Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ
ISSN / EISSN : 1993-7989 / 1993-7997
Current Publisher: LLC OVS (10.17309)
Total articles ≅ 244
Latest articles in this journal
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 84-89; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.11
The objective of the study was to examine the level of strength fitness indicators of 10-year-old boys who do Kyokushin Karate, and experimentally test the effectiveness of the impact of play techniques on the dynamics of strength development. Materials and methods. The study involved 40 10-year-old boys. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. To achieve the objective set, the following research methods were used: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical testing, and methods of mathematical statistics for processing research results. Results. There were the biggest changes in the results of the tests “Standing long jump” by 15.9% (р < 0.001), “Sit-ups in 30 s” by 16.0% (р < 0.001), “Pull-ups” by 18.3% (р < 0.001), and “Bent arm hang” by 15.6% (р < 0.001). The experimental group boys’ result of the “Standing long jump” changed from low to above average. The lowest increase in results was observed in the “Right hand grip test” by 7.2% (р < 0.001), “Left hand grip test” by 6.9% (р < 0.001), and“Push-ups” by 11.8% (р < 0.001). Conclusions. The initial level of the boys’ strength fitness is sufficient and conforms to age norms. Most of them had an average – 30.36%, an above average – 19.64%, and a high – 23.21% level of strength abilities development. The data obtained give reason to recommend that teachers and coaches use active games aimed at developing strength. As a result of using play load (5 games, 3 repetitions with rest intervals of 40 s), there was a statistically significant increase in strength indicators (р < 0.001).
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 50-60; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.07
Aim: To study the peculiarity of electromyography signal characteristics alternation using different sEMG parameters during repetitive voluntary isometric fatiguing contraction in adolescent boys. Materials and methods. 12 subjects with height 148.75 ± 10 cm; Mass 38.9 ± 7.9 kg; age – 12 to 14 years were recruited. The sEMG signal alteration of external oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae muscles during a fatiguing plank were analyzed. A separate one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the statistical significance of task time and electromyography parameters of the global core muscle in the pre-, during- and post-fatigue plank test. One-way Friedman ANOVA was applied for Shapiro-Wilk p < 0.05. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient with bivariate linear regressions analysis was performed between the pre-pre fatigue and post-post fatigue amplitude mean and standard deviation values. The Spearman correlation coefficient between amplitude and endurance time both in the pre- and post-fatigue state was conducted. Results. The mean value of rectified amplitude increased (p < 0.05) for all muscles, the standard deviation of amplitude and total spectral power increased significantly (p < 0.05) for all muscles except the erector spinae muscle (p > 0.05). The power at normalized low frequency significantly changed (p = 0.05) in the erector spinae muscle. A significant change in normalized low frequency for agonist/synergist (p = 0.02) and agonist/antagonist muscles (p = 0.05) was observed. The average amplitude value had a significant positive and linear relationship with the amplitude variability both in the pre- to post-fatigue state, except the erector spinae muscle. The time to task failure was not correlated (p > 0.05) with the sEMG amplitude. Conclusions. Increased sEMG amplitude resulted mainly from rapid additional motor unit recruitment and rate coding during muscle fatigue. The reduction of conduction velocity might affect the spectral power with a spectral shift towards low-frequency. Increased variability, agonist/antagonist co-activity during fatiguing contraction might extend the holding time. The postural fatiguing task/plank increases multiarticular joint function by involving several joints and muscles, increases variability in the contribution of synergist muscles. This factor provides an intuitive explanation about the absence of a relationship between endurance time and sEMG amplitude changes.
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 12-18; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.02
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the secular trends in anthropometric characteristics and health-related physical fitness (i.e., flexibility, muscular strength and speed/agility) in Macedonian children between 2012 and 2019. Materials and methods. We analyzed the secular trends in anthropometric characteristics and health-related physical fitness in Macedonian children between 2012 and 2019. Two representative population studies were conducted 7 years apart in children (6-10 years) from Skopje (Mаcedonia). Both studies used the same anthropometric measures and tests to assess physical fitness: height, weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, muscle mass percentage, sit and reach, handgrip strength, standing long jump, 30 sec sit ups, and 4 × 10 m shuttle run. Result. The boys and girls measured in 2019 had significantly better performance in the sit and reach (Cohen’s d ~0.4 and ~0.5, respectively), 30 sec sit ups (Cohen’s d ~0.3 and ~0.2, respectively), and 4 × 10 m shuttle run (Cohen’s d ~0.7 and ~0.8, respectively) tests compared to those measured in 2012–2013. Levels of the standing long jump were significantly lower in 2019 in boys and girls (Cohen’s d ~0.6 for both). Conclusions. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that Macedonian children measured in 2019 have higher levels of flexibility, abdominal muscle strength and coordination, speed and agility, but lower levels of explosive force of the lower limbs than their counterparts measured. 7 years ago, no statistically significant differences were found in anthropometric measures and measures of body weight.
