Open Journal of Biophysics
ISSN / EISSN : 2164-5388 / 2164-5396
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 161
Latest articles in this journal
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 11, pp 205-224; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2021.112007
Numerous considerations deal with specialties of bioelectromagnetic effects, including the force-free and field-free interactions. The fact that bioelectromagnetic phenomena consist of effects without mechanical forces and even without measurable fields looks impossible in the simple considerations. However, the stochastic fluctuations cause surprising results, with scientifically proven bioelectromagnetism in field-free conditions. In the first steps, we show the scalar and vector potentials’ specialties instead of electric and magnetic fields defined by the well-known Maxwellian equations. The vanishing of the fields is connected to the potentials’ stochastic fluctuations, the noises control the “zero-ground”. The result shows a possibility of a wave that has no attenuation during its transmission through the material. In this meaning, the result is similar to the consequences of the scalar-wave (SW) considerations. The structural changes follow a particular noise spectrum (called pink-noise or 1/f noise), which keeps the entropy constant in a broad range of scaling magnification.
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 11, pp 177-204; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2021.112006
The results of a comparative literature analysis of internal electrical noises and signal-to-noise ratio for nanoscale BioFET (biological field-effect transistor) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sensors based on different architectures MIS (metal-insulator-semiconductor), EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semi-conductor) and ISFET (ion-selective field-effect transistor) are presented. Main types, models and mechanisms of internal noises of bio- & chemical field-effect based sensors are analyzed, summarized and presented. For the first time, corresponding detail electrical equivalent circuits were built to calculate the spectral densities of noises generated in the active part of a solid (semiconductor, dielectric) and in an aqueous solution for MIS, EIS and ISFET structures based sensors. Complete expressions are obtained for the rms (root mean square) value of the noise current (or voltage), as well as the noise spectral densities for the architectures under study. The miniaturization of biosensors leads to a decrease in the level of the useful signal-current. For successful operation of the sensor, it is necessary to ensure a high value of the SNR (signal-to-noise ratio). In case of weak useful signals, it is necessary to reduce the level of internal electrical noise. This work is devoted to a detailed study of the types and mechanisms of internal electrical noises in specific biosensor architectures.
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 11, pp 1-67; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2021.111001
The COVID-19 pandemic has experienced unprecedented limitations and extraordinary scientific efforts to address this exceptional situation. Despite blanket closures that have resulted in significant financial constraints and losses around the world, research has an “unlimited” budget, with an exceptional concentration of medical and scientific care on a single topic: understanding the mechanisms for overcoming the disease. A large number of clinical trials have been launched with different drugs that have been behind different concepts and solutions. I would like to focus on the complexity aspect of COVID-19. Living systems are organized in a complex way, which implies dynamic stochastic phenomena, and deterministic reductionism can mislead research. When research focuses on individual molecules or pathways as products, it is distracted from the processes in which these products operate, thus neglecting the complex interactions between regulations and feedback controls. Common problems in product-oriented research are articulated as “double-edged swords”, “Janus behavior”, “two-sided action”, with a simple question: “friend or foe?” I focus on the missing complexity. I propose a bioelectromagnetic process that can maintain a complex approach, affecting processes rather than products. This hypothetical proposal is not a comprehensive solution. Complexity itself limits the overall effects of causing “miracles”. Well-designed electromagnetic effects can support current efforts and, in combination with intensively developed pharmaceuticals, bring us closer to a pharmaceutical solution against COVID-19.
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 11, pp 133-146; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2021.112003
At the transition from quiescence to propagating waves recorded in isolated retinas, a circular electric current closes in the extracellular matrix; this circular current creates a magnetic torus flow that, when entering quiescent tissue in front of the wave, recruits elements and when leaving behind, helps to build the absolute refractory state. The waving magnetic torus is the consequence of the vortex effect and explains the energy boost that drives propagation. Methods: We interpret experimental results from intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence dyes, voltage, calcium and pH sensitive, optical signals from isolated retinas, and time series recordings using ion exchange resins: Ca, K, pH, Na, Cl recorded extracellularly at retinas, cerebellums and cortices coupled to spreading depression waves. Finally, we checked the ECoG activity, also a time series, at the transition from after discharges to spreading depression in rat hippocampus. Results: The integrated assessment of the diversified measurements led to the realization that the magnetic flow at the wavefront is a major contributor to the wave propagation mechanisms. This flow couples mass and charge flows as a swirling torus from excited to quiescent tissue. Conclusions: An alternative model of the brain is possible, apart from the classical HH and molecular biology model. Physical chemistry of charged gels and its flows explains the results. The conceptual framework uses far from equilibrium thermodynamics.
