ISSN / EISSN : 2095-4700 / 2095-6231
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1038)
Total articles ≅ 291
Latest articles in this journal
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00157-x
High erythropoietin (Epo) levels are detrimental to bone health in adult organisms. Adult mice receiving high doses of Epo lose bone mass due to suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption. In humans, high serum Epo levels are linked to fractures in elderly men. Our earlier studies indicated that Epo modulates osteoblast activity; however, direct evidence that Epo acts via its receptor (EpoR) on osteoblasts in vivo is still missing. Here, we created mice lacking EpoR in osteoprogenitor cells to specifically address this gap. Deletion of EpoR in osteoprogenitors (EpoR:Osx-cre, cKO) starting at 5 weeks of age did not alter red blood cell parameters but increased vertebral bone volume by 25% in 12-week-old female mice. This was associated with low bone turnover. Histological (osteoblast number, bone formation rate) and serum (P1NP, osteocalcin) bone formation parameters were all reduced, as were the number of osteoclasts and TRAP serum level. Differentiation of osteoblast precursors isolated from cKO versus control mice resulted in lower expression of osteoblast marker genes including Runx2, Alp, and Col1a1 on day 21, whereas the mineralization capacity was similar. Moreover, the RANKL/OPG ratio, which determines the osteoclast-supporting potential of osteoblasts, was substantially decreased by 50%. Similarly, coculturing cKO osteoblasts with control or cKO osteoclast precursors produced significantly fewer osteoclasts than coculture with control osteoblasts. Finally, exposing female mice to Epo pumps (10 U·d−1) for 4 weeks resulted in trabecular bone loss (−25%) and increased osteoclast numbers (1.7-fold) in control mice only, not in cKO mice. Our data show that EpoR in osteoprogenitors is essential in regulating osteoblast function and osteoblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis via the RANKL/OPG axis. Thus, osteogenic Epo/EpoR signaling controls bone mass maintenance and contributes to Epo-induced bone loss.
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00164-y
Emerging insights into cellular senescence highlight the relevance of senescence in musculoskeletal disorders, which represent the leading global cause of disability. Cellular senescence was initially described by Hayflick et al. in 1961 as an irreversible nondividing state in in vitro cell culture studies. We now know that cellular senescence can occur in vivo in response to various stressors as a heterogeneous and tissue-specific cell state with a secretome phenotype acquired after the initial growth arrest. In the past two decades, compelling evidence from preclinical models and human data show an accumulation of senescent cells in many components of the musculoskeletal system. Cellular senescence is therefore a defining feature of age-related musculoskeletal disorders, and targeted elimination of these cells has emerged recently as a promising therapeutic approach to ameliorate tissue damage and promote repair and regeneration of the skeleton and skeletal muscles. In this review, we summarize evidence of the role of senescent cells in the maintenance of bone homeostasis during childhood and their contribution to the pathogenesis of chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and sarcopenia. We highlight the diversity of the senescent cells in the microenvironment of bone, joint, and skeletal muscle tissue, as well as the mechanisms by which these senescent cells are involved in musculoskeletal diseases. In addition, we discuss how identifying and targeting senescent cells might positively affect pathologic progression and musculoskeletal system regeneration.
