Notulae Scientia Biologicae

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 20673205 / 20673264
Current Publisher: AcademicPres (EAP) Publishing House (10.15835)
Total articles ≅ 886
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Kaushalendra K. Jha, Michael O. Campbell, Radhika Jha
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 124-142; doi:10.15835/nsb12110547

Indian vultures have important ecological and socio-economic functions and are increasingly studied, per their ecological role and recently, their catastrophic populations’ decline. However, there are few studies of vultures in central India, a vulture stronghold. The present paper examined the presence, distribution per landcover variation, roosting and nesting habits of vultures in this region. Both quantitative (total count) and qualitative (questionnaire survey) methods of research were applied. The hypotheses were that vulture presence is higher in forested areas, unaffected by agricultural development (excepting the Egyptian vulture); as well as that vultures are more likely to roost and nest in large trees and on cliffs in open landcover. Vulture species recorded in summer and winter counts were the Long-billed vulture (Gyps indicus, Scopoli, 1786), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus, Linnaeus, 1758), White-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis, Gmelin, 1788), Eurasian Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, Hablizl, 1783), Red-headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus, Scopoli, 1786), Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus, Linnaeus, 1766) and Himalayan Griffon vulture (Gyps himalayensis, Hume, 1869). Their average total abundance was of 7,028 individuals, maximum being Long-billed vulture (3,351) and minimum being Cinereous vulture (39). Thematic maps documented distributions in different agroclimatic regions and ecozones. Orography and forest structure influenced vulture presence, but human disturbance did not. Vulture protection, food monitoring and human-induced disturbances are manageable with critical, informed and flexible policies. These findings contribute to monitoring and management planning for vulture conservation in Central India and elsewhere.
Radu E. Sestras
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12; doi:10.15835/nsb12110697

Notulae Scientia Biologicae (, Issue 1, Volume 12, 2020: The papers published in this issue represent interesting novelties in different topics of life science. Among the exciting researches, we invite readers to find news about: vultures, their population status and some ecological aspects in an Indian stronghold; analysis of secondary metabolites and in vitro evaluation of extracts of Carica papaya and Azadirachta indica leaves on selected human pathogens; the risk mitigation indices associated with some risk mitigation protocols performed on contaminated aqua-cultured catfish (Clarias gariepinus); evaluation of three plant species to control black scurf disease of Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum Linn.); production, purification and characterization of thermostable alpha amylase from Bacillus subtilis Y25 isolated from decaying yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tuber; influence of ammonium and moisture on survival and nifH transcription in the diazotrophic Pseudomonas mendocina S10; two additions to the Asteraceae of Egypt; micromorphology studies of three important medicinal plants of Asclepiadaceae family; phenological attributes of Pyracantha crenulata - a high-value multipurpose shrub of the Himalaya; in vitro callus and shoot regeneration in Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Grised. - a fast timber yielding species.
Hugo Thaner Dos Santos, Renata Alcarde Sermarini, Maria A. Moreno-Pizani, Patricia A. Alves Marques
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 42-56; doi:10.15835/nsb12110588

The responses of oregano plants to water limitation from soil and seasonal phenological cycle are not fully understood yet. The aim of the present research was to help understanding the production of oregano essential oil and biomass facing soil water deficit, which was studied in different seasons. Oregano was subjected to drip irrigation, the water deficit being assessed in the vegetative and pre-flowering stages, as well as whole cycle analysis, through water matric potentials in the soil. The matric potential -60.8 kPa adopted in the irrigation handling during the oregano cultivation interval, led to higher essential oil content and yield. The same potential applied during the oregano pre-flowering stage resulted in the best mean of oregano fresh biomass production. The best dry biomass production was reached by using the matric potential -91.2 kPa in the oregano pre-flowering irrigation management. Water restriction in the soil throughout the entire phenological cycle favored essential oil production, whereas the water restriction during the pre-flowering stage enabled high oregano dry biomass production. The highest values for biomass and essential oil productions were reached for the oregano plants cultivated during spring/summer.
Adel El-Gazzar, Nahed El-Husseini, Azza A.F. Khafagi, Nashwa A.M. Mostafa
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 14-21; doi:10.15835/nsb12110574

