Notulae Scientia Biologicae
ISSN / EISSN : 2067-3205 / 2067-3264
Published by: AcademicPres (EAP) Publishing House (10.15835)
Total articles ≅ 1,238
Latest articles in this journal
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10953-10953; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210953
Medicinal plants are a wealthy source of natural medicinal properties and remain as base for new drug discoveries. Endophyte from the specific medicinal plants produce the analogous metabolites as that of the host plant. The metabolites from the endophytes comprise maximum therapeutic properties and have been extensively applied in treating various diseases and disorders. This study was focused on identification of the endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Blumea axillaris and investigates the diversity of endophytic fungi from various explants of the same plant. The explants were cultured on potato dextrose agar and 6 endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from Blumea axillaris. They were identified morphologically and confirmed with molecular analysis as Xylaria arbuscula, Paraphoma radicina, Phomopsis phaseoli, Sordaria fimicola, Aspergillus amstelodami, Diaporthe eucalyptorum. The DNA sequences were analyzed by BLAST and the phylogenetic tree was constructed with neighbor joining method. The six isolates were subjected to antagonistic activity for the selection of potential strain and the bioactive strain Xylaria arbuscula was selected for the production of secondary metabolites by optimization. The parameters like pH, temperature, incubation period, carbon and nitrogen (organic and inorganic source) were optimized for secondary metabolite production. The fungal metabolite was extracted by solvent extraction method using polar and non-polar solvents like propanol, methanol, chloroform, acetone and ethyl acetate. To investigate the bioactivities of the fungal crude extract was subjected first for its antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging method, followed by antimicrobial activity of methanolic (MeOH) extract of Xylaria arbuscula, that were also analyzed by the agar well-diffusion method against the clinical pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10936-10936; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210936
Seventeen mungbean varieties [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] were subjected to 100-400 mM salinity stress at the germination stage, and the indices of seed germination and early seedling growth were analysed. With the increasing salinity, seed germination and seedling growth attributes were affected in all varieties. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of varietal responses on the germination and seeding growth attributes at 400 mM NaCl separated seventeen varieties into four distinct clusters. Principal component analysis at lower salt stress levels indicated that the attributes of germination and early seedling growth are reliable to identify salt-tolerant mungbean varieties. In contrast, only germination attributes are reliable at higher salinity levels. Two salt-susceptible and salt-tolerant varieties were further assessed for NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical changes. Levels of proteins, secondary metabolites, osmolyte, and antioxidants were increased at lower salt concentrations but reduced at higher salt concentrations. Photosynthetic pigments decreased and membrane damage increased under salinity. Varieties that showed tolerance to salt stress can be used in salinity-affected agriculture fields after validating their salt tolerance in field experiments.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10929-10929; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210929
The definition of “xenobiology” has gradually shifted from the study of the foreign, estranged life forms potentially existing in outer space to the study where the natural and synthetic life are involved. The natural concept of xenobiology governs the unseen, hypothetical life on the outer space, and the hidden life with completely different biochemistry on Earth. The life on the outer space might possess different way to harvest energy from the one on Earth. The hidden life on Earth, or the “Shadow Biosphere” might rose from completely different way of creation and evolution on Earth, which lead to its complete difference from the known biosphere. The newest concept of xenobiology involves synthetic life, built with unnatural base pair of the nucleic acid, with analogous or xeno nucleic acid (XNA), has a synthetic genome which capable of self-replicating or enables the synthetic cell to self-replicate, or even possesses a synthetic physiological pathway. By understanding the broad spectrum of xenobiology, in both natural and synthetic concepts, we can expand our view on how life might develop into a completely estranged system, which is different from anthropocentric view of life available around us on Earth. From these perspectives, we might understand how life evolved by evolving it synthetically.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10976-10976; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210976
Palaeotropical pitcher plants (Nepenthes) are a fascinating evolutionary case but their nutrient relationships are poorly known. To determine nutrient and metal concentrations in Nepenthes macfarlanei from Peninsular Malaysia, and contribute to our understanding of nutrient relationships in this genus, plants were sampled from the Genting Highlands – a disturbed montane forest location. Whilst many foliar nutrients showed typical concentrations, the foliar N concentration was, surprisingly, greater than most lowland species although the N:P ratio (c. 24) indicated nitrogen limitation in line with other studies on Nepenthes. Of particular note was the variable but high (< 240 µg g-1) lead concentrations that have not been reported in carnivorous plants before. This data adds to our understanding of the nutrient relationships of carnivorous plants and shows that they may accumulate high concentrations of certain metals.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 11004-11004; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13211004
Notulae Scientia Biologicae (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro), Issue 2, Volume 13, 2021: The papers published in this issue represent interesting novelties in different topics of life science. Among the exciting researches or reviews, we invite readers to find news about: Xenobiology: An expanded semantical review; Hog plums: Its importance, potentials and future prospects; Organic waste utilization and urban food waste composting strategies in China; Antimalarial phytochemicals as inhibitors against COVID-19 ACE2 receptor: Computational screening; Acute and sub-acute toxicity profile of methanol extract of Hura crepitans leaf on Wistar rats; Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ain Sekhouna, Saida, Algeria; Anti-proliferating activity of some toxic and medicinal plants used by Wancho tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India; Apomictic development during different flower development stages in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers., endemic to Turkey; Endophytic fungal isolation from Blumea axillaris: Identification and biological activity of secondary metabolites; Nutrient and metal concentrations in Nepenthes macfarlanei Hemsl. (Nepenthaceae) from a Malaysian montane forest.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10760-10760; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210760