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 26-35; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.04
The purpose of this study was to find the factors responsible for winning in the men’s and women’s beach volleyball championship. Materials and methods. The study sample consisted of a total of 212 matches for men and 214 matches for women of the 2017 & 2019 FIVB Men and Women Beach Volleyball World Championships held at Vienna & Hamburg from 28 July to 6 Aug 2017 and 28 June to 7 July 2019. The matches were played by 192 teams (both men and women combined) consisting of 384 numbers (both men and women combined) of players from different nations. The data were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression (Forward: LR Method) with the result of the game as the dependent variable and predictor variables as covariates. β, standard error β, Wald’s χ2, odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were calculated. Model evaluation was conducted using the likelihood ratio test, Cox & Snell (R2), and Nagelkerke (R2) tests. The goodness of fit test for the models was conducted using the Hosmer & Lemeshow test. Results. The analysis revealed seven factors related to winning in men’s and women’s competition. While in league rounds, six factors in men’s and seven factors in women’s competition were related to winning. Besides, in knockout rounds, four factors in men’s and six factors in women’s competition were related to winning. Conclusion. The study shows that there is a significant association of important factors with respect to winning a match in an elite beach volleyball championship. The coaches and players can take note of the important factors responsible for winning in the elite beach volleyball championship, with different factors playing an important role in men’s and women’s competition during league and knockout rounds as well.
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 5-11; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.01
The study objective. Substantiation and implementation of the heart rate monitoring tool, developed on the basis of information systems for the rapid registration of cardiac rhythm during exercise. Material and Methods. The study was implemented at the theoretical and empirical level. The basis of the study is the use of a set of theoretical methods: scientific analysis and synthesis, comparison, systematization, induction and deduction, generalization. The following methods of empirical research were used: description, empirical comparison, technical modeling, sphygmographic method of registration of pulsograms. Results. According to the results of the search activity, a device designed to monitor heart rate in real time was presented. To implement the new electronic method and heart rate monitor of the functional state of the cardiovascular system, an optical block that eliminates the subjective determination of control results associated with the probability of errors was created. The use of an optical unit provides a fast dynamic picture of heart rate measurement, since the unit uses an optical sensor. Spectral characteristics of blood, which change under the influence of physical activity, were used for heart rate registration. Positive characteristics that ensure the quality of real-time HR monitoring procedures using the developed device in addition to high technical parameters are: high level of sensitivity, wide dynamic range, harmonized frequency response, linearity of conversion, note also non-invasiveness, security in application, low energy consumption signal, and transformations that do not affect or distort the control results. Conclusions. The use of information systems in heart rate control ensures the accuracy of the measurement information and the correspondence between the degree of scientific reliability and practical value of the obtained results.
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 19-25; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.03
The study purpose was to examine the anaerobic and aerobic performance and also determine the influence of the anaerobic performance on specific movements during a match-play. Materials and methods. A total of 12 Indonesian professional female players from Bandung district female futsal club were recruited and enrolled to participate in this study. They were required to complete one familiarization and two experimental sessions. During the first session (laboratory test), all players performed a treadmill test to ascertain their maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max) and a running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) to measure their anaerobic performance. For the second session (on-court test), the participants played a simulated match on the court. A training team of 5 experts carried out an investigation regarding each player’s competitive performance per match. Furthermore, the blood lactate concentration and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) were assessed in the pre- and post-test for both sessions, which were separated by a week to enable the players to recover. Results. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the mean power (MP) and fatigue index (FI) (p = 0.425, p = 0.938, respectively) for anaerobic performance using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), although, the MP and FI of team C was lower compared to A and B. Furthermore, the total number of failed passes and shot off target of team C was larger compared to B and A (for failed passes = 30 vs 20 vs 25, for shot off target 14 vs 13 vs 8). Conclusions. The results obtained indicate that there are strong associations between anaerobic capacity and explosive movements (shooting, tackling, heading and passing) among female futsal players.
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 61-68; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.08
The study purpose was estimation of the accuracy of RR time series measurements by SHC “Rytm” and validity of derived heart rate variability (HRV) indexes under physical loads and recovery period. Materials and methods. The participants were 20 healthy male adults aged 19.7 ± 0.23 years. Data was recorded simultaneously with CardioLab CE12, Polar RS800, and SHC “Rytm”. Test protocol included a 2 minute step test (20 steps per minute, platform height – 40 cm) with the next 3 minute recovery period. HRV indexes were calculated by Kubios HRV 2.1. Results. The RR data bias in the case of physical loads was -0.06 ms, it increased to 0.09-0.33 ms during the recovery period. The limits of agreement for RR data ranged from 3.7 ms to 22.8 ms, depending on the period of measurements and pair of compared devices. It is acceptable for the heart rate and HRV estimation. The intraclass correlation coefficients (0.62–1.00) and Spearman correlation coefficient (0.99) were high enough to suggest very high repeatability of the data. We found no significant difference (p > 0.05) and good correlation (r = 0.94-1.00) between the majority of HRV indexes, calculated from data of Polar RS800 and SHC “Rytm” in conditions of physical loads (except for LF/HF ratio) and in the recovery period. The only one index (RMSSD) was different (p < 0.05) in case of Polar RS800 and SHC “Rytm” data, obtained in the recovery period. The largest numbers of different HRV indexes have been found during the comparison of CardioLab CE12 and Polar RS800 – RMSSD, pNN50, and SD1. Correlation between HRV indexes (r = 0.81-1.00) was very high in all pairs of devices in all periods of measurements. Conclusions. The SHC “Rytm” appears to be acceptable for RR intervals registration and the HRV analysis during physical loads and recovery period.
