Pigment & Resin Technology

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ISSN : 0369-9420
Published by: Emerald (10.1108)
Total articles ≅ 7,607
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Hoda Sabry Othman, Salwa H. El-Sabbagh, Galal A. Nawwar
Published: 13 September 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-05-2021-0048

Abstract:
Purpose In continuation to the previous work on copper (lignin/silica/fatty acids) (Cu-LSF) complex as a natural antioxidant/electrical conductivity agent for nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), this study aims to perform further investigations for NBR vulcanizates loaded with different concentrations of Cu-LSF complex, including swelling behavior and hardness properties, as well as evaluating their thermal stability via thermogravimetric analysis. Design/methodology/approach The behavior of Cu-LSF complex in NBR matrix was compared with that of the standard commercial antioxidants (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline/N-isopropyl-N′-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine [TMQ/IPPD]). Findings Results revealed that Cu-LSF complex can act as an effective reinforcing and hardening agent, with exhibiting fluid resistance, even when compared with the commercial antioxidants. In comparison with the previous studies on its Zn and Ca analogues and their behavior in different rubber matrixes, Cu-LSF complex showed higher values of hardness and less susceptibility for swelling, respectively. Moreover, Cu-LSF antioxidant activity becomes in accordance with the previous work. Originality/value The new Cu-LSF complex could be used as a green alternative to the commercial antioxidants (TMQ/IPPD) with introducing further advantages to the rubber matrix, such as hardening, fluid resistance and thermal stability.
Gemma Pascual, Josep García-Raurich, José M. Canal, Marta Riba-Moliner
Published: 8 September 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-05-2021-0056

Abstract:
Purpose This study aims to demonstrate that orange-derived and lemon-derived systems can be used in continuous processes as efficient adsorbents to the entrapment of some anionic and cationic dyes in the textile dyeing wastewater effluents. Design/methodology/approach Physically and chemically modified orange and lemon mesocarps are used as natural adsorbents for the cationic dyes Basic Blue 3, Basic Yellow 21, Basic Red 18 and Basic Green 4 and the anionic dyes Acid Blue 264, Acid Yellow 49 and Acid Red 337, all commonly used in the textile dyeing industry. Adsorption capacities of the orange-derived and lemon-derived adsorbents on the dyes are studied simulating a batch and continuous industrial processes. Findings Results demonstrate that treated orange mesocarp (orange-derived adsorbent) can adsorb up to 97% of cationic Basic Green 4 in 30 min, whereas the lemon mesocarp (lemon-derived adsorbent) can retain up to 88% within the same time. In the case of anionic, 91% Acid Blue 264 is adsorbed by the orange mesocarp in 15 min, whereas 92% is adsorbed by the lemon homologue within the same time. Originality/value As far as the authors know, physically and chemically modified orange and lemon mesocarps have not been used on the removal of cationic (Basic Blue 3, Basic Yellow 21, Basic Red 18 and Basic Green 4) and anioinic (Acid Blue 264, Acid Yellow 49 and Acid Red 337) dyes of textile dyeing wastewater industry. It is a costless and efficient treatment that supposes, on the one hand, an eco-friendly and feasible process for discolouration of wastewater and, on the other, a valorisation (upcycling) of orange and lemon peels, which are not currently used.
Hüseyin Yüce, Garip Genç, Sinan Sönmez, Öznur Özden, Ahmet Akgül, Burcu Nilgün Çetiner
Published: 6 September 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-06-2021-0060

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this study is to reveal the usability of waste paper sludge on the production of composite materials and the printability of their surfaces were investigated. Design/methodology/approach First, composite plates were produced by using dried and milled waste sludge together with polyester resin and epoxy. Screen printing using water, solvent and UV-based inks were carried out. Findings It was determined that UV and solvent-based inks in both resin groups were permanently attached to the surface of composite plates produced using paper mill waste sludge, while it was found that the adhesion was not achieved sufficiently in cardboard factory waste sludge. Originality/value The unique aspect of this study is obtained the composite plates from paper mill and cardboard mill waste sludge and improved the printability of them.
Ali Shams Nateri, Ehsan Dehnavi
Published: 25 August 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-05-2021-0050

