Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances

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EISSN : 2322-1879
Published by: Academic World Research (10.14196)
Total articles ≅ 7
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Faouzi Matallah, Sarrah Hadjaj, Saida Matallah
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, Volume 7, pp 247-253; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjva.v7i9.2568

Abstract:
During the year 2015-2016, a study was conducted to identify ticks that infect horses in rural areas in North-east of Algeria. Five parasitic species were observed, Rhipicephalus bursa predominates with 45%, Rhipicephalussanguineus: 10%, Rhipicephalusannulatus 15%, Hyalommamarginatum 13% and Hyalommaanatolicum: 17%. Moreover, the prevalence of babesiosis in local horse breeds was determined. A global prevalence of 70% was found for equine babesiosis in the two areas (Sedrata and Lake of birds). The horses were found positive (Giemsa coloration) for Theileriaequi and Babesiacaballi. No significant differences were encountered concerning sex and age of infected animals. Removal of ticks manually does not prevent for ticks infestation and the exposure of horses to piroplasmosis. So, apart from favorable climatic factors, the presence of horses with other animals (ruminants and dogs) appears to be a factor in the infestation of horses by ticks. There were no significant differences between the positivity to Babesia with the factors sex and age of the horses (p>0, 0.5). After this preliminary work, a wider study of ticks of the equine population in Algeria is essential for the establishment of a plan of prevention against these mites and the diseases that they transmit.
Eyabana Mollong, Rabiétou Akpéni Bawa, Soudah Boma, Yaovi Nuto, Komina Amevoin
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, Volume 7, pp 237-246; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjva.v7i7.2561

Abstract:
Livestock in tropical and subtropical areas is under almost constant threat of ticks, in particular the species Amblyomma variegatum Mfr. (Acarina: Ixodidae), especially during the rainy season. The IPM programs against this ectoparasite undoubtedly require knowledge of its bio-ecology and diversification of means of control. Thus, the toxic effects of the essential oil of Clausena anisata Hook (Rutaceae) diluted in two vegetable oils were tested on eggs and larvae of A. variegatum under the laboratory conditions of the temperature from 22-25°C, relative humidity from 78-91% and a photoperiod of 12 L/12h D. Toxicity tests were carried out in Petri dishes containing Whatman paper on which various test solutions were deposited. In each treated dish, 100 eggs or 40 larvae were released. A dose of 0.124 µL / cm² of a dilution of the essential oil of C. anisata prevented the hatching of 95% of the eggs and provoked 60% mortality of the larvae after 24 hours of exposure. Although these results differ significantly from those of the reference acaricide bayticol which is very highly toxic, the essential oil of C. anisata could be considered very toxic to the preimaginal stages of the tick A. variegatum. However, the cost of treatment with the essential oil of C. anisata should be evaluated to better assess its use in the control of A. variegatum by farmers.
Hatem Atalla, Baher Abu Gazal
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, Volume 7, pp 230-236; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjva.v7i5.2528

Abstract:
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) levels and the progestagen method on estrus response, onset and duration of estrus, lambing rate and litter size. A total of 20 Assaf ewes were used in the experiment, which was conducted during April, a month that is considered as non-breeding period in Palestine. Ewes were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP). Seven days later, sponges were removed and 10 new sponges were inserted to 10 of the experimental ewes. Following withdrawal of sponges at day 14, 5 ewes from each treatment groups were injected intramuscularly with a pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at level of 300 or 600 IU. The results showed that level of PMSG and progesterone application methods had no significant effects on the tested parameters. This finding indicated that low level of PMSG can be applied for estrus synchronization. Results showed that using one sponge followed by a 300 IU dose of PMSG could induce estrus successfully with low cost comparing to application of two sponges and high doses of PMSG.
Andualem Yimer, Aman Gudeta
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, Volume 7, pp 218-229; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjva.v7i3.2503

Abstract:
This cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2015 to March 2016 to assess prevalence and associated factors of bovine hydatidosis and also to estimate its financial loss in cattle slaughtered at Shashemene municipal abattoir. Out of 400 examined cattle by meat inspection 199(49.75%) were infected by hydatid cyst in one or more of their visceral organs. The prevalence of hydatidosis in this study was significantly higher (P<0.05) in cattle with age group of more than 10 years (56.8%) and in animals having poor body condition (62.02%). Of the total 199 infected cattle, 109(54.77%) of them had hydatid cysts only in their lung, 42(21.1%) in liver, 5(2.51%) in spleen, 3(1.5%) in heart and 2(1%) in their kidney while the rest 28(18.08%) had multiple organs infection. Of the 721 cyst counted in viscera harboring hydatid cysts, the highest (57.56%) was in lung followed by liver (40.36%), spleen (1.38%), heart (0.41%), and kidney (0.27%). Out of the total 721 cysts collected, 24.18% were fertile, 46% sterile, and 29.82% calcified cysts. From the 175 fertile cysts, 60.57% cysts were found to be with viable protoscolics. Significantly the highest viability rate (P<0.05) was observed in fertile cysts of lung origin, 62.2% followed by 57.8% cysts of livers. Based on this study, the estimated annual financial loss due to direct and indirect effects of hydatidosis was 4, 158, 559.03ET=202, 955.54USD per annum based on the local market price in the study period. Hydatidosis was highly prevalent and economically important parasitic disease of cattle in the study area. The high percentage of viable cyst in this result indicates that the risk of its transmission with implication of public health importance. Public health measures such as control of stray dogs and strengthening of meat inspection services at abattoirs should be practiced.
Hailegebrael Bedada, Fikru Gizaw, Wossene Negash
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, Volume 7, pp 210-217; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjva.v7i1.2477

