Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

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ISSN / EISSN : 0021-8561 / 1520-5118
Published by: American Chemical Society (ACS) (10.1021)
Total articles ≅ 49,842
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Stefanie Kruse, Francis Pierre,
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c04811

Abstract:
The European Union banned the usage of antibiotic growth promoters in animal production. The probiotic microorganism of the genus Bacillus appeared to be an attractive candidate to replace antibiotics. The Bacillus subtilis DSM 29784 is one of these strains. To date, the probiotic effect has not been completely understood, but it is supposed that the effect depends on metabolites of the microorganism. Imaging high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is a powerful tool to visualize differences in the metabolite profile of bacteria with high genetic similarity to allow a better understanding of the probiotic effect. In comparison to other bacteria, especially these bacterial cells were more robust to harsh cultivation conditions and produced a higher level of antioxidants or bioactive substances such as surfactin. HPTLC enabled the comparison of pure cell cultures to the spore cultivation in the feed, and the results explain and support the probiotic effect.
Rosselei Caiel da Silva, Cristine Wickert, , André de Kok
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01870

Abstract:
Food matrices consist of many components with different physical and chemical properties that may influence instrumental robustness. The soybean contains fatty coextractives which may have a deleterious effect on the gas chromatography (GC) system. In this study, the efficiencies of PSA, C18OH, C18, silica, aluminum oxide, and Florisil, as dSPE clean-up sorbents, were evaluated by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode-array detector and evaporative light-scattering detector analysis. The dithiocarbamates in soybean samples are determined as CS2 using acidic hydrolysis and isooctane partitioning, followed by GC-PFPD and GC-ITD-MS analyses. The linearity of the analytical curves, the instrument limit of detection matrix effects, the trueness and precision, and the method limit of quantification (LOQ) were assessed in the validation study. Milled soybean was spiked with thiram solution at three concentration levels (corresponding to 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg CS2 kg–1) for recovery determination. Silica appeared to be an effective and cheap sorbent to remove coextracted matrix components without causing any CS2 losses. Recoveries were in the range of 68–91%, with relative standard deviations ≤ 8.7%. The method LOQ was 0.05 mg CS2 kg–1, and both GC-ITD-MS and GC-PFPD systems appeared to be appropriate and complementary to determine dithiocarbamate residues in soybean extracts.
Yanyan Wei, , Zengyu Zhang, Huanting Liang, Minghua Gu, Fangke Shen, , Xiaofeng Li
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c03284

Abstract:
The correlation of in vitro and in vivo assays for determining bioavailable Cd amounts in vegetables is limited. Herein, the correlations between Cd relative bioavailability (Cd-RBA) in rat models and Cd bioaccessibility in four in vitro assays were examined in vegetables. Results showed that the combined liver plus kidney data provided the appropriate endpoint and was used as a biomarker to estimate Cd-RBA. The Cd-RBA was negatively correlated with the mole ratio of Ca/Cd and Fe/Cd in vegetables. Strong in vivo–in vitro correlations were found from physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG) (R2 = 0.66–0.69). We concluded that PBET and IVG were optimal models for Cd-RBA determination in vegetables. The nutritional elements in the vegetables could affect Cd absorption. Furthermore, the Cd bioavailability in vegetables should be considered because risk estimates solely based on the total Cd concentration in vegetables would overestimate Cd intake.
Xiaobang Hou, Yuanfeng Pan, Roshanak Miraftab, Zhihong Huang,
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01304

Abstract:
Stimuli-responsive materials afford researchers an opportunity to synthesize controlled-release carriers with various potential applications, especially for reducing the abuse of chemical reagents in farmland soil. To enhance the efficiency of agrochemical utilization, redox- and enzyme-responsive macrospheres were prepared by self-assembling β-cyclodextrin-modified zeolite and ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FcA)-grafted carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis revealed that pores of zeolite were sealed by the surface coupling of FcA-modified CMC via the formation of an inclusion complex. Salicylic acid (SA) was loaded as a model agrochemical. The release of SA from macrospheres could be triggered in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (oxidant) and cellulase (enzyme); and the corresponding release percentages, 85.2 and 80.4%, were much higher than those of the control sample without responsive groups in water (12.6%) after 12 h. A release kinetic study showed that cellulase could promote carrier dissolution more effectively than the oxidant. The results demonstrate that the dual-responsive macrospheres are promising as a smart and effective carrier for the controlled release of agrochemicals.
Melissa Dein, Trenton Kerley,
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c04196

