Notulae Scientia Biologicae

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ISSN / EISSN : 2067-3205 / 2067-3264
Published by: AcademicPres (EAP) Publishing House (10.15835)
Total articles ≅ 1,294
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Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 11234-11234; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14111234

Abstract:
Notulae Scientia Biologicae (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro), Issue 1, Volume 14, 2022: The papers published in this issue represent interesting novelties in different topics of life science. Among the exciting researches or reviews, we invite readers to find news about: Using sumac (Rhus coriaria L.), as a miraculous spice with outstanding pharmacological activities; The role of silicon in plant under normal conditions and stress; Use of biostimulant compounds in agriculture: chitosan as a sustainable option for plant development; Post-monsoon bird assemblages in rural and riverine environments of Northern Howrah, West Bengal, India: A spatio-temporal approach; First report of ectoparasites from black rats (Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758) in oasis regions from Algeria; Traditional fishing gears of Bankura District, WB, India: Some uniqueness in fish catching; Pathogenicity and control of Meloidogyne spp. on some spinach, Swiss chard, and table beet plant cultivars; Effects of organic and inorganic fertilization on growth and yield of Physalis peruviana L. crop under Mediterranean conditions; Chemical composition analysis and biological activities of essential oil from Eucalyptus polybractea (L.), growing in plains of Punjab, Northern India, by two different hydro-distillation methods.
Inna Goncharovska, Kuznetsov Vladimyr, Galina Antonyuk, Catalina Dan,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 10684-10684; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14110684

Abstract:
Crabapples (Malus spp.) are frequently used as ornamental trees. However, selections differ in decorative impact through blossoming and fruiting traits, growth habit, disease tolerance, ecological adaptability and fruit litter, so that there can be other valuable benefits. The aim of the present investigation was to determine morphometric characteristics of flowers, fruits and seeds within 15 different genotypes of crabapples studied at M.M. Grishko National Botanical Garden in Kyiv, Ukraine. Their main morphometric parameters were as follows: the highest number of flowers in the inflorescence was recorded within trees of ‘Professor Sprenger’ with 5.78 flowers, whereas the corolla was mostly decorative for ‘Royalty’ cultivar, with 5.7 petals; fruit weight varied from 1.49 g (‘Adirondak’) to 20.56 g (‘Era’), length from 12.87 mm (‘Van Ezeltine’) to 25.11 mm (‘Ola’), diameter from 12.0 mm (‘Batterball’) to 26.74 mm (‘Rayka Rozeva’), fruits number 1.0 (‘Era’) to 5.5 (‘Evereste’). The relationships between flowers, fruit and seed traits, accounting 16 traits and 15 cultivars investigated was highlighted by Pearson correlation and were clustered by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The variability observed in the apple crab genotypes offers the possibility to choose and use some valuable ornamental cultivars for the beautification of the landscape, as well as for possible future Malus breeding projects.
Gobinda C. Roy, Adam Miah, Surovi Roy, Debodatta Roy, Debapriya Kar, Siddharthasankar Banerjee, Manjil Gupta
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 11156-11156; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14111156

Abstract:
Butterflies are concerned with scrupulous ecosystem’s productivity. Their diversity and richness indicate affluence in natural variety and resource cock-and-bull story. The present study reports 40 butterfly species of 5 families, which were obtained from an investigation conducted over a period of six months, from June 2020 to November 2020, in five different areas of Dinhata subdivision, West Bengal, India, via camera photography documentation, visual observation and by confined populace. Out of 40 species, 18 species belong to Nymphalidae, 9 species belong to Pieridae, 9 species belong to Lycaenidae, 3 species belong to Papilionidae, and 1 species belongs to Hesperiidae correspondingly. Nymphalidae was recorded as the most prevailing family owing to their species richness and greater abundance than the others. Alpha diversity indices and Whittaker’s Beta Diversity indices were calculated for all the sites. Pollinator butterflies’ abundance and diversity were not deliberated in the past at the above region. On the whole, in this task, we endeavoured to estimate the diversity of butterflies, but no scientific observation was done here to explicate how their richness and diversity in reality have an effect on natural production.
Arun Dev Sharma, Sooraj Agnish, Inderjeet Kaur
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 11191-11191; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14111191

