并取得了一些成功。在江苏省沿海如东县出现了南美白对虾的小棚养殖,该新兴养殖模式一经推出就受到农渔民争相模仿,他们利用从前的蟹棚来进行养殖并且取得了很好的经济效益和社会效益。但随着养殖行业不断发展,传统的小棚养殖已经不能满足需求。传统小棚需要进行升级改造来适应越来越高的生产条件,而自行淡化标粗、稻虾混养、跑道式改造、生物絮团技术、循环水养殖和多水产品种混合养殖为解决以上问题提供了可能。同时,利用互联网的信息实时交流分析,养殖户可以得到专家的线上指导,对提高养殖的成功率,减少养殖过程中问题的损失有着重大作用。这些升级改良措施既可以满足环保和生态要求,又可以提高养殖户的经济效益,是顺应时代的技术升级。 In recent years, China’s coastal aquaculture industry has developed vigorously and achieved some success. In Rudong County along the coast of Jiangsu Province, there is a small shed culture of Litopenaeus vannamei, which has been imitated by farmers and fishermen as soon as it is launched. They use the former crab shed to breed and have achieved good economic and social benefits. However, with the continuous development of the aquaculture industry, the traditional small shed culture has been unable to meet the demand. Traditional greenhouses need to be upgraded to adapt to higher and higher production conditions, such as self desalting standard coarse, rice shrimp mixed culture, runway type transformation, biological flocculent technology, circulating aquaculture and mixed aquaculture of multiple aquatic species provide the possibility to solve the above problems. At the same time, using the real-time exchange and analysis of information on the Internet, farmers can get online guidance from experts, which plays an important role in improving the success rate of breeding and reducing the loss of problems in the breeding process. These upgrading and improvement measures can not only meet the environmental protection and ecological requirements, but also improve the economic benefits of farmers, which is the technological upgrading in line with the times.
玲任 燕
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 143-147; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83017

Abstract:
水生动物群落配置能够有助于实现对富营养化水体的净化与修复,而且比单一水生动物的效果更加显著。笔者阐述了水生动物对水体净化功能的发展进程、各类水生动物的环境净化作用机理,不同类型的水生动物配置对富营养污染水体的净化效果,提出水生动物在富营养化水体净化应用中亟待重视的相关问题,展望水生动物配置体系的物质、能量输入输出结构,不同程度污染的修复,周年性的修复作用等方面的发展前景。 The configuration of aquatic animals can help to achieve the purification and repair of eutrophic water bodies, and the effect is more significant than that of single aquatic animals. The author elaborated on the development process of aquatic animals’ purification function of water bodies, the environmental purification mechanism of various aquatic animals, and the purification effects of different types of aquatic animal configurations on eutrophic polluted water bodies, and proposed that aquatic animals are urgently needed in the application of eutrophic water purification. Relevant issues that we pay attention to, look forward to the development prospects of the material and energy input and output structure of the aquatic animal allocation system, the restoration of different degrees of pollution, and the annual restoration.
青黄 青
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 136-142; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83016

Abstract:
基底颜色对各种动物的生活方式有着重要的影响。本实验基于黑色和白色两种基底颜色,分别在20℃、25℃和30℃这三种养殖温度下开展基底颜色对黄喉拟水龟幼体生长性状的短期影响研究。结果发现:1) 温度对幼龟的体重和背甲高有极显著影响(P 0.05)。2) 基底颜色对幼龟的各种生长性状均没有显著影响(P > 0.05),温度和基底颜色的交互作用也不显著。3) 相对白色基底而言,黑色基底环境下的幼龟在三种养殖温度下均显示出了更快的生长趋势。 The background color has an important influence on the lifestyle of various animals. In this experiment, based on the two background colors of black and white, the short-term effects of background colors on the growth characteristics of Asian yellow pond turtle larvae were studied at the three breeding temperatures of 20˚C, 25˚C and 30˚C, respectively. The results showed that: 1) Temperature had a very significant effect on bodymass and carapace height of the hatchlings (P 0.05). 2) The background color has no significant effect on the growth traits of young turtles (P > 0.05), and the interaction between temperature and background color was not significant either. 3) Compared with the white background, the young tortoises under the black substrate environment showed a faster growth trend at all three breeding temperatures.
雷冯 春
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 127-135; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83015