Abstract:
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and identification of GIT parasites of sheep and goats in two selected districts of Afar from December 2014 to February 2016. Totally 590 faecal samples were collected from small ruminants (332 goat and 258 sheep) managed in pastoral and agro-pastoral production. Out of the total examined small ruminant 87.8% (518) were found to harbor one or more genera of helminth parasites. The result of the study revealed that 92.2% (306) of the goats and 82.2% (212) of the sheep were found positive for GIT parasites. Helminth parasites identified in small ruminant of the study area were Strongyles, Fasciola, Strongyloides, Paramphistomum, Trichuris, Ascaris and Monezia. The risk of infection with GIT helminth parasites in goats were 4.009 times higher than sheep (OR=4.009, p=0.011). Age and sex related difference was not observed in the prevalence of helminth parasites in sheep and goats. Significantly (OR=0.119, p=0.000) higher prevalence of overall helminth parasites in poor body condition sheep and goats than good body condition was observed. Likewise, significant variation in overall parasite prevalence was observed between the study districts (OR=0.169, p=0.000). In this study, species of the animals, origin, and body condition score are important risk factors associated with gastrointestinal parasites in the study area. In the study area nutrition is generally poor, low productivity in small ruminants is likely to be aggravated by a high prevalence of polyparasitism.
Semayat Oyda, , Kassaye Aragaw
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, Volume 6, pp 203-209; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjva.v6i11.2459

Abstract:
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Wolaita Sodo municipality abattoir during November 2010 to April 2011 with the objectives to estimate the prevalence of Fasciola infection in slaughtered cattle and to assess the associated financial loss due to liver condemnation. Livers and feces of a total of 415 randomly selected cattle slaughtered at the abattoir were examined for Fasciola and their ova, respectively. Of the 415 livers and fecal sample examined, 127 (30.6%) and 103 (24.8%) were positive, respectively. Both Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica were identified during the study. However F. gigantica was more prevalent (27.0%) than F. hepatica (3.6%) (P<0.05). There was strong association (P<0.001) between animal origin and Fasciola prevalence. Fasciola prevalence was higher in cattle from low-land (46.0%) areas compared to cattle from mid altitude areas (18.0%). Comparison of coprological examination with postmortem examination by taking the latter as gold standard, demonstrated almost perfect agreement between the two (Kappa statistics= 0.86). The annual financial loss due to liver condemnation associated with liver flukes at the abattoir was estimated to be 115,362 Ethiopian Birr. It is concluded that fasciolosis is prevalent in areas which supply slaughter cattle to Wolaita Sodo municipal abattoir and the associated financial lose due to liver condemnation is considerable.
Merlin Guy Tchowan, Ferdinand Ngoula, Augustave Kenfack, Joseph Tchoumboue
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, Volume 6, pp 195-202; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjva.v6i11.2470

Abstract:
In order to assess the effect of energy level on the growth performances of giant African land snails (Achatina achatina), a study was conducted between September 2015 and January 2017 at the snailery of the University of Buea-Cameroon. 90 young snails of one month old, weighing between 1 and 1.5 g, of shell length between 15.5-23.85 mm and shell diameter between 12.60-16.85 mm and free from wounds or shell defects were divided into 3 groups of 5 snails each and 6 replicates in cages equipped with feeders and drinking troughs. Each treatment was randomly assigned one of the experimental feed with variable energy levels (2600, 2800 and 3000 kcal/kg) in addition to pawpaw leaves as a staple feed. These were previously weighed as well as the remnants using a 0.5 g precision scale. The cultured substrates were watered daily (0.50 liter/substrate). At the beginning of the test, and then every week, the snails were weighed, and shell measurements done using a digital caliper of 0.05 mm accuracy. The animals were monitored for fourteen months. The results show that feed intake (3.01 ± 1.57), weight gain (25.55 ± 8.43), daily weight gain (0.065 ± 0.019), gain of shell length (29.66 ± 6.07) and shell diameter (21.58 ± 4.38) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in snails receiving 2600 kcal/kg of energy compared to snails from the other treatments. The highest consumption index was recorded in snails receiving 3000 kcal/kg of energy in the diet, but the statistical analyses did not find any significant difference. In conclusion, the energy level of 2600 kcal/kg can be retained in the diet of growing snails.
Nasr Jalboush, Ibrahim Alzuheir
Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, Volume 6, pp 170-174; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjva.v6i5.2407

Abstract:
Contagious agalactiae caused by Mycoplasma agalctiae (M. agalctiae) implicated for important losses in small ruminant due to mortality, decreased milk production, and cost of treatment and prevention. There is a lack of information about the disease status in Palestine. In this study, a survey of M. agalctiae antibodies in sheep blood from Jericho city near the Jordan River in the eastern Palestine was conducted. A total of 611 randomly selected sheep of different ages were investigated from different farms in two regions in Jericho city during the period from December 2016 to March 2017 to. Blood samples were collected and serum was subjected to serologic examination for detection of antibodies against M. agalctiae major membrane lipoprotein of (p48) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, CHECKIT, IDEXX). The overall M. agalctiae seroprevalence rate was 11.5%. Regarding the distribution of the disease in the investigated regions in Jericho city; the seroprevalence rate of M. agalctiae in sheep was 13.5% in Al-Jiftlik and 4.4% in Fasa'il. This is the first report of M. agalactiae infection in Palestine. Further studies are required to determine other causes of contagious agalactiae and to include other regions in Palestine.
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