Abstract:
Eucalyptus essential oil poses various biological activities due to the presence of various bioactive compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of direct heat-based hydro distillation (DHBH) and in-direct heat-based hydro-distillation (IDHBH) methods on chemical profile, extraction, and biological activities of essential oils from Eucalyptuspolybractea. Eucalyptus Essential Oil (EEO) was extracted from green leaves of eucalyptus plant using DHBH and IDHBH methods. Aroma profile was evaluated by GC-FID technique. Content of phenolics, flavonoids and tannins accompanied by antioxidant activities like iron-chelation and DPPH were studied. Other biological activities like anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial were also analysed. GC-FID chemical profiling revealed a greater number of bioactive compounds in IDHBH extract than DHBH. Relationship between antioxidant activity and chemical composition of extracted oils was investigated. Significant amount of β- pinene, 1,8 cineole, eugenol, Pentadecanoic acid are responsible for antioxidative capacity of both extracts. The concentration of all compounds, especially Pentadecanoic acid and other unique bioactives were higher in IDHBH extract. The level of antioxidants like phenolics, flavonoids and tannins by was high also high in IDHBH extracted oil. This corresponds to higher antioxidant activities like DPPH and iron-chelating activity of IDHBH oil compared with DHBH extract. Similarly, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial potential was more in oil extracted with IDHBH than DHBH. The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different biochemical composition of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds with more potent biological activities and this method can be the choice for essential oil-based companies.
Angeliki Syropoulou, Ioannis Roussis, Stella Karydogianni, Varvara Kouneli, Ioanna Kakabouki, Antonios Mavroeidis, Antigolena Folina, Dimitrios Beslemes, Dimitrios Bilalis
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 11220-11220; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14111220

Abstract:
Physalis peruviana L. is an Andean Solanaceae fruit crop with great nutraceutical qualities, potential health benefits and adaptability to Mediterranean climates. In the current study, a first approach on the effect of organic and inorganic fertilization on P. peruviana crop under Mediterranean semi-arid conditions was performed. A field experiment was laid out according to a completely randomized design, with three replicates and three fertilization treatments [untreated (control), organic fertilization (biocyclic humus soil) and inorganic fertilization (inorganic fertilizer 40-0-0+14.5 SO3)]. Phenological growth stages and their corresponded growing degree days were evaluated. In addition, some growth parameters, fruit yield and yield components were evaluated. The results indicated that the duration of phenological growth stages was in accordance with durations mentioned in tropical climate. The highest branches number per plant (24.4), leaf area per plant (1997.3 cm2), fruit number per plant (41.52), fruit yield (7.51 t ha-1) and average fruit weight (5.32 g) were found in inorganic fertilization plots, whereas the highest plant height (44.15 g) and fruit diameter (12.52 mm) were recorded under organic fertilization; however, the differences between the organic and inorganic fertilization were not statistically significant. In terms of dry weight per plant, there were significant differences among the fertilization treatment with the values obtained under inorganic fertilization (81.24 g). To sum up, P. peruviana showed satisfying adaptability under Mediterranean climate conditions and has great potential in becoming an alternative cultivation for small and medium producers of Mediterranean countries. In addition, the results indicated that organic fertilization (with biocyclic humus soil) should be considered as an alternative to inorganic fertilizers for P. peruviana production.
Ibrahim K. Ibrahim, Zafar A. Handoo, Sabren M. A. Zeyadah, Mihail Kantor, Maha A. I. Kawanna
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 11175-11175; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14111175

Abstract:
The pathogenicity of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica on spinach cvs. ‘Balady’, ‘Barkly’, ‘Orient’, ‘Pacific’ and ‘Solanicy’, Swiss chard cvs. ‘Balady’ and ‘Ford Hook’, and table beet cvs. ‘Asgro Wonder’, ‘Balady’, ‘Detroit Dark’ and ‘Detroit Spainal’ was determined in several greenhouse tests. The results show that the tested chenopodiaceous plant cultivars were either susceptible or highly susceptible to the tested root-knot nematode species except spinach cv. ‘Pacific’ and table beet cv. ‘Asgro Wonder’ which exhibited moderately susceptible reaction to M. arenaria and M. javanica. In a separate control experiment, the pathogenicity of M. incognita on spinach cv. ‘Balady’ was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Soil treatments with dried plant materials of Monterey cypress, Brazil pepper- tree, lime and China tree induced great reductions (81.4-91.8%) in the numbers of root galls and egg masses of M. incognita on infected spinach plants. On the other hand, treatments with plant materials of blue gum tree, California pepper - tree, lantana and pomegranate gave 49.8-69.3% reduction of root galls and egg masses of M. incognita on infected spinach plants.
Tonlong Wangpan, Leiki Wangmu, Sumpam Tangjang
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 10888-10888; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14110888

Abstract:
The Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh, India has rich traditional knowledge on traditional medicines, while, the current study attempts to document the traditional knowledge on the medicinal plants used by them. The field and herbarium techniques were followed to obtain the essential information on the use of medicinal plants. The collected plant species were identified with the consultation of taxonomic literature Floras and Herbaria. Altogether 16 medicinal plant species belonging to 13 families were reported to be used by the Monpa community of this region. Leaves (32%) were the most frequently used plant part, while the flowers (5%) were the least. A total of 16 different medical conditions were reported to be neutralized using these plants. As it was claimed by the locals, these medicinal plants are considered to have no side effects and have multiple health benefits. The plant species Oenanthe javanica, with the highest CIs (Cultural Importance Index) and URs (Use Report) score was reported to be the culturally most significant plant among all the medicinal plants used by the Monpas of this region. Moreover, ICF (Informants Consensus Factor) values specified that there was high agreement in the use of plants in the headache and gastro-intestinal ailments category among the users. The rich bio-resources of this region may be further explored to widen the potentiality of herbal medicines.
Chaimae Slimani, Hakima Sqalli, Chaimae Rais, Abdellah Farah, Abderrahim Lazraq, Lahsen EL Ghadraoui, Saadia Belmalha, Ghizlane Echchgadda
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 11172-11172; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14111172