The novel occurrence of Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock var. amarum and Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae) in the flora of Egypt is reported. Apart from the single collection of H. amarum var. amarum in Australia, this taxon was not recorded previously outside its country of origin in South-Eastern United States and Mexico. With the recording of Pulicaria dysenterica in Egypt, Libya remains the only Mediterranean country where it has not as yet been found. Detailed description of the two species in terms of 83 characters is provided. A data matrix including the eight Pulicaria species found in Egypt and 19 of their morphological characters was compiled and a conventional key was constructed using the key-generating computer program suit DELTA.
Mansurat B. Falana, Quadri O. Nurudeen
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 57-73; doi:10.15835/nsb12110541

Extraction of the leaves of Carica papaya (family Caricaceae) and Azadirachta indica (family Meliacea) were done using solvents with varying polarities (acetone, hexane and ethylacetate). The crude extracts were screened for phytoconstituents using the preliminary method and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and quantification of the constituents. Susceptibility of three medically important microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida alblicans) to the solvent extracts was tested at 100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 25 mg/mL concentrations the disc diffusion technique. Tannins, saponins, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids and anthraquinone were present in all the solvent extracts of A. indica and C. papaya. Protein was present in all the solvent extracts of A. indica but absent in all the solvent extracts of C. papaya. Terpenoid was only present in hexane extract of A. indica but absent in other solvent extracts of A. indica and C. papaya. Flavonoid was present in all but only absent in ethylacetate extract of A. indica. Glycoside was present in all but absent in hexane extract of A. indica. Coumarin was only present in acetone extracts of both plants and absent in other solvent extracts of the two plants. Extracts of Carica papaya and Azadirachta indica displayed varying inhibitory activities (between 5.00-15.00 mm) against the organisms at all the tested concentrations. Acetone extract of A. indica produced zones of inhibition ranging from 5.00-14.00 mm while acetone extract of C. papaya produces a range of 4.00-10.00 mm. Also, hexane extract of A. indica produced inhibition range of 7.00-10.00 mm whereas hexane extract of C. papaya produces a range of 5.00-15.00 mm. However, ethylacetate extract of A. indica produced inhibition range of 5.00-13.67 mm, while ethylacetate extract of C. papaya produce a range of 5.00-15.00 mm. Different compounds quantified as different peaks by HPLC in the different solvent extracts of Carica papaya are acacic acid, genistein, protodioscin, betulinic acid, phorbolester, creptolepinone, brusatol and alpha ionone while the fractions from the solvent extracts of Azadirachta indica are myricetin, azadirachtol, azadirachtin a, pentadecane, phytol, azadirachnol, quercetin, b caryophyllen, alpha ionone, ascaridole, trams.b.farnes. Results obtained in this work indicated that all the solvent extracts of Carica papaya and Azadirachta indica contained active phytoconstituents and the extracts displayed good potentials at preventing diseases associated with the microorganisms tested in this work.
Odaro S. Imade, Faith I. Akinnibosun
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 172-183; doi:10.15835/nsb12110633

The present research quantified the risk mitigation indices associated with some risk mitigation protocols practiced by humans in Nigeria to mitigate the baseline risk of illness that were associated with Clarias gariepinus contaminated with multidrug-resistant AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter cloacae pathogen. Identification of the multidrug-resistant AmpC beta-lactamase-producing E. cloacae pathogen was performed with phenotypic and molecular methods. The United States FDA-iRisk stochastic software quantified the baseline and residual risk of illness associated with the contamination and cross-contamination routes of the C. gariepinus chain. The fresh adult C. gariepinus was contaminated with the multidrug-resistant E. cloacae pathogen (median concentration = 4.49 CFU g-1), but this was significantly reduced by the risk mitigation protocols practiced by the human consumers. The risk mitigation practices of human consumers resulted in a risk mitigation index of 0.92, which was equivalent to a 92% reduction in the baseline risk of illness (baseline risk of illness = 7.58 × 10-4; residual risk of illness = 5.9 × 10-5). In spite of the significant risk mitigation, inducible AmpC beta-lactamase resistance genes was still found in the residual multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae pathogen, which survived the inadequate risk mitigation protocols that accounted for 8% residual risk of illness.
Michael S. Akinropo, Benjamin E. Ayisire, Ejeoghene R. Ogbimi
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 74-89; doi:10.15835/nsb12110604