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00159-9
Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption not only promotes obesity and insulin resistance, but also causes bone loss through mechanisms that are not well understood. Here, we fed wild-type CD-1 mice either chow or a HFD (43% of energy from fat) for 18 weeks; HFD-fed mice exhibited decreased trabecular volume (−28%) and cortical thickness (−14%) compared to chow-fed mice. In HFD-fed mice, bone loss was due to reduced bone formation and mineral apposition, without obvious effects on bone resorption. HFD feeding also increased skeletal expression of sclerostin and caused deterioration of the osteocyte lacunocanalicular network (LCN). In mice fed HFD, skeletal glucocorticoid signaling was activated relative to chow-fed mice, independent of serum corticosterone concentrations. We therefore examined whether skeletal glucocorticoid signaling was necessary for HFD-induced bone loss, using transgenic mice lacking glucocorticoid signaling in osteoblasts and osteocytes (HSD2OB/OCY-tg mice). In HSD2OB/OCY-tg mice, bone formation and mineral apposition rates were not suppressed by HFD, and bone loss was significantly attenuated. Interestingly, in HSD2OB/OCY-tg mice fed HFD, both Wnt signaling (less sclerostin induction, increased β-catenin expression) and glucose uptake were significantly increased, relative to diet- and genotype-matched controls. The osteocyte LCN remained intact in HFD-fed HSD2OB/OCY-tg mice. When fed a HFD, HSD2OB/OCY-tg mice also increased their energy expenditure and were protected against obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, glucocorticoid signaling in osteoblasts and osteocytes contributes to the suppression of bone formation in HFD-fed mice. Skeletal glucocorticoid signaling is also an important determinant of glucose uptake in bone, which influences the whole-body metabolic response to HFD.
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00156-y
Back pain is a common condition with a high social impact and represents a global health burden. Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is one of the major causes of back pain; no therapeutics are currently available to reverse this disease. The impact of bone mineral density (BMD) on IVDD has been controversial, with some studies suggesting osteoporosis as causative for IVDD and others suggesting it as protective for IVDD. Functional studies to evaluate the influence of genetic components of BMD in IVDD could highlight opportunities for drug development and repurposing. By taking a holistic 3D approach, we established an aging zebrafish model for spontaneous IVDD. Increased BMD in aging, detected by automated computational analysis, is caused by bone deformities at the endplates. However, aged zebrafish spines showed changes in bone morphology, microstructure, mineral heterogeneity, and increased fragility that resembled osteoporosis. Elements of the discs recapitulated IVDD symptoms found in humans: the intervertebral ligament (equivalent to the annulus fibrosus) showed disorganized collagen fibers and herniation, while the disc center (nucleus pulposus equivalent) showed dehydration and cellular abnormalities. We manipulated BMD in young zebrafish by mutating sp7 and cathepsin K, leading to low and high BMD, respectively. Remarkably, we detected IVDD in both groups, demonstrating that low BMD does not protect against IVDD, and we found a strong correlation between high BMD and IVDD. Deep learning was applied to high-resolution synchrotron µCT image data to analyze osteocyte 3D lacunar distribution and morphology, revealing a role of sp7 in controlling the osteocyte lacunar 3D profile. Our findings suggest potential avenues through which bone quality can be targeted to identify beneficial therapeutics for IVDD.
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00153-1
Glucose metabolism is fundamental for the functions of all tissues, including cartilage. Despite the emerging evidence related to glucose metabolism in the regulation of prenatal cartilage development, little is known about the role of glucose metabolism and its biochemical basis in postnatal cartilage growth and homeostasis. We show here that genetic deletion of the glucose transporter Glut1 in postnatal cartilage impairs cell proliferation and matrix production in growth plate (GPs) but paradoxically increases cartilage remnants in the metaphysis, resulting in shortening of long bones. On the other hand, articular cartilage (AC) with Glut1 deficiency presents diminished cellularity and loss of proteoglycans, which ultimately progress to cartilage fibrosis. Moreover, predisposition to Glut1 deficiency severely exacerbates injury-induced osteoarthritis. Regardless of the disparities in glucose metabolism between GP and AC chondrocytes under normal conditions, both types of chondrocytes demonstrate metabolic plasticity to enhance glutamine utilization and oxidation in the absence of glucose availability. However, uncontrolled glutamine flux causes collagen overmodification, thus affecting extracellular matrix remodeling in both cartilage compartments. These results uncover the pivotal and distinct roles of Glut1-mediated glucose metabolism in two of the postnatal cartilage compartments and link some cartilage abnormalities to altered glucose/glutamine metabolism.
