Notulae Scientia Biologicae

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2067-3205 / 2067-3264
Published by: AcademicPres (EAP) Publishing House (10.15835)
Total articles ≅ 1,252
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Mohamad H. Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun, Qi Cheng
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 11085-11085; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13311085

Abstract:
Traditional medicinal plants contain various ranges of chemical contents and they have become popular because of effectiveness, frequently inadequate provision of modern medicine, preferences and cultural beliefs. Pomegranate belongs to the family of Punicaceae, and its various pharmacological activities are due to presence of wide range of bioactive compounds. The current searching was done by the keywords in main indexing systems including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Institute for Scientific Web of Science as well as the search engine of Google Scholar. The keywords were traditional medicine, health benefits, pharmaceutical science, pomegranate, punicalin, punicalagin, and ellagitannins. Major polyphenols in peel and juice of pomegranate are flavonoids such as flavonols (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin), condensed tannins, phenolic acids such as gallic, ellagic and caffeic, hyrolysable tannins such as ellagitannins and gallotannins. The main organic acids in pomegranate juice are malic and citric, and in seed is fatty acids (punicic). The major alkaloids and lignans in peel are punigratane and isolariciresinol, respectively. Pomegranate fruit has been proven to act against various diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease, male infertility, inflammation, coronary heart disease, and aging. The review summarizes the beneficial impacts of pomegranate which is recommended for consumption. Pomegranate is a high potential natural functional food due to its high pharmacological activities as an ancient efficacious natural drug.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 11087-11087; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13311087

Abstract:
Notulae Scientia Biologicae (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro), Issue 3, Volume 13, 2021: The papers published in this issue represent interesting novelties in different topics of life science. Among the exciting researches or reviews, we invite readers to find news about: Ethnopharmacological utility, traditional knowledge and phytochemistry of Aristolochia species in Assam, India; Pomegranate, fruit of the desert, a functional food, and a healthy diet; Vulvo-vaginal myiasis among rural women in West Bengal, India; Persistence, dissipation and health risk assessment of combi-product profenofos and cypermethrin in/on sapota under sub-tropical agro-climatic conditions in India; Efficacy of different human-elephant conflict prevention and mitigation techniques practiced in West Bengal, India; Diversity and distribution of Asian forest scorpions (Arthropoda, Scorpionidae, Heterometrinae) in Telangana State, India; Moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) diversity of Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India; Secondary metabolites of a marine-derived Penicillium ochrochloron etc.
Peter M. Eze, Ying Gao, Yang Liu, Lasse Van Geelen, Chika P. Ejikeugwu, Charles O. Esimone, Festus B. C. Okoye, Peter Proksch, Rainer Kalscheuer
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 11020-11020; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13311020

Abstract:
Extremophilic fungi have received considerable attention recently as new promising sources of biologically active compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications. This study investigated the secondary metabolites of a marine-derived Penicillium ochrochloron isolated from underwater sea sand collected from the North Sea in St. Peter-Ording, Germany. Standard techniques were used for fungal isolation, taxonomic identification, fermentation, extraction, and isolation of fungal secondary metabolites. Chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses of the fungal secondary metabolites yielded eight compounds: talumarin A (1), aspergillumarin A (2), andrastin A (3), clavatol (4), 3-acetylphenol (5), methyl 2,5-dihydro-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-3-phenyl-2-furanpropanoate (6), emodin (7) and 2-chloroemodin (8). After co-cultivation with Bacillus subtilis, the fungus was induced to express (-)-striatisporolide A (9). Compound 1 was evaluated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and M. tuberculosis, as well as cytotoxicity against THP-1 cells. The compound, however, was not cytotoxic to THP-1 cells and had no antibacterial activity against the microorganisms tested. The compounds isolated from P. ochrochloron in this study are well-known compounds with a wide range of beneficial biological properties that can be explored for pharmaceutical, agricultural, or industrial applications. This study highlights the bioprospecting potential of marine fungi and confirms co-cultivation as a useful strategy for the discovery of new natural products.
, Melike Aydogan, Mehmet Y. Paksoy
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 11034-11034; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13311034

Abstract:
In this study, phylogenetic analysis of Turkish Conringia (Brassicaceae) species was conducted based on nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrITS) and chloroplast DNA (trnL-F) sequences. In addition, the relationships between the sequences of some Brassicaceae family species retrieved from NCBI, and Conringia species were documented. All of the plant specimens were collected at their flowering and vegetation periods from different regions of Turkey, and brought to the laboratory. Total genomic DNA was extracted using the GeneMark kit. In PCR analyses, ITS4 and ITS5A primers were used for the amplification of the nrITS region, while the trnLe and trnLf primers were used for the cpDNA trnL-F region. The DNA sequences obtained were then edited using BioEdit and FinchTV, and analyzed using MEGA 6.0 software. Neighbor joining (NJ) and bootstrap trees were constructed in order to identify the relationships among Conringia taxa. The nrITS sequences ranged between 573 and 672 nucleotides, while the trnL-F sequences ranged between 346 and 764 nucleotides. The divergence values of nrITS sequences differed between 0.177 and 0.00 and divergence values of trnL-F sequences differed between 0.902 and 0.00. NJ tree generated using nrITS and trnL-F sequences consisted of two clades. In trees generated with both the nrITS and trnL-F sequences, C. orientalis, C. grandiflora and C. austriaca appeared within the same group. In addition, according to the phylogenetic analysis results obtained with other Brassicaceae species, it is revealed that the Conringia genus is polyphyletic.
Antonela Buican Stanciu, Mariana Ionescu, Sina Cosmulescu
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 11007-11007; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13311007

