Scientific Journal of Animal Science

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EISSN : 2322-1704
Published by: Academic World Research (10.14196)
Total articles ≅ 13
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Olumuyiwa Joseph Olarotimi, Oluwasegun Emmanuel Ibidiran, Imoleayo Sarah Oladeji, Francis Ayodeji Gbore
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 539-545; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i11.2565

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varied levels of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on acetylcholinesterase, specific acetylcholinesterase and total protein concentrations in the brain regions of chicken cocks. Three hundred cocks of 5 months old were used for the trial and they were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments: A, B, C, D, E and F containing 0.00 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 g MSG/kg diet respectively. Two birds were housed per cell in the cage for the feeding trial in a completely randomised designed and the experiment lasted 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three cocks/replicate were sacrificed and brain dissected into different regions. The different regions of the brain studied were medulla oblongata, olfactory lobe, optic lobe and cerebellum. Samples were collected from these regions and homogenised to determine acetylcholinesterase, specific acetylcholinesterase and total protein concentrations. Result showed that the acetylcholinesterase activity in the olfactory lobe and pineal gland brain regions were not significantly (P≥0.05) influenced by the dietary MSG among the treatments when compared with the control diet. The cerebellum and medulla oblongata were only significantly (p<0.05) influenced when fed above 0.50 g MSG/kg diet while optic lobe was significantly (p<0.05) influenced at an inclusion level above 0.75 g MSG/kg diet. The total protein concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) higher in olfactory lobe and cerebellum of the brain regions of cocks fed 0.25 and 0.50 g MSG/kg and control diet than those fed other diets. Total protein concentration in the pineal gland and optic lobe regions of the brain in cocks fed the control diet were not significantly (P≥0.05) different among the treatment diets. This study suggests that dietary MSG above 0.50 g/kg diet increased the activities of acetylcholinesterase concentration in the optic lobe, cerebellum, pineal gland, medulla oblongata and reduced the total protein in the olfactory lobe, cerebellum and medulla oblongata regions of the brain with tendency to impair brain function.
Thandolwethu Nyathi
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 533-538; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i9.2566

Abstract:
Gametogenesis is a fundamental aspect in sexual reproduction. Successful gametogenesis transcends to high fertility in any breeding herd when all other production factors are held optimum. The interaction amongst gametogenesis, embryogenesis, antioxidants and oxidative stress should be considered a key component of livestock fertility which has the potential to improve efficiency. This discussion looks at the influence of antioxidants and oxidative stress on gametogenesis, embryogenesis and livestock fertility in broad. Any disorders during gametogenesis and embryogenesis result in reduced fertility in livestock. Infertility is one of the major bottlenecks hampering livestock production. Livestock fertility is a multi-factorial trait as its decline is attributed to physiological, genetic, and environmental as well as husbandry factors. Furthermore, the discussion will spell out how antioxidants can be exploited as a remedy to tackle negative effects of reactive oxygen species in in vivo.
Rebekah P. Jensen, Todd F. Robinson
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 520-532; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i7.2547

Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a low metabolizable energy (LME) and high metabolizable energy (HME) diet on twenty-two Friesian ewes, milk production and nutritional status and their lambs. On day 100 of gestation, ewes were divided into metabolizable energy (ME) groups and fed alfalfa hay and rolled corn that provided either 80% low metabolizable energy (LME) or 140% high metabolizable energy (HME) of recommended ME requirement based on published NRC (2007) values for 70 kg ewes carrying twins, nursing twins and producing 1.5 to 2.9 kg milk/day. Treatment period was from day -42 of gestation (approximately six weeks) to six weeks post parturition. Lamb treatments included nursing from ewes on HME, LME and lambs artificially reared (AR) on goat’s milk. Body weight and backfat (BF) were measured weekly for each ewe and BW weekly for lambs. Blood samples were collected weekly from ewes during the experiment and from neonatal lambs. Blood glucose, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), creatinine, total protein (TPP) and triglycerides were analyzed to assess the nutritional status of both ewes and lambs. Weekly milk samples for each ewe were analyzed for butter fat, protein, lactose, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), somatic cell count (SCC), and solids-not-fat (SNF). Ewe body weight was not different between treatments. There were differences in BF with the HME group having more BF than the LME group. Ewe blood glucose, PUN, and TPP were significant for week. Milk fat (MF) percentage, daily fat produced, and lactose were affected by energy treatment. The LME group displayed both higher MF percentages and daily fat in milk while the HME group had higher concentrations of milk protein and lactose percentages. Lamb weight showed weekly and treatment affects for HME, LME and AR) with the HME group weighing the most by the end of the experiment. Concentrations of plasma glucose, PUN, and creatinine resulted in differences with the HME group having the highest concentration of each component. Our results indicate that perinatal nutrition effects both the ewe and lamb as well as milk production. Because of the lower energy intake of the LME group, we see that nutrient partitioning occurs enabling the ewe to allocate energy towards growth of the fetus and to produce enough milk to sustain growth of the lamb post placental drop. This partitioning of energy came at the expense of body condition for the LME group, and to a lesser extent to the HME group, in order to produce adequate milk for the offspring.
Maria Kikelomo Adegun, Samuel Oladipo Kolawole Fajemilehin
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 511-519; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i5.2520

Abstract:
Consumption of animal protein in Nigeria is far less than recommended level for adequate growth and development in humans. There is the need to beef up livestock production, especially in the sub humid zone through intensive system using bigger breeds for improved nutritional status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and the carcass characteristics of Yankasa rams fed Panicum maximum fodder supplemented with concentrate mix under intensive feedlot. Twenty yearling Yankasa rams of an average body weight of 21.33+0.50 kg were randomly assigned into five treatment groups with four animals per group in a randomized completely block design (RCBD) after being quarantined for 30 days. The experimental diets consisted of Panicum maximum fodder as the basal diet at 3% body weight of the rams. Concentrate diet was formulated using maize (25.00%), brewers dried grains (40.50%), moringa leaf meal (16.00%), urea (2.70%), rice husk (14.50%), vitamin-mineral premix (1.00%) and common salt (0.30%). The concentrate mix served as the supplement to and replaced the basal diet at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% body weight of the rams respectively in treatment 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. The amount of feed offered was adjusted weekly based on average body weight from the preceding week. The dry matter, crude protein (CP) constituents and the gross energy (GE) value of concentrate were higher than that of the forage. However, the crude fibre (CF) of forage was greater than the CF of concentrate mix. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences among the means of the feed intake in the treatments. The average daily weight gain and metabolic weight gains increased significantly (p<0.05) with increased supplements. Significantly (p<0.05) higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded for rams in T1 (24.07±1.12) while T5 had lowest value (8.35±0.80). Carcass yield was increased with increasing level of supplementation while integrity of the relative organs characteristics were maintained. The best result was obtained when Yankasa rams were fed with 2% concentrate mix as percentage body weight of the rams. Supplementing Panicum maximum with varied levels of concentrate mix resulted in improved rams’ productivity.
, Tekalign Tadesse, Lemma Fita, Ulfina Galmessa
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 504-510; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i5.2500

Abstract:
This study was conducted in Gimbi district, West Wollega zone to understand the traditional handling, processing and utilization of milk and milk products. 128 households were selected based on ownership of dairy cows, milk processing, handling, and utilization practice. Accordingly, Lantana trifolia (Kusaayee), Ocimum sanctum (Basoobilaa), Olea Africana (Qoraasuma) and Deinboll (Dabaqqa) were the most commonly cleaning and smoking plant species in the district. Yoghurt-like fermented/sour milk, traditional butter, traditional ghee, cottage cheese (Ayib), buttermilk and whey were the major milk products produced in the district. Women preserve butter by mixing with spices such as Zingiber officinale (Jinjibila), Allium sativum (Qulubbii adii), Ocimum (Siqaqibee) and Trigonella foenum (Sunqoo). Out of the total daily milk produced, most of it was processed (70.5%), 8% was sold while the left was consumed within the household (21.5%). Among milk and milk products produced, only butter was supplied to local markets. Lack of cooling facilities; low volume of milk production; unimproved milk processing materials and limited knowledge on handling and processing of milk and milk products were the major constraints. Recognizing the importance milk and milk products to the producing household nutrition, health and income, development interventions are required to boost production, improve the quality of the products and efficiency of the traditional milk processing equipment.
Never Assan
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 486-492; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i3.2511