Abstract:
The present work was carried out to evaluate the phenolic compounds, the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of essential oil (EO) and aqueous extract (AE) of Lavandula angustifolia L. The extracts were obtained by hydrodistillation, and by decoction method using water, then, total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu, Aluminium chloride, and Bate-Smith reaction methods, respectively. Afterward, the antibacterial activity was evaluated using the borth microdilution and, the antifungal activity was discussed using dilution technique in solid medium. To estimate the antioxidant effect of these extracts, the Total Antioxidant Capacity and DPPH scavenging methods were performed. Results of phytochemical analysis of AE showed that total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins were 67.967 ± 0.139 mg GAE/g DW, 53.578 ± 0.418 mg QE/g DW and 9.194 ± 0.323 mg/g DW, respectively. In addition, spectral analysis by Gas Chromatography of EO showed the presence of four main components in oil lavender: Linalool (29.95%), Linalyl acetate (18.86%), ρ-cymene (14.68%), and α-Campholenal (10.26%). Furthermore, the antibacterial test showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most resistant compared to the other tested strains. Also, it appears that EO had greater antifungal activity compared to AE, and the both showed significant antioxidant potential. These eminent results showed that the use of L. angustifolia L. as an anti-infective in traditional environments is justified and that it should be studied more widely in order to explore its potential.
Muthusamy Thangaraj
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 11202-11202; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14111202

Abstract:
Cytochrome b (cyt b) is one of the cytochrome proteins involved in electron transport in the respiratory chain of mitochondria. Cyt b is the only gene among the cytochrome complex coded by mitochondrial DNA. It is the most widely used gene for phylogenetic assessment and inter species variation studies. Here, the amino acid sequence of cyt b in three snapping shrimps such as, Alpheus lobidens, A. randali, A. bellulus was analysed and the results showed higher similarity in A. lobidens and A. randali as reflected in the phylogenetic tree. This study describes the applications of bioinformatics tools to predict the physico-chemical characters of cyt b protein. This protein was composed of least percentage of Cys (0.8%) and highest percentage of Leu (13.8%). The maximum molecular weight (MW) was predicted as 42.62 KDa in A. randali. The theoretical pI value was ranged from 8.35 to 8.36 and confirmed that cyt b was alkali in nature. The instability index value was in the range of 42.29 to 46.94 which showed the protein was more stable. The secondary structure of this protein was primarily composed of α-helixes and random coil, revealing the stable structure. The comparative modelling was performed by Swiss model where the 3-D crystal structure of bovine cyt bc1 (6haw1.c) was used as template. Ramachandran plot analysis showed that most of the amino acids (>92%) falling on the favoured region. Seven conserved motifs were identified by MEME analysis. The modelled 3-D structure of this protein was validated by PROCHECK and QMEAN. The transmembrane protein topology and helix probability curve was predicted by TMHMM server. Protein-protein interactions was analysed by STRING tool and found the network of cyt b with related proteins. The results of this study may provide valuable insights into fundamental characteristics of cyt b in Alpheid shrimps.
Olena M. Nedukha
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 14, pp 10973-10973; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb14110973

Abstract:
The paper is a review view data on the role of silicon (Si) in the physiology of higher taxa plants; data on the synthesis and localization of Si in cells, as well as its participation in the mechanisms of tolerance and plasticity of plants under the influence of adverse environmental conditions. The unique physical properties of silicon are described, which explain its bioactivity as a regulator of absorption and reflection of sunlight, as well as a regulator of photosynthesis. The role of silicon in the regulation of water balance and transpiration of plants, in the protection of plant cells for the action of biotic and abiotic stresses by including protective mechanisms at the level of the organs, tissue and cell are shown. Recent studies have shown some homology of aquaporin proteins and silicon transporters. Particular attention is paid to the effect of silicon on the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of osmotic substances and secondary metabolites with protective properties. The study confirms that the conceptual basis for the protection and preservation of flora from abiotic and biotic stresses may be the preservation and reproduction of species characterized by increased silicon uptake and accumulation of this ion in plant organs. Thus, the obtained data indicate the prospects of further studies of silicon participation in plant adaptation to adverse changes upon environmental factors in natural ecosystems or agrocoenosis with modern conditions of increasing anthropogenic pressure and forecast of global climate change.
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