Notulae Scientia Biologicae

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ISSN / EISSN : 2067-3205 / 2067-3264
Total articles ≅ 976
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Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10926-10926; doi:10.15835/nsb13110926

Abstract:
Notulae Scientia Biologicae (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro), Issue 1, Volume 13, 2021: The papers published in this issue represent interesting novelties in different topics of life science. Among the exciting researches or reviews, we invite readers to find news about: Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Saponaria officinalis L.; The Spanish chamomile (Anacyclus pyrethrum) and pyrethrum (Tanacetum cineraiifolium): organic and natural pesticides and treasure of medicinal herbs; Prophylactic effect of the aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum on the behavior of Wistar rats exposed to mercury; Anti-ulcer property of methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis leaf extract in albino rats; Nesting tree selection by scattered heronry birds of drought prone Northern Bankura, West Bengal, India: preference of Phoenix sylvestris near wetland-associated habitats; Explants selection for in vitro propagation of Pachyrhizus erosus L.; Silene thymifolia Sibth. et Sm. (Caryophyllaceae) – A vulnerable species in Romania: Anatomical aspects of vegetative organs. Announcement: From Volume 13, Issue 1, 2021, Notulae Scientia Biologicae journal will use article numbers in place of the traditional method of continuous pagination through the volume. This step helps us to maintain a rapid, efficient production process by being able to define pagination as soon as a paper is accepted. For papers that use article numbers, the page number of full-text articles will start from 1 to the last page and the citation needs only to list the article number, consequently, instead of the classic style of the journal citation.
Segun S. Ojo, Adekunle O. Adeoye, Adeladun S. Ajala, Iyabo C. Oladipo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10873-10873; doi:10.15835/nsb13110873

Abstract:
Bread is a staple food in Nigeria and establishment of bakeries depend on the financial capacity and processing technique employed by processors. This has led to various breads in terms of nutrition and asepsis. In this study, three types of ready-to-eat bread were purchased from different bakery retail shops in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. The control sample was prepared in Food Science Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso. These samples were analyzed for proximate composition, bacterial and fungal contamination using standard microbial procedure (SMP) and disc diffusion method (DDM) for sensitivity test to investigate safety handling practices during production, distribution and anti-microbial effect on microbial contaminant. The results of microbial analysis are as follows: total viable count (1.1 x103 - 4.5x103) cfu/g, coliform count (0-1.9x103) cfu/g, and mold count (0.3x 105 -3.7x105) cfu/g. The percentage of organisms isolated were E. coli. 15%, B. subtilis and S. aureus 20%, P. aureginosa 10%, S. cerevisiae 15.77%, R. stolonifer 13.46%, Mucor spp. and A. niger 18.08%, and P. notatum 7.69%. The result of the proximate analysis was as follows: protein (9.13- 9.79%), crude fat (1.64-4.50%), ash (1.32-1.77%), crude fibre (0.10-0.23%), moisture content (27.22 -29.05%) and carbohydrate (55.89-59.40%). The most sensitive antimicrobial agent was gentamycin across treatment. The organisms restricted septrin, augmenting, and chloramphenicol completely. Bacillus subtilis has the highest zone of inhibition with the use of gentamycin.
Priyanka Mittal, Vineet Kumar, Anita Rani, S. M. Gokhale
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10836-10836; doi:10.15835/nsb13110836

Abstract:
Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a soybean seed serine protease inhibitor whose nutraceutical properties far exceed its anti-nutritional property arising from its trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activity. High BBI soybean genotypes are sought for the commercial preparation of this nutraceutical biomolecule while low BBI content in Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI)-free genetic background is desirable in soymeal manufacturing. In the present investigation, monoclonal antibody assay of 95 soybean genotypes revealed 11-fold genetic variation for BBI concentration. The study led to the identification of 3 very high (>20 mg/g defatted soy flour) and 5 very low BBI (< 4 mg/g defatted soy flour) soybean genotypes. Contribution of BBI to total trypsin inhibition activity ranged from 2.2 to 53.5% with average value of 11.6%. Genotypes with varying level of BBI raised consecutively for two years exhibited non-significant (p>0.05) effect of growing year on the trait. BBI content in BC3F2 derived KTI-free lines was at par with the recurrent parent. Low and high BBI content genotypes with diverse genetic background identified in the study may be exploited to develop mapping population to identify genomic regions underlying BBI in soybean.
Jorge O. Serrano, Asiel Villares, Francisco D. Manuel-Malamba, Jorge Martínez-Melo, Carlos Mazorra, Angela Borroto, Elliosha Hajari, Norge Fonseca-Fuentes, Jose C. Lorenzo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10859-10859; doi:10.15835/nsb13110859