Abstract:
Riesling wines are mostly enjoyed as young wines, usually consumed within the first few years after bottling. Throughout several years of aging, Riesling wines begin to develop more robust flavor profiles, often displaying less fruity and floral notes and more pronounced maple, honey, and caramel notes. A body of scientific literature has been conducted on the aroma chemistry of young Riesling wines; however, comparatively less scientific reports have been published on the aroma chemistry of aged Riesling wines, and a comprehensive aroma analysis of a 10-year-old Riesling wine has not been previously completed. In this study, a total of 36 odorants were identified in a 10-year-old aged Riesling wine using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 26 odorants were quantitated by employing stable isotope dilution assays. Odorants with high odor activity values (OAV) included wine lactone (coconut, OAV 460), ethyl octanoate (fruity, OAV 240), ethyl hexanoate (fruity, OAV 97), β-damascenone (cooked apple, OAV 60), 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-(5H)-furan-2-one (maple, OAV 33), (S)-ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity, OAV 22), 3-(methylsulfanyl) propanal (cooked potato, OAV 20), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity, OAV 9.5), ethyl butanoate (fruity, 7.1 OAV), and 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronapthalene (petrol, OAV 6.4). An odor simulation model prepared from all the odorants with an OAV greater than 1 closely matched the sensory profile of the authentic wine. The results of this study provide insight about odorants present in a 10-year-old bottle aged Riesling wine, and this knowledge may be useful for future studies aimed at probing the influence of aging on the aroma chemistry of Riesling wines and other white wines.
Chunji Li, Ping Cheng, Zhiheng Li, Yuzhao Xu, Yunhao Sun, Di Qin,
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c04028

Abstract:
Carotenoids are a group of tetraterpene pigments widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Torulene, torularhodin, and β-carotene, three principal carotenoids synthesized by Rhodotorula glutinis ZHK, possess strong health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, provitamin A, and antitumor. Here, the effect of different salt conditions on carotenoids production of R. glutinisZHK was investigated. The results showed that the total carotenoids were significantly enhanced in 0.5 M (3.91 mg/L) and 0.75 M (5.41 mg/L) NaCl treatments than that in 1.0 M (0.35 mg/L) and control (1.42 mg/L) after 120 h of cultivation. Of which, the increase in torulene and torularhodin production acts as the main contributor to the enhancement of total carotenoids. Transcriptome profiling revealed that salt stress efficiently promotes the gene expression of crtI, which could explain the molecular mechanisms of the enhanced torulene and torularhodin production under salt stress. Further experiments indicated that torulene and torularhodin play an important role in quenching excrescent reactive oxygen species induced by salt stress. Together, the present study reports an effective strategy for simultaneously improving torulene and torularhodin production in R. glutinis ZHK.
, Wenrui Liu, Yan Chen, Jing Ru, Shangjing Guo, Xiaobo Yu, Yanhong Cui, , , Chenmeng Xue, et al.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01346

Abstract:
The development of new green fungicides based on the structural optimization of natural products can effectively solve the problems of low safety and high pathogen resistance of traditional fungicides. In this paper, based on pyrazole amide compound h-I-9 with excellent fungicidal activity discovered in the previous work, a series of l-serine-derived pyrazole amide and waltherione alkaloid-derived pyrazole ester derivatives were synthesized. The structures were successively identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activity screening demonstrated that compound II-5 showed a good inhibition rate against Physalospora piricola. A transmission electron microscope and fluorescence microscope observation further revealed that compound II-5 may cause damage to the cell membranes and vacuoles, and the hyphae treated with II-5 could produce obvious and easily observed blue fluorescence. The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzymatic activity and molecular docking simulation indicated that compounds I-3 and I-4 may be potential SDH inhibitors against Alternaria sp.
Wenmiao He, Jiarui Su, Dandan Liu,
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c04485