This study was conducted to investigate the in vitro callus induction and rapid shoot regeneration potential in Enterolobium cyclocarpum, a plant native to central Mexico but widely introduced into Africa. The leaf, stem and nodal explants of E. cyclocarpum were cultured on full strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of Cytokinins - Benzyladenine (BA) and/or Kinetin and Auxins - Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and/or 2,4-Dichlorophenoxylacetic acid (2,4-D) each alone and in combination. The leaf explants did not respond to these treatments. The Nodal explants were best for caulogenesis, while the explant responses were in the order- nodal > stem > cotyledon for callogenesis in MS medium supplemented with BA and/or Kin combined with NAA and/or 2,4-D. The varied combinations induced white compact callus. The highest callus production was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2.7 µM NAA + 2.2 µM BA and 5.4 µM NAA alone. Nodal and cotyledon explants developed callus and multiple shoots on MS supplemented with a combination of cytokinin (BA and/or Kin.) and auxin (NAA and/or 2,4-D). The maximum number of 3.98 ± 0.37 and 2.1±0.11 shoots/explants were recorded for nodal and cotyledon explants on MS medium supplemented with a combination of 8.8 µM BA+2.7 µM NAA and 2.2µM BA+2.7 µM NAA respectively. On the basal medium, 10% of the excised shoots rooted successfully. Thus, this in vitro method can be exploited for conservation and mass propagation of this fast timber yielding tree and also utilized for embryogenesis studies.
Swati R. Patel, Aruna G. Joshi, Ashutosh R. Pathak, Vinay M. Raole
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 22-29; doi:10.15835/nsb12110528

Asclepiadaceae family contains many medicinally important species of which Hemidesmus indicus, Leptadenia reticulata and Tylophora india were selected for the present micromophological studies. It was revealed that different types of stomata like anomocytic, anisocytic and paracytic were present only on abaxial surfaces of leaves. However maximum anomocytic stomata i.e. 25.50±0.43 were observed in L. reticulata followed by H. indicus (24.54±0.31) and T. indica (11.36±0.16). Similarly, observation for trichomes revealed that they were present on abaxial surface in H. indicus and T. indica whereas in L. reticulata on both of the surfaces present. They varied in their type as unicellular in H. indicus whereas multicellular trichomes in L. reticulata and T. indica. This different micromorphological characters will help in identification of authentic plant species.
Oluwatoyin M. Aladejana, Olaoluwa Oyedeji, Olumide Omoboye, Mufutau Bakare
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 154-171; doi:10.15835/nsb12110521

Amylases have wide biotechnological potentials for applications in various industries. An α-amylase-producing bacterium was isolated from deteriorating yam tubers. Molecular characterization using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to confirm the identity of the bacterium as Bacillus subtilis Y25. The effect of some cultural and nutritional factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on α-amylase production from the bacterium was determined. Maximum α-amylase production was observed using starch and peptone as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, with an initial medium pH of 8.0 and incubation at 45 °C for 36 h. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM Sepharose CL-6B. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of the enzyme, as well as the effect of pH, temperature, metal ions and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the activity of the purified enzyme were studied. The specific activity of the partially purified enzyme was determined to be 15.21 Units/mg protein with a purification fold of 3.80. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 58.0 kDa. The Vmax and Km values obtained with soluble starch for Bacillus subtilis Y25 α-amylase were 314.10 ± 23.30 Units/mg protein and 53.98 ± 12.03 mg/ml, respectively. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at a temperature of 60 °C and pH 8.0. The metal ion Ca2+ had no effect on the enzyme at 20 mM concentration, whereas Na+ and Mg2+, as well as EDTA inhibited the enzyme at the same concentration. The characteristics of the α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis Y25 revealed it to be a thermostable and an alkaline metalloenzyme with potential for applications in the detergent and saccharification industries.
Rachael A. Bamigboye, Fatai A. Oloyede, Akinwumi J. Akinloye
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 1-13; doi:10.15835/nsb12110644

Stipe anatomy of seven Pteris species collected from various locations in the Southwestern Nigeria was investigated. This was with a view to identify characters of the stipe anatomy that are important in delimiting the species. Transverse sections (TS) of stipe at proximal median and distal regions were cut with the aid of a Reichert Austria sledge microtome at 10 µ thickness. Sections were stained in Safranin O for five minutes, rinsed in three successive changes of water and counterstained in Alcian blue for five minutes. The counterstained sections were rinsed in three changes of water, and then treated in serial grades of alcohol. Observation of prepared slides was made under light microscope. Based on the shape of the vascular bundles, the Pteris species fall into three categories which are inverted Omega, V or U shapes. The adaxial grooves varied from proximal to distal regions in all the species except in P. ensiformis where it was uniform throughout the regions.
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