Abstract:
Purpose This work aims to study the effect of mordanting method as pre-mordanting (on-chrome), meta-mordanting (meta-chrome) and post-mordanting (after-chrome) on wool dyeing with madder natural dye without tannin and pomegranates peel, as a natural dye contains tannin. Design/methodology/approach The woolen yarn was dyed with madder and pomegranate peel natural dyes by three methods as pre-mordant, meta-mordant and pos-mordant. The color parameters and reflectance spectra of dyed samples were analyzed by using derivative spectroscopy and the principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. Findings The obtained results indicate that the color difference between the samples dyed with madder by pre-mordanting, and the samples dyed by other methods is more than the color difference between the samples dyed by meta-mordanting and post-mordanting. However, the color difference between samples dyed with pomegranate peel by pre-mordanting and meta-mordanting methods is less compared to other pairs. Also, analysis of reflectance spectra and color depth (K/S) values indicate that the color depth of dyed sample with madder by pre-mordanting method is more than other dyeing methods. But, the color depth of sample dyed with pomegranate peel by post-mordanting method is less compared to other methods. The analysis of first-, second-, third- and fourth-order derivatives of reflectance spectra and the study of the first, second, third and fourth PCs of reflectance spectra indicate that the reflectance of dyed samples with madder and pomegranates peel depends on the mordanting method. Originality/value Evaluation of the effect of mordanting method on color and reflectance of wool dyed with madder and pomegranates peel natural dyes using derivative spectroscopy and the PCA techniques
Chun-Mei Kai, Feng-Jun Zhang, Cong-Liang Cheng, Qian-Bao Chen
Published: 23 August 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-10-2020-0111

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of different factors on mud performance, find the best conditions and synthesize a new type of anti-collapse drilling polymer mud with higher stability. The anti-collapse mechanism of drilling polymer mud was also suggested. Design/methodology/approach Exploring the influence of different molecular weight thickeners, filtrate reducers, soda ash addition and film-forming components on the mud performance, so as to obtain the best ratio of anti-collapse drilling polymer mud. Findings The results show that the use of vegetable glue, sulfonate copolymer and vegetable fiber powder can synthesize a high-viscosity, high-stability, collapse-resistant mud. When the mass ratio of vegetable fiber powder: vegetable glue: sulfonate copolymer is 40:1:2, the mud viscosity is 21.2 s, the fluid loss in 30 min is only 12.5 mL, and the mud film thickness is 1.5 mm, which is one ideal anti-collapse polymer mud. Originality/value Compared with ordinary polymer mud and bentonite mud, this anti-collapse polymer mud not only uses vegetable glue instead of traditional tackifiers but also effectively uses vegetable fiber powder produced from waste wood, which is environmentally friendly and highly stable specialty. It can effectively improve the safety and quality of construction during drilling in water-sensitive geology.
Mohamad Bekhit, Essam Fahim, Asmaa Sobhy
Published: 23 August 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-05-2021-0047

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to fall light on the possibility of using the biopolymer chitosan in gamma dose monitoring. Design/methodology/approach The chitosan films were irradiated to gamma rays in the range starting from 10 to 120 kGy at a dose rate of 1.4 kGy/h using 60Co gamma source. The ultra violet and visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry were used to examine the optical properties of chitosan film. Also, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was used to detect and trace any change in structural bands that may take place upon irradiation. Findings Increase in optical density of the chitosan film was recorded at 298 nm that correlated with increasing in the absorbed doses. Change in color of the film from pale yellow to denser yellow was detected upon increasing the absorbed doses. The close investigation for UV/Vis and FTIR analysis nominates the chitosan film to be used as a label-dosimeter in the range of 10–120 kGy depending on chitosan concentrations. The chitosan film has an excellent stability in different environmental conditions with ±3.7% uncertainty in measurements (2σ, approximately equal to a 95% confidence level). Research limitations/implications Chitosan film may be used as a medium and high-dose monitor with an acceptable overall uncertainty in routine radiation processing Originality/value The useful dose range from 10 to 80 kGy was detected for different concentrations of chitosan (0.5, 1, 1.5 Wt%) that correlated with increasing the absorbed dose, which is assigned to the linear parts in the target response curves. For the dose range 10–120 kGy, the film may be used as label dosimeter with detected color change from pale yellow to dense yellow.
Ufuk Yılmaz, Ahmet Tutus, Sinan Sönmez
Published: 19 August 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-03-2021-0032

Abstract:
Purpose This study aims to examine the colour changes affecting inkjet prints after the recycling of papers. Design/methodology/approach For recycling, papers prepared with the INGEDE 11p standard are recycled four times. Pulping, storage, flotation, beating and bleaching processes are applied for each recycling, respectively. Inkjet prints are made on the obtained test papers, and colour measurements are made using an X-Rite eXact spectrophotometer according to the ISO 13655:2017 standard. These processes are applied again to the papers which are recycled four times, and the results are analyzed. In addition, the values of ΔE 00 ′, ΔL′, ΔH ′ and ΔC′ are calculated according to ISO 11664-6:2014 standard by making some calculations according to obtained the L′a′b′ values. Findings It is determined that the ΔE 00 value increases after each recycling in cyan magenta and yellow colour, whereas it decreases in black. The highest ΔE 00 value is calculated after the fourth recycling stage is yellow with a value of 8.33. The lowest ΔE 00 value detected is black with a value of 0.76 after the fourth recycling stage. This paper observes that the colour with the most variation in hue angle among recycling repetitions is black and the colour with the highest hue angle value is yellow. It is seen that repeating recycling causes increase in the chromatic values of the prints. Originality/value After the fourth recycling stage, colour changes have reached an important point and can cause important printing problems. In this case, the customer’s approval must be obtained to continue printing. This case is valid for ΔE 00 values. Colour differences for print contrast, trapping and print chroma values are either not very important or are positive for quality.
Hanieh Shaki
Published: 19 August 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-01-2021-0002