The present study investigates the venation of ten species of the genus Ficus collected from Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife (latitude 7° 31' 14.7612'' N and longitude 4° 31' 49.1340'' E) and the NACGRAB, Ibadan, Nigeria (latitude 7°23¢4²N and longitude 3°50¢31²E). The leaf venations of the species were carried out using standard methods. All photomicrographs of the features were taken with the aid of Amscope digital camera mounted on a celesterone binocular microscope. All data were subjected of analysis of variance using SAS software. The result revealed the Leaf venation pattern based on areole shape, length and width, veinlets ending and trichomes. The leaf venation patterns of the species show that they are significant in identifying and delimiting studied species within the genus with respect to qualitative and quantitative data. Species specific variation were recorded for the venation patterns as areole shape, length and width, veinlets ending and trichomes and these features are either genetically fixed or as a result of environmental extremes. Presence of cystolith cells, trichomes and no veinlets ending is diagnostic of Ficus mucuso. The study concluded that venation patterns are therefore significant in delimitation of species in the genus Ficus and these characters can be employed as additional information in the existing taxonomical keys of the genus.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10917-10917; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210917
Agricultural crop production around the world is adversely affected by excess salt accumulation in the soil. Plants initiate broad range of signal transduction pathways to respond any stress. Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator that acts as a signal molecule to modulate plant response by reducing the effects of abiotic stress on plants. The main objective of this study is to examine whether exogenous salicylic acid pre-treatment may reduce the adverse effects of salt stress and enhance salt tolerance in Solanum lycopersicum. For this experiment, two weeks old seedlings were subjected to salt stress by adding salt water (100 mM NaCl) for three days with or without salicylic acid pre-treatment. After salt stress exposure plant leaves were harvested and the various measures were recorded. Results of this study exhibited that salicylic acid pre-treatment mitigates various advers effects of salt stress on plant growth by stimulating plant biomass, water relations, protein content, chlorophyll pigment, and inorganic osmolytes accumulation. Simultaneously, an increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes of SOD, CAT and POX were also triggered. This current study suggested that pre-treating of Solanum lycopersicum with salicylic acid attenuates the depressive effect of salinity by accelerating the osmolyte accumulation and triggering activity of free radical scavenging enzymes.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10795-10795; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210795
Vegetative parameters of eight M3 (third mutant generation) lines of sesame were evaluated under rain fed condition. The seeds of the lines were sown alongside their respective controls using a randomized complete block design. The eight lines were generated from three parental stocks: NCRIBEN-04E (V1), NCRIBEN-01M (V2) and NCRIBEN-03L (V3). The three parental stocks were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation from cobalt-60 source. 04E-550-G2-3 had the highest plant height (57.40) at the 6th week which was significantly different (P<0.05) from the three checks. 03L-450-G2-2 had the highest petiole length (12.45cm) which was significantly different (P0.05). 03L-450-G1-2 had the highest number of leaves (91) and consequently highest number of branches (5.60). Although the number of leaves were significantly different (P0.05) between the number of branches and check three (5.40). The results obtained for vegetative parameters of M3 lines of sesame suggests that some of the genotypes could be used as potential parents for future breeding programmes aimed at improving sesame lines.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10874-10874; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210874
In sexual propagation of citrus long juvenility, genetic impurity and self incompatibility are the major problems. Hence the use of suitable rootstock is a pre-requisite in citrus propagation. Now a days, the cultivation of sweet orange is boosting up among citrus cultivation. Due to this, there is a great need for the evaluation of sweet orange cultivars onto an appropriate rootstock. A research trial was carried out in consideration with ‘Blood Red’, ‘Jaffa’ and ‘Valencia Late’ sweet orange cultivars T-budded on Carrizo rootstock at five different intervals of first week of July, August, September, October and February. The treatments were replicated thrice and statistically arranged in factorial randomized complete block design. As a result of the study significant variations were noticed in the performance of cultivars under study at various budding intervals. Out of the sweet orange cultivars ‘Blood Red’ was the first to initiate sprouting in 28.30 days with healing of bud union in 31.39 days, maximum survival (89.40%), plant height (22.93 cm), number of branches buddling-1 (1.14), leaf total nitrogen (1.89%), phosphorus (0.07%) and potassium (1.26%). Among budding intervals, the plants budded on the first week of September were the first to sprout in 26.46 days achieving maximum (23.04 cm) plant height, branches buddling-1 (1.15) root formation of (5.98 cm3) volume and survival percentage (91.99). Commercially, ‘Blood Red’ sweet orange cultivar budded in the first week of September can be cultivated for superior progeny.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 13, pp 10963-10963; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210963
Ethnic people throughout the globe are engaged in the conservation of biodiversity. The objective of this study was to measure the avifaunal diversity in heterogeneous forest and paddy fields surrounding the Barachaka tribal village of West Bengal, India and the prospect of development of ecotourism spot in this area. The study was conducted during June and July of 2019 and 2020. A total of 47 bird species belonging to 27 families were identified and recorded during the span of study. Among these bird species, Asian open bill stork (Anastomus oscitans) is predominant in the heterogeneous forest of this village and they usually used this place as a breeding ground during the rainy season. The study reveals that the safety and food security provided by the villagers encourage these birds to prepare colonial nests in trees very near to the human habitation. Shannon-Wiener diversity index value was recorded 2.49 within village forest and 2.33 in the paddy field during June 2019 and July 2019 and 2.62 within village forest and 2.47 in the paddy field during June 2020 and July 2020. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey revealed that tribal people of this village are directly attached to bird conservation in their area and these tribal people protect the bird generation after generation through their traditional knowledge. The community-based bird monitoring programs may protect birds as well as wildlife and encourage researchers who may gather scientific knowledge from these ethnic people. The village under study has the prospective to develop into a good bird watching site, where bird lovers may watch the birds in nature and thereby helping the socio-economic development of the tribal people of this village.