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00163-z
A comprehensive understanding of the cellular heterogeneity and molecular mechanisms underlying the development, homeostasis, and disease of human intervertebral disks (IVDs) remains challenging. Here, the transcriptomic landscape of 108 108 IVD cells was mapped using single-cell RNA sequencing of three main compartments from young and adult healthy IVDs, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus, and cartilage endplate (CEP). The chondrocyte subclusters were classified based on their potential regulatory, homeostatic, and effector functions in extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. Notably, in the NP, a PROCR+ resident progenitor population showed enriched colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) activity and trilineage differentiation capacity. Finally, intercellular crosstalk based on signaling network analysis uncovered that the PDGF and TGF-β cascades are important cues in the NP microenvironment. In conclusion, a single-cell transcriptomic atlas that resolves spatially regulated cellular heterogeneity together with the critical signaling that underlies homeostasis will help to establish new therapeutic strategies for IVD degeneration in the clinic.
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00154-0
Bone-produced fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increases in response to inflammation and iron deficiency and contributes to cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL or lipocalin 2; LCN2 the murine homolog) is a pro-inflammatory and iron-shuttling molecule that is secreted in response to kidney injury and may promote CKD progression. We investigated bone FGF23 regulation by circulating LCN2. At 23 weeks, Col4a3KO mice showed impaired kidney function, increased levels of kidney and serum LCN2, increased bone and serum FGF23, anemia, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Deletion of Lcn2 in CKD mice did not improve kidney function or anemia but prevented the development of LVH and improved survival in association with marked reductions in serum FGF23. Lcn2 deletion specifically prevented FGF23 elevations in response to inflammation, but not iron deficiency or phosphate, and administration of LCN2 increased serum FGF23 in healthy and CKD mice by stimulating Fgf23 transcription via activation of cAMP-mediated signaling in bone cells. These results show that kidney-produced LCN2 is an important mediator of increased FGF23 production by bone in response to inflammation and in CKD. LCN2 inhibition might represent a potential therapeutic approach to lower FGF23 and improve outcomes in CKD.
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00155-z
Skeletal interoception regulates bone homeostasis through the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in bone. Vertebral endplates undergo ossification and become highly porous during intervertebral disc degeneration and aging. We found that the PGE2 concentration was elevated in porous endplates to generate spinal pain. Importantly, treatment with a high-dose cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor (celecoxib, 80 mg·kg−1 per day) decreased the prostaglandin E2 concentration and attenuated spinal pain in mice with lumbar spine instability. However, this treatment impaired bone formation in porous endplates, and spinal pain recurred after discontinuing the treatment. Interestingly, low-dose celecoxib (20 mg·kg−1 per day, which is equivalent to one-quarter of the clinical maximum dosage) induced a latent inhibition of spinal pain at 3 weeks post-treatment, which persisted even after discontinuing treatment. Furthermore, when the prostaglandin E2 concentration was maintained at the physiological level with low-dose celecoxib, endplate porosity was reduced significantly, which was associated with decreased sensory nerve innervation and spinal pain. These findings suggest that low-dose celecoxib may help to maintain skeletal interoception and decrease vertebral endplate porosity, thereby reducing sensory innervation and spinal pain in mice.
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00160-2
Bone Research, Volume 9, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00151-3
Osteoporosis is an osteolytic disorder commonly associated with excessive osteoclast formation. Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) is a key downstream effector of the Hippo signaling pathway; it was suggested to be involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis. However, the exact role of TAZ in osteoclasts has not yet been established. In this study, we demonstrated that global knockout and osteoclast-specific knockout of TAZ led to a low-bone mass phenotype due to elevated osteoclast formation, which was further evidenced by in vitro osteoclast formation assays. Moreover, the overexpression of TAZ inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, whereas silencing of TAZ reduced it. Mechanistically, TAZ bound to TGF-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and reciprocally inhibited NF-κB signaling, suppressing osteoclast differentiation. Collectively, our findings highlight an essential role of TAZ in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis in osteoporosis and its underlying mechanism.