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 11, pp 68-132; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2021.111002
A heuristic stochastic solution of the Pennes equation is developed in this paper by applying the self-organizing, self-similar behaviour of living structures. The stochastic solution has a probability distribution that fits well with the dynamic changes in the living objects concerned and eliminates the problem of the deterministic behaviour of the Pennes approach. The solution employs the Weibull two-parametric distribution which offers satisfactory delivery of the rate of temperature change by time. Applying the method to malignant tumours obtains certain benefits, increasing the efficacy of the distortion of the cancerous cells and avoiding doing harm to the healthy cells. Due to the robust heterogeneity of these living systems, we used thermal and bioelectromagnetic effects to distinguish the malignant defects, selecting them from the healthy cells. On a selective basis, we propose an optimal protocol using the provided energy optimally such that molecular changes destroy the malignant cells without a noticeable effect on their healthy counterparts.
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 11, pp 147-158; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2021.112004
Survival at tumor recurrence in soft matter, after chemotherapy, is assessed by RNA folding. It is shown that this recurrence is starting with development of a fluidlike globule; it changes the energy of soft matter; it proceeds as a resonant mixing; and at the end it causes diffusion. This diffusion is interpreted as metastasis in soft matter. A tumor memory is designed for its recurrence oscillations. These oscillations are marked as positive or negative according to their influence on life stabilization or destabilization. It is demonstrated that a tumor memorizes two types of recurrences. The intensity of chemotherapy in soft matter for a tumor with such memory is obtained. Survival at tumor recurrence in soft matter, after chemotherapy, is assigned to one of the five regions of the phase diagram of the “thermalized” tumor by microenvironment. To each of these regions is collated a breast cancer survival class. It is found that the survival at tumor recurrence in soft matter, after chemotherapy, well represents actual survival of 32 patients with breast cancer.
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 11, pp 225-232; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2021.113008
Even today in light of the pandemic spread of the corona virus COVID 19, the debate amongst biologists which concerns whether viruses are alive or not still remains unresolved. This, however, revolves around the argument that viruses cannot produce their own adenosine triphosphate molecule (ATP) through metabolism and, therefore, must rely on other living microorganisms that can produce it in order to access the energy that ATP provides upon hydrolysis. It is mainly on account of this distinction that viruses are relegated to an ill-defined area that separates living things from nonliving things. Nevertheless, apparently viruses possess an inherent capacity that enables them to cross this invisible dividing line in order to link up with the ATP molecule through which they sustain their activities. The following presents a review of these issues with regard to microbiology, biochemistry and physics.
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 11, pp 159-176; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2021.112005
With the prevalent conception of self-replication (SR, a hallmark of living systems) as a non-equilibrium process subject to thermodynamic laws, a complementary approach derives the low energy quantum states arising from a Hamiltonian that appears to be specific for bio-systems by its containing some strongly binding terms. The bindings attract properties of the template (T) and the reactants to form a replicate (R). The criterion for SR that emerges from the theory is that second order (bi-linear) interaction terms between degrees of motion of T-R and the thermal bath dominate negatively over a linear self-energy term, and thereby provide a binding between the attributes of T and R. The formalism (reminiscent of the Kramers-Anderson mechanism for superexchange) is from first principles, but hinges on a drastic simplification by modelling the T, R and bath variables on interacting qubits and by congesting the attraction into a single (control) parameter. The development relies on further simplifying features, such as Random Phase Approximations and an Effective Hamiltonian formalism. The entropic balance to replication is considered and found to reside in the far surroundings.
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 10, pp 113-128; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2020.103010
The structure of the tissues is formed in a self-similar manner, forming fractal structures in their transport networks. The structure exhibits allometric forming and so-called scaling behavior. This is a basic growth model fine-tuned by various connections of the cells (junctions and adherent connections), intended to direct material and energy transports between them. This secondary control of cell metabolism decreases primary metabolic transport through the free surfaces of the cells. The cellular network is formed by triggering the endogenous electric fields, which are dominantly governed by cell membrane potential. Proliferation exhibits a different electric pattern due to the low cell-membrane potential and resulting negativity relative to its environment. This potential change characterizes cells in normal proliferation and a cluster of cells (a tumor) in the case of cancerous development. This latter has certain similarities to the leakage transport of liquid in porous media, substituting the pressure with endogenous tumor potential. The average survival of a tumor depends on the kind of available metabolic transport and the fractal dimensions of the newly built angiogenic network.
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 10, pp 54-58; doi:10.4236/ojbiphy.2020.102005
A short note based on the homogeneous 5D space-time topological mappings is extended to cover DNAs of viruses and how the body’s immune system can be enhanced to recognize and remove it.