Abstract:
Livestock farming with sheep represents an important income stream. With climate change, domestic sheep are being exposed to heat stress which can have adverse effects on growth. Here, data regarding sheep behaviour in response to high temperature stress was analysed using the Euclidean distance method to integrate all variables into a single representative outcome that could summarize sheep behaviour. We studied the effects of two shepherding conditions either with or without the provision of shade. The number of animals eating grass, ruminating and resting either in the shade or directly in the sun were recorded over one year at two-week intervals. As the ideal behaviour (expert’s criteria), the following conditions were considered: maximum numbers of animals eating grass, ruminating and resting under shaded conditions were desirable; while the numbers of animals ruminating or resting under direct sunlight should be at a minimum. The statistical evaluation undertaken integrated these variables to identify the most significant effects of heat stress. Sheep spent most of the daylight hours engaged in eating and this activity was more intensive where shaded conditions were available. The Euclidean distance calculated for the group of animals maintained under shaded conditions was statistically lower (indicating better behaviour). Based on this, it is possible to accurately rank the treatments in terms of severity. The analysis indicates that the use of the Euclidean distance could be used to summarize a simplified outcome for observational data collected in behavioural studies in response to differing climatic conditions.
Tayron R. S. Costa, Matheus A. Borba, José E. Costa, , ,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10880-10880; doi:10.15835/nsb13110880

Abstract:
This work was aimed to evaluate the development of maize cultivated under different fertilization management, in order to establish an alternative for mineral fertilization. The experiment was carried out in the experimental area of Chã de Jardim, in Areia, Paraíba, Brazil. Six treatments were used with four replications. Plant height, stalk diameter, leaf number, chlorophyll a, b and total, photosynthetic rate, transpiration, stomatal conductance and internal CO2 concentration in the leaf were evaluated. In the 30 days after emergence, superiority of treatments was observed in the plants under chemical fertilization for plant height and number of leaves. For diameter of stalk the treatment organic fertilization + P and K showed superiority. At 60 days after planting the chemical fertilization provided the highest averages for plant height and stalk diameter. For the photosynthetic rate, transpiration and internal CO2 concentration, the treatment that presented the highest average was observed in plants under organic fertilization combined with P and K and N added in top-dressing. For the chlorophyll, the chemical fertilization provided the highest values. Organic fertilization in association with mineral fertilizers provided results close to those observed in mineral fertilization, being an alternative for nutritional management in maize.
Loreley D. Jianu, Rodica Bercu, Dan R. Popoviciu
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10875-10875; doi:10.15835/nsb13110875

Abstract:
Silene thymifolia (Caryophyllaceae) is considered a rare, near-threatened species in Romania, growing only on Black Sea coastal dunes. Anatomical aspects of the root, stem and leaf of this species are presented in this study. Root, stem and leaves were analysed by brightfield microscopy, with specific staining. The root in cross section exhibited a secondary structure, generated by the activity of phellogen, and vascular cambium, with thick cork, continuous secondary xylem rings. no pith rays, but with cortical air lacunes. The stem had a primary structure with a number of collateral vascular bundles arranged on a single circle, with thick cortical schlerenchymal layers and oxalate crystals in pith cells. The epidermis showed stomata and glandular hairs. The leaf was amphystomatic leaf, with a heterogeneous mesophyll (equifacial type) and embedded vascular bundles, with a rounded mid rib surrounded by a parenchyma sheath. The spongy tissue has some large intercellular air spaces with druses. The mechanical tissue is well developed in the root and stem and poorly developed, represented by few collenchyma elements in the mesophyll, being represented by a continuous schlerenchyma fibers band present in root and stem and collenchyma in the leaf. The secretory histological elements were represented by epidermal glandular hairs and oxaliferous cells (druses) present in stem and leaf.
Mohamad H. Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun, Qi Cheng
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10816-10816; doi:10.15835/nsb13110816