Abstract:
拖网是现代渔业主要作业方式之一,其中单船拖网是拖网渔业中最常见的作业方式。网板是单船拖网系统的重要属具,主要为拖网作业提供水平扩张力。本文通过水槽模型试验和数值模拟研究圆形曲面网板的水动力性能。通过数据处理,获得该网板的升阻力系数、升阻比以及压力中心系数等水动力参数,并根据数值模拟结果分析网板周围的流场流态。结果显示,该网板既有较大的升力系数,又有较高的升阻比,且该网板的曲面外形及导流板结构可有效延缓流的分离,从而增大网板的临界冲角;数值模拟结果与模型试验结果比较近似,对网板最大升力系数及最大升阻比的模拟误差均低于10%,且数值模拟可以有效预测网板的临界冲角。本文建议在条件允许的情况下,利用水槽试验与数值模拟方法开展网板水动力学性能研究。 Trawling is one of the main methods of modern fisheries, of which the single trawling is the common operation types. Otter board is the vital components of a single trawler system; it can provide the desired horizontal opening of a trawl net. In the present study, the hydrodynamic of a circular cambered otter board was studied using flume tank experiment and numerical simulation. The lift/drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and center-of-pressure coefficient were obtained during the data processing, and the flow distribution around the otter board was analyzed according to the numerical results. It showed that the otter board had a good hydrodynamic performance for its high lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio, and the camber/deflector structure can delay the flow separation. Numerical simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment ones and could predict the critical angle of attack. Simulation errors the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio were under 10%. Given the otter boards are operated in water, it was suggested to apply both flume tank experiment and numerical simulation to study the hydrodynamic performance of otter board.
莫 伟
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 76-83; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82009

Abstract:
在“绿水青山就是金山银山”绿色发展理念的践行下,中国的水产养殖业已经进入了崭新的发展时期,绿色高效的养殖技术层出不穷。而新时代下绿色高效养殖技术的关键在于循环水处理技术。循环水处理大致分为物理处理、化学处理、生物处理。虽然每种处理方法各有千秋,但是在整个循环水处理体系起着相辅相成的作用,各式新型的养殖模式也逐步得到发展。新时代下的水产养殖应做到“顺天时,量地利”,顺应新时代的绿色发展,因地制宜、取长避短,应用合理的养殖模式,寻求经济效益与绿色发展的最佳契合点,才能真正做到“用力少,成功多”。 China’s aquaculture industry has entered a new period of development under the practice of “Lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets”, and green and efficient aquaculture technologies have emerged in an endless stream. The key of green and efficient aquaculture technology in the new era lies in circulating water treatment technology. Recirculating water treatment is roughly divided into physical treatment, chemical treatment and biological treatment. Although each treatment method has its own advantages and disadvantages, it plays a complementary role in the whole circulating water treatment system, and various new breeding modes have been gradually developed. Aquaculture should achieve “favorable weather, favorable geographical conditions” with adapting to the green development of the new era, adapting to local conditions, taking advantage of strengths and avoiding weaknesses. We can truly achieve “less effort and more success” by applying reasonable breeding mode and seeking the best coincidence point between economic benefit and green development.
军武 利
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 84-94; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82010

Abstract:
本实验利用室内模拟法,探究了种植绿狐尾藻(H组)、抛洒底改型微生态制剂(D组)和施用生石灰(S组)对罗非鱼养殖池塘水质和底质营养物含量变化的影响。结果发现:H组对底质中总氮、总磷的去除率最高,分别为32.91%、28.05%。实验期间H组水中的NH+4-N、NH-2-N和TN浓度整体小于其它实验组;S组的NH-2-N和TP浓度显著大于对照组(P +4-N和TN浓度前中期显著大于对照组(P In this experiment, the effects of Myriophyllum elatinoides Gaudich (Group H), modified microecological agent (Group D) and quicklime (Group S) on nutrient content in water and sediment of tilapia culture pond were studied by indoor simulation. The results showed that: Group H had the highest removal rate of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the sediment, which were 32.91% and 28.05%, respectively. During the experiment, the concentrations of NH+4-N、NH-2-N and TN in the water of group H were generally lower than those of other experimental groups. The concentrations of NH-2-N and TP in group S were significantly higher than those in the control group (P +4-N and TN in the early and middle stages were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The nutrient concentration of group D was between group H and group S. The results of the study show that the three methods of improving sediment can reduce the total nitrogen and phosphorus content in the aquaculture pond. Among them, the H group planted with Myriophyllum elatinoides Gaudich had the best effect on removing nitrogen and phosphorus from the sediment, and had almost no effect on the concentration of nutrients in the water, and the comprehensive restoration effect was the best.
渊苏 亚
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.81004