Abstract:
Several random and nonrandom factors influence post-weaning growth and mortality in rabbits. The rabbit productivity is greatly influenced by post-weaning kits growth potential and the number that survives up to market. There is a definite important association between litter size and post-weaning growth, which can be manipulated to enhance rabbit production and profitability. In this respect maintaining an economically optimum average litter size, which promote post-weaning growth is critical. It is generally pronounced that genetic improvement will improve litter size, however, aided by provision of adequate nutrition and management translate to optimal degree of maximal profitability of rabbit enterprise. Post-weaning mortality has been associated with below average pre-weaning weights that are likely to adversely depress feed consumption, poor growth and compromised immune system. Reduced mortality and enhanced growth rates calls for improved nutrition and other management practices, in addition to the exploitation of crossbred livability and viability in rabbit production. Both selection and crossbreeding have played major roles in improving post-weaning growth in rabbits. Growth traits are moderately to highly heritable as a result selection of heavier kits on post-weaning growth could result in improving the character. The purpose of this review is to discuss the factors that affect post-weaning growth and mortality in rabbits.
Never Assan
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 493-503; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i3.2521

Abstract:
Previously, before their restriction and/or ban, sub-therapeutic antibiotic growth promoters had been extensively used to improve growth rate and efficiency of feed utilization, in addition to curtailing morbidity and mortality in rabbit production. Due to the public health risk associated with the irrational and irresponsible use of low and sub-therapeutic prescription of antibiotics in food animals have raised great concern. For the last few years the focal point of various nutritional studies has aimed at searching for safe, natural and ecological products to eliminate the use of antibiotics in rabbit nutrition. The argument is that the use of sub-therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in food animals has increased the transmission and the proliferation of resistant bacteria via the food chain hence their adverse effect on human health and environment. The aftermath is the heightened advancement of resistance of diversified pathogenic microbial populations, especially bacteria against more antibiotics that are ultimately missing for the therapy in human medicine. In response to the elimination of antibiotics as growth promoters’ rabbit nutritional studies have refocused on finding alternative organic compounds (natural) feed additives to replace the sub-therapeutic antimicrobial drugs. Testing of herbs, spices and other extracts (botanicals) as alternative feed additives have shown their effectiveness as appetizers, digestive and physiological stimulants, colorants, antioxidants, and for the prevention and treatment of certain pathological conditions. In this regard, use of a wide range of phytogenic feed additives in rabbit nutrition has recently become a common management practice, since plant based feed additives have demonstrated to productively enhance rabbit growth performance, improve animal oxidative status, prevention and treatment of certain pathological conditions and acting as rabbit product quality enhancers. This has confirmed that plant based feed additives can be bestowed as a conceivable option to enhance a variety of critical processes in food animal physiology without adverse effects on human health and environment. Plant based feed additives may comprise among supplements that could positively influence feed quality, improve animal health besides animal products decidedly of their categorically efficacious elements. This is on the backdrop that food safety and identifiable high quality animal products are recommended to sustain consumer confidence and consumption. The present review attempt to assess the prospects of phytogenic feed additives as a major solution to an antibiotic free nutritional programs and feeding patterns in rabbit production.
Never Assan
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 459-470; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i1.2461

