Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca

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ISSN / EISSN : 0255-965X / 1842-4309
Current Publisher: AcademicPres (EAP) Publishing House (10.15835)
Total articles ≅ 1,181
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Radu L. Sumalan , Cornelia Muntean, Ana Kostov, Daniel Kržanović, Noemi L. Jucsor, Sorin I. Ciulca, Renata M. Sumalan, Marius Gheju, Mariana Cernicova-Buca
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2095-2113; doi:10.15835/nbha48412160

Heavy metal pollution, manifested by the accumulation, toxicity and persistence in soil, water, air, and living organisms, is a major environmental problem that requires energetic resolution. Mining tailing areas contain metal minerals such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd in high concentrations that pollute the environment and pose threats to human health. Phytoremediation represents a sustainable, long-term, and relatively inexpensive strategy, thus proving to be convenient for stabilizing and improving the environment in former heavy metal-polluted mining sites. This study presents the bioremediation potential of Silphium perfoliatum L. plants, in the vegetative stages of leaf rosette formation, grown on soil polluted with heavy metals from mining dumps in Moldova-Noua, in the Western part of Romania. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), translocation factor (TF), metal uptake (MU) and removal efficiency (RE) of Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb by S. perfoliatum plants were determined in a potted experiment in controlled environmental conditions. The reference quantities of heavy metals have been determined in the studied soil sample. The experiment followed the dynamics of the translocation and accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, in the various organs of the silphium plants, during the formation of the leaf rosette (13-18 BBCH). The determination of the amount of heavy metals in soil and plants was achieved by the method of digestion with hydrochloric and nitric acid 3/1 (v/v) quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The obtained experimental results demonstrate that the substrate has a high heavy metal content being at the alert threshold for Zn (260.01 mg kg-1 in substrate compared with alert threshold 300 mg kg-1) and at intervention thresholds for other metals (Cu -234.66 mg kg-1/200 mg kg-1; 299.08 mg kg-1/300 mg kg-1 and Pb-175.18 mg kg-1/100 mg kg-1). The average concentration of the metals determined in dynamics in the dry biomass of plants varied between roots, petioles, and laminas. The root is the main accumulator for Cu and Cr (Cu – 37.32 mg kg-1 -13 BBCH to 43.89 mg kg-1-15 BBCH and 80.71 mg kg-1 – 18 BBCH; Cr – 57.43 mg kg-1 – 13 BBCH to 93.36 mg kg-1 -18 BBCH), and for Zn and Pb the lamina seems to carry the same function. Preliminary results show that Silphium perfoliatum may be a viable alternative in the bioremediation and treatment of heavy metal-contaminated area.
Emine Ayaz Tilkat, Nesrin Haşimi, Ibrahim S. Kuru, Veysel Süzerer
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1885-1900; doi:10.15835/nbha48412016

P. khinjuk Stocks, known as Bıttım or Buttum in Turkey, is a member of the Anacardiaceae family. The essential oil of khinjuk pistachio has been used to treat various illnesses because of their anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antibacterial, anthelmintic, antiviral effects in various folk medicines. At the same time, fruits of khinjuk pistachio are used as edible wild fruits. In this study, it was aimed to determine and compare the antibacterial, antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid amounts of different parts (root, stem and leaf explants) of in vivo (grown naturally) and in vitro derived khinjuk pistachio plants under salt (NaCl) stress. Ethanol extracted explants were used for performing biological and chemical parameters. According to the results, generally, in vivo samples shows higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activity besides the higher number of phenolic compounds than their counterparts in vitro. We have also determined that the biological activity of in vitro salt elicited explants was higher than in vitro control explants. Generally, both female and male in vivo samples have higher antioxidants (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC) and antimicrobial activities than in vitro samples. The various plant parts (root, stem, leaf) belonging to both in vivo and in vitro samples have different biological activity level. In terms of antimicrobial activity, female plant extracts are more active than all other tested extracts. As a result, although increased salinity values significantly reduced antimicrobial activity, it is determined that 100 mM NaCl applications to in vitro leaf extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans.
Kawsar Hossen, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2050-2059; doi:10.15835/nbha48412104

Plants possessing allelopathic potential could be used as a source of bio-herbicide to help decrease the use of synthetic herbicides. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd., a deciduous tree from the Mimosaceae family, has been reported to have medicinal properties. However, there have been no reports on the allelopathy of this tree. Therefore, the leaf extracts of A. catechu were examined for allelopathic potential using six concentrations: 0.001, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 g dry weight equivalent extract mL-1. The aqueous methanol extracts of A. catechu significantly suppressed the seedling growth of six test plants such as alfalfa, cress, lettuce, barnyard grass, Italian ryegrass, and timothy. The extracts inhibited the six test plants in a concentration-dependent manner. The shoot and root growth of all the test plant species were completely inhibited from the concentration of 0.3 g of dry weight equivalent extract mL-1, except the shoot growth of barnyard grass. Concentrations needed for 50% growth inhibition (I50 values) ranged from 0.004 to 0.043 g dry weight equivalent extract mL-1 for shoot growth, and 0.003 to 0.019 g dry weight equivalent extract mL-1 for root growth. Moreover, the I50 values indicated that the root growth of all the test plants was more susceptible to the A. catechu extracts than the shoot growth. The inhibitory effects of the extracts of A. catechu suggest that the extracts may contain allelopathic potential and, therefore, may be a potential candidate for the isolation and characterization of allelochemicals to develop an ecofriendly bio-herbicide.
Raweerat Rukkhun, Kesinee Iamsaard, Sayan Sdoodee, Nipon Mawan, Nuttapon Khongdee
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2359-2367; doi:10.15835/nbha48412045