Abstract:
Purpose In this work, A new 4–(2-aminoethylene) amino-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,8-naphthalimide with intense green fluorescent was synthesized. This low molecular weight compound was immobilized by forming a covalent-bond with an acrylonitrile polymer containing carboxylic acid groups. The new prepared dye and self-coloured polymer were characterized by analytical techniques. Design/methodology/approach The synthesized compounds were characterized by TLC, DSC, FTIR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, GPC, UV–visible and Fluorometery. The photophysical characteristics of the dye and polymer containing naphthalimide moiety in the side chain, were measured both in the absence and in the presence of Ag+, Cd+2, Co+2, Cr+3, Cu+2, Fe+3, Hg+2, Ni+2, Pb+2 and Zn+2 cations. Findings The results showed that the characterization of the synthesized dye and its polymer verified their structural correctness. It is shown that dye and polymer are photo-induced electron transfer (PET) fluorescent sensors which exhibit fluorescence quenching in the presence of metal ions. Among the various metal ions, both dye and polymer are more sensitive to Fe+3 cations. Originality/value This study is original. A 4–(2-aminoethylene) amino-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,8-naphthalimide and its self-coloured polymer were synthesized for the first time, successfully.
Maryam Sadat Seyedi, Mahmoud Reza Sohrabi, Fereshteh Motiee, Saeid Mortazavinik
Published: 18 August 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-03-2021-0025

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze nano zero-valent iron (nZVI)-activated carbon/Nickel (nZVI-AC/Ni) by a novel method. The synthesized adsorbent was used to degrade reactive orange 16 (RO 16) azo dye. Design/methodology/approach The optimum conditions for the highest removal of RO 16 dye were determined. Characterization of nZVI-AC/Ni was done by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The nZVI-AC/Ni were used for the removal of dye RO 16 and the parameters affecting were discussed such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and concentration of dye. To investigate the variables and interaction between them, an analysis of variance test was performed. Findings The characterization results show that the synthesis of nZVI-AC/Ni caused no aggregation of nanoparticles. The maximum dye removal efficiency of 99.45% occurred at pH 4, the adsorbent dosage = 0.1 gL-1 and the dye concentration of 10 mgL-1. Among various algorithms of feed-forward backpropagation neural network, Levenberg–Marquardt with mean square error (MSE) = 9.86 × 10–22 in layer = 5 and the number of neurons = 9 was selected as the best algorithm. On the other hand, the MSE of the radial basis function model was 0.2159 indicating the good ability of the model to predict the percentage of dye removal. Originality/value There are two main innovations. One is that the novel nZVI-AC/Ni was prepared successfully. The other is that the optimized conditions were obtained for the removal of RO 16 dye from an aqueous solution. Furthermore, to the best of the knowledge, no study has ever investigated the removal of RO 16 by nZVI-AC/Ni produced.
Emad S. Shafik, Azza A. Ward, Adel Farid Younan
Published: 17 August 2021
Pigment & Resin Technology; https://doi.org/10.1108/prt-11-2020-0119

Abstract:
Purpose This study aims to develop a biodegradable linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)/starch blends with improved mechanical and flow characteristics and evaluate the probability of using essential oils such as Moringa oleifira and castor oils as green plasticizers and compatibilizers to avoid using harmful chemicals. Design/methodology/approach Corn starch was blended with LLDPE through the melt blending technique. The corn starch content was varied from 5 to 40 phr in LLDPE. To enhance poor mechanical characteristic of the LLDPE/starch, essential oils such as M. oleifira and castor oils were incorporated into the composites with different concentrations starting from 1 to 7 phr. The essential oils’ effect on mechanical, flow character, thermal stability and electrical properties of the LLDPE/starch was also investigated. The morphology of LLDPE/starch containing essential oils was also investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Findings The results revealed that increasing the corn starch content had an adverse effect on mechanical and flow characteristics of the composites, whereas incorporation of essential oils had increased the flow and mechanical characteristics of the composites. Also, dielectric measurements revealed that permittivity and dielectric loss increased by increasing oil content. Moreover, the values of the blends containing castor oil are higher compared to that containing M. oleifira. The SEM micrographs illustrated that the presence of essential oils in LLDPE/starch enhanced the distribution and the homogeneity of the composites, and the particle size of starch granules became smaller in LLDPE matrix. Originality/value This study aims to introduce green plasticizer and compatibilizer to avoid using harmful chemicals in packaging industry.
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