Abstract:
This review looks at the effects of nutrition on carcass traits and meat quality properties in rabbits. Nutrition is a dominant integral part of a rabbit production enterprise that if appropriately modified will impart acceptable carcass and meat quality attributes sort in new demand market. This implies that feeding an appropriate diet to rabbits is the single most critical component in improving carcass traits and meat quality properties in a rabbit enterprise. Rabbits are instinctively unique in the sense that they have exhibited a relatively pronounced universal taste for common local feedstuffs composed to a greater extent of roughage and agricultural by-products. The utilization of dietary nutrient sources by rabbits is reliant on a variety of complementary determinants that include not only specific energy and protein sources but also intake and digestibility. The high pro health nutritional value and acceptable sensory attributes of rabbit meat have advanced its consumption in several countries and its gaining popularity. Today, when consumer demand for meat are inclined towards consumption of low fat, low calorie and positive healthy meats, new meat sources such as rabbits are increasing their share in the meat markets. Carcass traits and meat quality have shown to positively respond to different dietary nutritional levels and sources in rabbit production. Suitable nutrition regime would improve slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight, dressing percentage and the proportion of valuable giblets. Rabbit fed local unconventional feedstuffs can produce meat with similar or greater amounts of claimable polyunsaturated acids than feeding systems based on feedlot pellets alone. Dietary fats inclusion levels and their sources are important in expressing demanded carcass and meat quality properties, especially on influencing the type of fatty acid composition in meat. Feeding strategies through manipulation of dietary factors should endeavor at increasing the scope of unsaturated fatty acids, while decreasing the portion of objectionable saturated fatty acids promoting pro health value. Future rabbit nutritional research should shift from focusing on promoting quantity to enhancement of quality in response to the new demand market for healthy food in addition to promoting nutritional value and acceptable sensory properties. Heterogeneity in alternative energy and protein sources and their potential replacement value of alternative feedstuff in rabbits’ diets should be the targeted outcome from the nutritional research in rabbit meat production.
Jenias Ndava, Blessing Timba, Christopher Gadzirayi
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 479-485; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i1.2487

Abstract:
Calliandra calothyrsus (Meissner) is a multipurpose forage tree that can improve the nutrition of livestock due to its high crude protein content. However, the shrub has low digestibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of graded levels of urea treatment on nutrient composition and in-vitro digestibility of C. calothyrsus leaves. Mature leaves of C. calothyrsus were hand harvested in the first week of August 2016, after the flowering stage. They were air dried under the shed for five days in order to maintain the green colour of the leaves. They were then treated with 0% (control), 3%, 5% and 7% urea solutions for four weeks under anaerobic conditions. Some of the air dried samples were ground and analysed for nutrient composition, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), dry matter (DM) and ash. There was an increase in CP following increase in the level of urea treatment from 210 to 320g/kg DM. A decrease was noted in fibre content with increasing level of urea treatment. Digestibility trial was conducted using the Tilley and Terry two stage method. In-vitro dry matter digestibility increased significantly at (p<0.05) with increase in urea treatment noted from 439.7-530.7g/kg DM. The results show the effectiveness of urea treatment in increasing the crude protein and in-vitro digestibility of C. calothyrsus.
Never Assan
Scientific Journal of Animal Science, Volume 7, pp 471-478; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v7i1.2491

Abstract:
Rabbit milk yield and chemical composition is determined by various factors. Growth rate and body weight gain are good indicators of kitsdoe’s maternal behavior, especially in milk production. Generally, it is pronounced that growth and survival of kits towards weaning is the most important stage related to does milking potential. However, it is important to note that lactation curves vary with breed, notwithstanding milk production being influenced by various factors. Clearly, it has been observed that apart from genotype being a dominant factor in influencing milk production in rabbits, there are other factors such as nutrition, parity, stage of lactation, litter size etc. which have also been implicated. In this aspect, appropriate knowledge on factors that influence does milking capacity is essential for improved performance in rabbits. Provision of adequate nutritional requirements of nursed kits through dam’s milk is essential for maximum growth, development and survival. In the early stage of growth until weaning, does milk is the exclusive source of nutrients to support the pertinent needs for maintenance and growth in rabbits. The accelerated growth preceding weaning can be ascribed to the doe’s energy rich milk that is significant in both fat and protein and low lactose. An increase in milk intake, can improve kits growth traits and may also transcribe to heavier final market weight and financial gains. It is reasonable to suggest that to enhance kits nutritional intake, the mother should produce adequate milk. On the other hand, milk production increases with increased litter size, while high total milk yield is registered in winter followed by autumn. Milk production increase firmly during the seven parity and decline from that time forward. Crossbreeding promote favorable and positive heterotic influence on milk yield and composition. There is a predictable positive correlation of does milking capacity and productive traits. The purpose of this review is to discuss the factors that influence milk production in does and their implication for rabbit performance.
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