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of high-frequency tapping system (1/3S 3d/4) on latex yield, biochemistry and its impact on the Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) of young RRIM600 hillside tapping rubber. The experiment was conducted at three different hillside rubber plantations (NM 1 - 3) at Na-Mom district, Song Khla province, Thailand. Eight-year-old rubber RRIM 600 clones was used in the experiment starting from 2008 until 2009. The rubber trees were investigated for latex yield production, bark consumption, and TPD. In addition, latex diagnosis (sucrose, inorganic phosphorus (Pi), and thiol levels) was measured. The results demonstrated that high-frequency tapping system positively affected the rubber latex yield formation. However, site-specific condition of rubber plantation altered latex yield production. NM 3 provided the highest latex yield (fresh and dry weight) as compared to other plantations. Tapping frequency was highly correlated to latex yield (fresh and dry weights) in all investigated rubber plantations (R2 > 0.75). Using high-frequency tapping system increased bark consumption and stimulated TPD. Moreover, results of latex diagnosis (sucrose, Pi, and thiol levels) showed relatively unhealthy rubber tree as impacted by high-frequency tapping system. Therefore, the farmer should consider it for better decision-making for tapping system application.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2085-2094; doi:10.15835/nbha48412138

Investigating the correlation between biodiversity and ecosystem function in natural environments using carbon-isotope composition (δ13C) allows distinguishing the nutrient cycling pattern and anthropogenic effects incorporation in plants and soil processes. The mechanisms behind the isotopic composition of soil organic matter (SOM) and parent vegetation in relation to the context of site-specificity was approached in this work. Formation of SOM can be affected by the presence of a high concentration of heavy metals in soils. Still, no systematic studies were performed in most of the industrial sites to support this hypothesis. In order to explore this incomplete understood influence, investigation of carbon isotope signatures (d13C) variations in soil organic matter were performed in two industrial areas from Romania (Copșa Mică industrial platform and Baia Sprie mining zone). The current study, also, investigated the C:N ratio variation, as well as the influence of N speciation regarding d13C values of SOM. The decrease in C:N ratio indicated an increasing effect of the microbial products on SOM matter at increasing depth, for both regions, while an increase of the denitrification processes with depth was found for both areas. For the most appropriate depth (20-40 cm), the soil from Baia Sprie region was more enriched in 13C comparing with the soil from Copsa Mica region, and this higher isotope fractionation of SOM might be due to a higher carbon content, respectively a higher nitrogen content of Baia Sprie soil. It was concluded that the SOM of the surface soil in the two investigated regions has an 13C isotopic composition similar to the plant remains from which it was formed, offering an integrated value of plant material, time and the local origin and providing useful markers of tree isotopic composition.
Peiman Zandi, Beata Barabasz-Krasny, Alina Stachurska-Swakoń, Joanna Puła, Katarzyna Możdżeń
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2060-2071; doi:10.15835/nbha48412081

Solidago canadensis belongs to highly invasive species in Europe, it is established in ruderal, semi-natural and natural communities. To test the traits related to invasiveness, the experiment with the potential of allelopathic compounds produced by the species was conducted. The aqueous extract from the goldenrod leaves was used to examine the germination and early stages of development of Trifolium pratense, the species as an example of fodder plant common in meadows and pastures. Three types of aqueous extract were used: decoction, infusion, and macerate. All extracts of Canadian goldenrod had a negative influence on the germination process of red clover, however, the effect changed in time and type of extract. The most inhibiting influence was documented for the macerate type of aqueous extract. Similarly, the negative influence of macerate was the highest for the length and weight of the seedlings, the content of chlorophyll a and b, and electrolyte leakage. As the procedure of obtaining the macerate is the most like the process of natural extraction of allelopathic substances in nature, there is the practical conclusion to remove the moved biomass of the goldenrod during the restoration process of areas colonised by the species.
Piyanan Pipatsitee, Apisit Eiumnoh, Rujira Tisarum, Kanyarat Taota, Sumaid Kongpugdee, Kampol Sakulleerungroj, Suriyan Cha-Um
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2385-2398; doi:10.15835/nbha48412134