Abstract:
Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cineraiifolium) which is a natural insecticide has many properties, but the most important are raid action, very low toxicity for mammalian, lack of insect immunity, broad of activity, lack of persistence and degraded quickly by UV in sunlight and very effective insect repellent. Organic farmers can use pyrethrins as an insecticide for fruit and vegetable crops. Easily degraded by oxygen, light and temperature, pyrethrum compounds are environmentally friendly and compatible with organic farming. A. pyrethrum roots contain anacyclin, pellitorine, hydrocarolin, inulin, traces of volatile oil and seasamin. The roots of A. pyrethrum are used in traditional medicine of different countries to treat epilepsy, rheumatism, cephalalgia, paralysis and hemiplegia. N-alkylamids and ester pyrethrine are the main constituents of roots which have tremendous medicinal values. The plant is also a natural pesticide with considerable antimicrobial properties. It has also possessed antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsive, antimicrobial, local anaesthetic, oxidative DNA damage preventive, immunostimulatory, saliva-stimulating, male libido enhancing, anti-mutagenesis and insecticidal activities.
Samuel O. Onoja, Gladys C. Ezeh, Nkeiruka E. Udeh, Chinyere B. C. Ikpa, Daniel Ugoji, Jessica I. Ukwueze, Kelechi G. Madubuike, Patrick E. Aba, Maxwell I. Ezeja
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10886-10886; doi:10.15835/nsb13110886

Abstract:
Peptic ulcer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is treated with herbal preparations in developing countries. This study investigated the anti-ulcer property of methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis leaf in albino rats. Methanol extract prepared through the cold maceration method was partitioned into chloroform and methanol fraction using a separating funnel. The methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis (MFCS) was concentrated in vacuo using a rotary evaporator. The acute toxicity was determined using the brine shrimp lethality test and the up-and-down method at a dose limit of 2000 mg/kg. The anti-ulcer activity of MFCS was evaluated at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg using indomethacin-and ethanol-induced ulcer models. Misoprostol was used as a reference standard. The ulcer score, index and severity were determined using standard methods. Isolated rabbit jejunum tissue in Tyrode’s solution was used to establish the possible mechanism of anti-ulcer activity of MFCS. The LC50 and LD50 of MFCS were greater than 10,000 ppm and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. The MFCS exhibited significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent anti-ulcer activity in all the ulcer models used. The MFCS (25 mg/kg) produced 52% and 41.33% inhibition of ulcer index in the indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer models respectively. In the isolated tissue model, MFCS caused significant (p < 0.05) relaxation of the rhythmic contraction of the isolated rabbit jejunum and partially inhibited acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contraction of the jejunal smooth muscles. In conclusion, MFCS exhibited anti-ulcer (antihistaminic and anticholinergic) effects. This study justified the use of Callichilia subsessilis leaves in traditional medicine as an anti-ulcer remedy.
Naima Douaer, Abdelkader Douaoui, Madjid Mehaiguene, Mohamed Zouidi, Wiem Hamza
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10804-10804; doi:10.15835/nsb13110804

Abstract:
The organic matter content of sludge can improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil ensuring better cultivation and good agricultural productivity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge on the main physicochemical and biological properties of the soil. The sludge was spread in an agricultural field in Ain defla (Algeria) cultivated with a tomato crop (‘Panikra’) in four treatments: (T): soil without sewage sludge and without mineral fertilization, (B): soil with sewage sludge, (E): soil with mineral fertilization, (B + E): soil with sewage sludge and mineral fertilization. For this, several physical, chemical and microbiological properties were analyzed on the residual sludge used and the soils collected in the studied plots. The results show that the sludge used does not exhibit any toxicity and that the treatment with the sewage sludge with the fertilizer used on the agricultural soil forms a better compost for improving the physicochemical quality of the soil compared to the other treatments. The application of sewage sludge also can accelerate microbial activity by increasing the number of bacteria, fungi and azotobacter.
M. A. Habu, Usman Bawa, Saheed I. Musa
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10890-10890; doi:10.15835/nsb13110890

Abstract:
Intake of vegetables grown in heavy metals contaminated soils is one of the most common food chain routes for exposure of human. For this purpose, this research aimed at evaluating the concentration of heavy metals (cadmium-Cd, lead-Pb and zinc-Zn) in vegetables such as spinach (S), lettuce (L), and onion (O), irrigated with two different wastewater sources in Kano State Nigeria. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) was used in this research to determine the metal levels. Zn (0.17-0.12 mg/l) was detected in the wastewater, as well as in the irrigated soil (8.36-33.64 mg/kg), while Cd and Pb were not detected in both the wastewater and irrigated soils. Furthermore, between (1.50-27.05 mg/kg) of Zn was detected in the assayed vegetables (S, L and O). However, there was no significant difference (p
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