Abstract:
为了说明有色金属矿区周边水体的食物安全问题,以地方特色食物——螺蛳为研究对象,通过采集当地有色金属矿区周边不同水体的螺蛳样品,并采集污染程度较轻或无污染水体中的螺蛳样品作对照,分别用原子吸收光谱法和原子荧光光谱法,测定其不同部位的重金属Cu、Cr、Zn和As的含量,并参照我国食品污染物限量标准,说明其食用部位是否存在食用安全风险。结果表明:1) 在检测的螺蛳样品重金属元素中,Zn的含量最高,Cu的含量次之,其不同部位重金属含量的平均大小排序为Zn > Cu > As > Cr;2) 不同重金属在螺蛳体内的累积量有差异,其中,Zn、Cu、As均为内脏团 > 足肌 > 外壳,而Cr则为外壳 >内脏团 > 足肌;3) 厂矿、城镇、人口密集村落、大型公共活动场所、旅游区和开发区、高强度劳动作业区,其周围区域水体螺蛳样品的重金属含量相对比较高;4) 采集的部分螺蛳样品,其食用部分的重金属含量超标,其中,铬的最大超标倍数为11.44,无机砷的最大超标倍数为3.10,前者超标情况比后者更严重。因此,长期食用有色金属矿区周边水体重金属含量超标的螺蛳及其制品,存在一定的安全风险。 In order to illustrate the food safety issues in the waters surrounding the non-ferrous metal mining area, the local special food, Bellamya quadrata was taken as the research object. By collecting B. quadrata samples from different water bodies around the local non-ferrous metal mining areas, and collecting the B. quadrata samples from the water with less pollution or non-polluted water as a control. The content of heavy metals Cu, Cr, Zn, and As in different parts of the B. quadrata was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively, and with reference to the national food contaminants limit standards, it is indicated whether there are food safety risks in their edible parts. The results show that: 1) among the heavy metal elements in the B. quadrata samples, the content of Zn is the highest, followed by the content of Cu, and the order of the average content of heavy metals in different parts is Zn > Cu > As > Cr; 2) the accumulation amount of heavy metals in B. quadrata spiral is different, among them, Zn, Cu and As are visceral mass > foot muscle > shell, while Cr is shell > visceral muscle > foot muscle; 3) the heavy metal content of B. quadrata samples in the surrounding areas of factories and mines, towns, densely populated villages, large public activity places, tourism areas and development zones, and high intensity labor operation areas is relatively high; 4) the content of heavy metals in the edible parts of the collected B. quadrata samples exceeds the standard. The maximum limit multiple of chromium is 11.44, and the maximum limit multiple of inorganic arsenic is 3.10. The former is more serious than the latter. Therefore, long-term consumption of B. quadrata and their products with excessive weight metal content in the water surrounding non-ferrous metal mining areas poses a certain safety risk.
蔡 岩
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 45-52; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82005

Abstract:
本文通过在实验室条件下模拟方斑东风螺(Babylonia areolata)养殖池离底铺沙模式,对比了不同进水和排水方式对养殖池水更换效果的影响。结果表明,在上进下排类型中,不同进水方式对沙层下方水体的更换效果没有显著差异(P > 0.05),不同排水方式对沙层下方水体的更换效果影响有显著差异,其中,中间单孔排水效果最好(P In this paper, the effects of different water inflow and outflow designs on water changing efficiency of Babylonia areolata farming pond were compared by simulating the sand-on-bottom-shelve model of Babylonia areolata farming pond under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences in water changing efficiency between different water inflow methods (P > 0.05), but there were significant differences between different outflow methods, and the middle single hole outflow design was most efficient in changing the water body under the sand layer (P < 0.05). The results also showed that the water changing speed of side wall outflow with reverse water seepage in-flow model is significantly faster than that of the middle single hole outflow model with single side water inflow (P < 0.05), but the water changing speed of the whole water body is slower than that of the middle single hole outflow with unilateral inflow model (P < 0.05). The middle single hole outflow with single side inflow model can effectively rinse the accumulated organic matters such as excreta, residual bait, ammonia nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide in the sand layer, and keep the sand layer clean.
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