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 90-95; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.12
The objective of the study was to deal with the ratio of the parameters of maximum muscle power and power endurance and explain their contribution to the sports performance in kayak disciplines of Slovakia National Team members. Material and methods. Strength parameters were monitored by Tendo Power Analyser in the barbell bench press and pull on a horizontal bench. A diagnostic series of maximum power and effective repetition test for power endurance was performed at both, barbell bench press and bench pull exercises. Determining the factors limiting sports performance in kayak disciplines 200 meters, 500 meters, 1,000 meters, 5,000 meters, and marathon 21,500 meters, the evaluation of dependence between all power variables were used. The stepwise regression was used to reduce the indicators. Results. It was found out that in kayak sprint disciplines (200 meters, 500 meters) the sports performance in the kayak is influenced by the barbell bench pull more than bench press on the horizontal bench when speaking about the strength parameters. In the middle-distance disciplines (1,000 meters), the ratio of strength parameters is balanced. As the length of kayak disciplines increases (5,000 meters and 21,500 meters), the ratio of strength parameters has changed in favor of the barbell bench press. From the parameters of maximum muscle performance and muscle endurance measured in the barbell bench press and pull on a horizontal bench, the average power of power endurance was demonstrated to explain the sports performance in kayak disciplines. Conclusion. From the parameters of maximum power and power endurance in the bench press and bench pull in all kayak disciplines, the parameter of average power in power endurance was proved to explain sports performance. Knowledge of these factors will allow optimizing the content of sports training of kayakers, the process of developing their strength skills, and their transformation process into a structure of sports performance and kayaking paddling technique.
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 36-42; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.05
Several neuroimaging studies have examined the effect of different types and combinations of exercises on activation of brain associated with cognitive testing but none of these studies have examined the role of high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) in altering cortical activation from simple to complex cognitive tasks. The purpose of this study was to find if HIIE has a role in modulating executive functions related to inhibitory control as expressed by changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation. Materials and methods. 40 healthy adults aged between 18-30 years volunteered for the study. They were randomly divided into HIIE a (n = 20) group and a control (n = 20) group. The HIIE group performed 4*4 min of high intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer with 3 minutes of active recovery at lower intensities between the bouts, whereas the control group performed no exercise. Prefrontal hemodynamics (oxy and deoxy haemoglobin) were assessed using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during the Colour Word Stroop test (CWST) on two sessions: pre-session and post-session (1 week after pre-session). Results. The results indicate a significant difference in CWST scores which coincided with a significant difference in hemodynamics of PFC between a congruent and a complex incongruent task in the HIIE group. There was a greater activation of the right frontopolar area, the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and the left frontopolar area during the incongruent task in response to acute HIIE. Conclusion. HIIE plays a role in changing brain activation during more complex interference related tasks.
Teorìâ ta Metodika Fìzičnogo Vihovannâ, Volume 21, pp 77-83; doi:10.17309/tmfv.2021.1.10
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of exercises modes on developing a small ball throwing skill in boys aged 8. Materials and methods. The study participants were 21 boys aged 8, who were randomly divided into three groups of 7 people. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The study examined the influence of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 8 throwing a small ball at a target. A pedagogical experiment examined the influence of 6, 12, and 18 repetitions with a 60-second rest interval on the increase in the level of proficiency in exercises of boys aged 8. In the first group, the boys repeated the task 6 times with a rest interval of 60 s, in the second group – 12 times with a rest interval of 60 s, in the third group 18 times with a rest interval of 60 s. When teaching throwing exercises during the class, the study evaluated the level of proficiency by the alternative method (“performed”, “failed”) and calculated the probability of exercise performance (p = n/m, where n is the number of successful attempts, m is the total number of attempts). In teaching boys aged 8, the method of algorithmic instructions was used. The next exercise started after three successful attempts. Throwing a ball at a vertical target was taught. The study materials were processed by the IBM SPSS 20 statistical analysis software. During discriminant analysis, a prognostic model for group membership was created. Results. Discriminant analysis made it possible to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of developing the skills of throwing a small ball at a target; answer the question as to how significantly the modes of repetitions differ by the effectiveness of motor skills development, what class the object belongs to based on the values of discriminant variables. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of group centroids, it was found that in boys aged 8, six repetitions of the exercise (6 sets one time with a rest interval of 60 s) significantly influence the increase in the level of proficiency in exercises during physical education lessons. The results of group classification show that 85.7% of the original grouped observations were classified correctly.