Abstract:
Our previous study showed that ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most common mycotoxins in feed, could induce immunosuppression with long-time exposure but immunostimulation with short-time exposure. However, limited studies for the control of OTA-induced two-way immune toxicity were carried out. This study explored the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS), a glucomannoprotein complex with immunoregulatory capability derived from the yeast cell wall, on OTA-induced immune toxicity and its underlying mechanisms. Surprisingly, the results showed that MOS significantly attenuated immunosuppression induced by long-time OTA treatment but did not provide protection against immunostimulation induced by short-time OTA treatment on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), as demonstrated by the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and the capability of migration and phagocytosis. Further, MOS increased the OTA-inhibited autophagy level and the JNK phosphorylation level on PAMs with long-time OTA treatment. In addition, the inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA or the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation by SP600125 could partly block the protective effects of MOS on OTA-induced immunosuppression. Importantly, the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation down-regulated the MOS-promoted autophagy level. In conclusion, MOS could attenuate OTA-induced immunosuppression with short-time exposure on PAMs through activating JNK-mediated autophagy but had no significant effects on OTA-induced immunostimulation with short-time exposure. Our study provides new insights into the application of MOS as an immunoregulator against mycotoxin-induced immune toxicity.
Guotai Jian, Yongxia Jia, Jianlong Li, Xiaochen Zhou, Yinyin Liao, Guangyi Dai, Ying Zhou, Jinchi Tang, Lanting Zeng
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c03534

Abstract:
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) play an important role in insect resistance. As a common HIPV in tea plants (Camellia sinensis), β-ocimene has shown anti-insect function in other plants. However, whether β-ocimene in tea plants also provides insect resistance, and its mechanism of synthesis and emission are unknown. In this study, β-ocimene was confirmed to interfere with tea geometrid growth via signaling. Light was identified as the key factor controlling regular emission of β-ocimene induced by the wounding from tea geometrids. β-Ocimene synthase (CsBOS1) was located in plastids and catalyzed β-ocimene formation in overexpressed tobacco. CsBOS1 expression in tea leaves attacked by tea geometrids showed a day-low and night-high variation pattern, while CsABCG expression involved in volatile emission showed the opposite pattern. These two genes might regulate the regular β-ocimene emission from tea plants induced by tea geometrid attack. This study advances the understanding on HIPV emission and signaling in tea plants.
Jingjing Qian, Lin Zheng, Guowan Su, , Donghui Luo,
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c03937

Abstract:
Casein tryptic hydrolysate (CTH) has been proven to possess stress-relieving and sleep-enhancing effects, but only one decapeptide YLGYLEQLLR (α-CZP) in CTH was reported to exhibit affinity for the benzodiazepine site of a GABAA receptor (GABAAR). This study aimed to compare the sleep-enhancing effects between CTH and α-CZP and to explore novel sleep-enhancing peptides. Our results showed that CTH significantly prolonged sleep duration in mice, which was almost 2-fold longer than that of α-CZP. The α-CZP in CTH was degraded more slowly than the synthetic α-CZP; meanwhile, CTH could release other potential sleep-enhancing peptides during gastrointestinal digestion. Additionally, two peptides YPVEPF and YFYPEL with strong sleep-enhancing activity were explored by virtual screening. Especially, YPVEPF could significantly prolong the sleep duration from 559.00 ± 272.24 to 2501.63 ± 1021.21 s and increase the sleep rate from 58.33 to 83.33% in mice. Moreover, YPVEPF and YFYPEL could bind with the Ser-205 and Phe-77 residues of GABAAR via hydrogen bonds and lipid contacts. They were largely released after digestion with 11.19 ± 0.15 and 1.78 ± 0.01 g/kg, respectively.
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