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to provide information on the phenology of urban spring season, of some species of ornamental trees and shrubs, in the light of climate changes occurred over the recent decades. Ten species of ornamental shrubs and trees cultivated in two areas of a town located in southwestern Romania were studied. It was found that the spring season phenology of the studied species is dependent on the climatic year, in recording differences between the number of days from November 1 and the beginning of each spring phenophase, both from one species to another and from one climatic year to another, and also from one area to another; the spring phenology starting earlier in the urban area regardless of the species and the climatic year. Higher temperatures, rising from one year to another, are speeding-up the onset and development of spring phenology, regardless of species, and the urban climate through the effect of urban heat island leads to even earlier onset of spring phenophases and shortening of the growing season, so that by phenological differences existing within the species from one climatic year to another and from one climatic zone to another, spring season phenology can be considered an indicator of temperature rise.
Nivedita Pattanaik, Aryjit Satapathy, Devi Priyadarshini
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10934-10934; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13310934

Abstract:
A preliminary checklist has been compiled to study the moth diversity of Bhubaneswar, Odisha, an eastern state of India. The present study has recorded a total of 154 species belonging to 129 genera and 19 families. The highest diversity of moths was recorded in the family Crambidae (48 species, 38 genera), followed by the families Erebidae (42 species, 37 genera), Geometridae (15 species, 12 genera), Noctuidae (13 species, 11 genera) and others. The study was conducted over a period of 18 months from May 2019 to October 2020. Here we present an illustrated checklist of 154 moth species from Bhubaneswar which improves our insight into the lesser-known lepidopterans from the state of Odisha. This shall further help us strengthen our knowledge about the importance of moths in our environment and contribute towards its conservation at large.
Kamal Ouled Taarabt, Rachida Ouaabou, Rachid Lahlali, Said Ennahli
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10975-10975; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13310975

Abstract:
Antimicrobial preservatives are widely added to health products to prevent microbial contamination. However, because of the risks attributed to several synthetic agents, manufacturers are searching for new natural agents. Therefore, this work investigated the different physicochemical characteristics of one of those natural ingredients, the essential oil (EO) of Moroccan thyme (Thymus satureioides C.) and its antimicrobial potential against five microbial strains. The physicochemical parameters (density, refractive index, optical rotation, miscibility, acid value, ester value, and flash point) were measured and the chemical composition was determined by GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using disc diffusion method and a macrodilution broth method. The EO yield was 1.01% compared to the dry matter. Fifty-two compounds were identified. The major compounds were thymol (28.66%), borneol (21.16%) and α- terpineol (12.33%). The disc diffusion method revealed that all the strains tested showed sensitivity to the EO at concentration of 1636 μg per disc. For the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMC), similar results were obtained for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (640 μg/mL), for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (960 μg/mL) and for Candida albicans (800 μg/mL) baring Aspergillus brasiliensis, which had 480 μg/mL and 640 μg/mL for the MIC and MMC, respectively.
Nadya Natasya, Tyniana Tera, Sava Savero, Nadine Swastika, Arli Aditya Parikesit
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 11021-11021; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13311021

Abstract:
Water, as one of the main sources of life, is an important aspect to public health and safety. Up until now there have been many concerns about water pollution especially in developing countries. Heavy polluted water that is not treated well could cause many concerning diseases that can lead to deaths. Contaminants that are of chemical, physical, and biological origins are commonly found in these water sources. Gram negative bacteria (GNB) have been seen to develop multiple drug and antibiotic resistance, causing more fatal infections. This has become a major concern of public health especially as it makes water treatment more challenging. Our study investigates human coagulation factor II that is responsible for blood clotting as a possible method for water treatment against GNB. By investigating the coagulation protein interaction with several bacterial lipopolysaccharides proteins and calculating the binding affinity of the interaction, the results show factor II has a lower binding affinity compared to previously studied factor VII. This shows possibilities of factor II to hydrolyse several gram-negative bacteria to act as a potential treatment against these GNBs.
Bagari Ramakrishna,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10977-10977; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13310977

Abstract:
Asian forest scorpions belong to the subfamily Heterometrinae and include some of the poorly known scorpion fauna in India in general and Telangana State in particular. The Asian forest scorpions occur in South Asia and Southeast Asia and are known from Pakistan in west to the Philippines in the east. There are 27 species of Asian forest scorpions belonging to seven genera Chersonesometrus, Deccanometrus, Gigantometrus, Heterometrus, Javanimetrus, Sahyadrimetrus and Srilankametrus known from India. These are the large-bodied scorpions that are subjected to killing and local collections. Information on their distribution and current taxonomy is not complete. We provide the updated taxonomy, description and distribution maps of four species of Asian forest scorpions known to occur in Telangana State, India.
Wei-Seng Ho, Wee-Hiang Eng, Kwong-Hung Ling
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10995-10995; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13310995

Abstract:
Chromosome count is the only direct way to determine the number of chromosomes of a species. This study is often considered trivial that seldom described and discussed in detail. Therefore, it is inevitable that the chromosome count protocol should be revised and revisited before it becomes obliterated. In the present study, we encountered challenges in obtaining a clear micrograph for the chromosome count of active mitotic cells of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser (Rubiaceae) root tips. Several obstacles were determined through micrograph observation, such as existing unwanted particles in cells, poor chromosome staining and chromosome clumping. To overcome these, root tip types, staining methodologies, squashing methods were among the factors assessed to obtain clear micrographs. The chromosome counts of N. cadamba under optimized procedure showed 2n = 44 chromosomes. We also apply digital technology in chromosome counts, such as online databases and graphic software that are open source and freely accessible to the public. Only basic laboratory equipment and chemicals were used throughout the study, thus making this study economical and applicable in a basic laboratory. The availability of online digital software and databases provide open-source platforms that will ease the efforts in chromosome count.
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