Rice is an important economic and staple crop in several developing countries. Indica rice cultivars, ‘KDML105’ and ‘RD6’ are clear favourites, popular throughout world for their cooking quality, aroma, flavour, long grain, and soft texture, thus consequently dominate major plantation area in Northeastern region of Thailand. The objective of present study was to validate UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle)-derived information of rice crop traits with ground truthing non-destructive measurements in these rice varieties throughout whole life span under field environment. Plant height of cv. ‘KDML105’ was more than cv. ‘RD6’ for each respective stage. Whereas, number of tillers per clump in ‘KDML105’ exhibited stability at each developmental stage, which was in contrast to ‘RD6’ (increased continuously). Moreover, 1,000 grain weight, total grain weight and aboveground biomass were higher in ‘KDML105’ than in ‘RD6’ by 1.20, 1.82 and 3.82 folds. Four vegetative indices, ExG, EVI2, NDVI and NDRE derived from UAV platform proved out to be excellent parameters to compare KDML105 and RD6, especially in the late vegetative and reproductive developmental stages. Positive relationships between NDVI and NDRE, NDRE and total yield traits, as well as NDVI and aboveground biomass were demonstrated. In contrast, total chlorophyll pigment in cv. ‘RD6’ was higher than in cv. ‘KDML105’ leading to negative correlation with NDVI. ‘KDML105’ reflected rapid adaptation to Northeastern environments, leading to maintenance of plant height and yield components. Vegetation indices derived from UAV platform and ground truth non-destructive data exhibited high correlation. ‘KDML105’ was rapidly adapted to NE environments when compared with ‘RD6’, leading to maintenance of physiological parameters (detecting by UAV), the overall growth performances and yield traits (measuring by ground truth method). This study advocates harnessing and adopting the approach of UAV platform along with ground truthing non-destructive measurements of assessing a species/cultivars performance at broad land-use scale.
Hossam S. El-Beltagi, Faten Dhawi, Amina A. Aly, Abeer E. El-Ansary
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2114-2133; doi:10.15835/nbha48412115

Celery seed oils can help in detoxification processes of the body as it facilitates the elimination of toxins and other harmful substances out of the body. This study aimed to assess biological activity of essential oils extracted from un-irradiated and irradiated celery seeds by gamma rays. Celery seeds were irradiated with different dose levels of gamma radiation; control, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 kGy. The highest increase of essential oil extracted was registered with a dosage level of 10.0 kGy (2.42%). The GC-MS analysis showed that, there were new compounds detected in the irradiated samples and others compounds were increased or decreased. The FTIR spectra showed alterations in functional groups of essential oils extracted from celery seeds upon gamma-irradiation. Total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity increased proportional to the increase in the irradiation dose level and the maximum increase obtained in the irradiation dose level 10.0 kGy. This may be an evidence on the biological value, there were anticancer activity against 2 cell lines, breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and lung cancer cell line (A549). The best IC50 in A549 was 145 µg/ml in sample with irradiation dose level 5.0 kGy while the best IC50 in MCF-7 was 124 µg/ml in irradiated sample with dose 5.0 kGy. Also, the highest inhibition zone of S. aureus, B. subtilis and K. pneumoniae were obtained with the oil extracted from seeds irradiated with 5 kGy dose level, where E. coli and C. albicans were more pronounced for the oil gotten from the seeds irradiated with 10.0 kGy. The irradiation process for celery seeds may be promising for biological value of celery oils.
María T. Martínez-Damián, Omegar Cruz-Arvizu, Oscar Cruz-Alvarez
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2292-2305; doi:10.15835/nbha48412076

Ficus carica L. has fruits with an exquisite flavour, colour and aroma. However, due to its morphological characteristics, it has a limited shelf life. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on nutraceutical quality and the overall appearance of figs stored at 1 °C. The experimental design used was completely randomized with four replications. The combined use of packaging and cold allowed to observe fruits with less weight loss and firmness, maintaining the values of citric acid and VC without significant changes. With the exception of the last evaluation period, no statistical variation was found in the content of TAn, TP and AC. On the other hand, it was also possible to observe a significant impact on the reduction of respiration and ethylene production, which could be corroborated with the conservation of sensory aspects of the fruit (texture, colour, appearance, marketing level, aroma and flavour) from very good to good. The generation of passive atmospheres (packaging) and the use of cold (1 °C) are useful tools in maintaining the nutraceutical quality and appearance of fig fruits, aspects highly appreciated by consumers and marketers of this fruit.
Mufang Sun, Ding Yuan, Xianchun Hu, Dejian Zhang, Yeyun Li
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2006-2020; doi:10.15835/nbha48412082

High temperature and strong light could induce bitterness and astringency of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in summer. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and shading could change tea growth surroundings and improve its quality. The present study evaluated the inoculated effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus etunicatum, on plant growth, root morphology, leaf nutrient status, phytohormones and the relative expression of root CsCPC, CsTTG1, CsAUX1, CsYUCCA1, CsNCED2, CsGA3OX1, CsDWF4 and CsAOS genes in Camellia sinensis ‘Xinyang population’ seedlings in sands under shading conditions. After 14 weeks of AMF inoculation, root mycorrhizal colonization ranged from 18.5% to 48.00%. AMF inoculation and shading heavily increased plant height, shoot and root biomass, total root length and volume, leaf nutrients content (except Fe), respectively. Both mycorrhizal inoculation and shading significantly increased root hair growth respectively, in company with up-regulation gene CsCPC and down-regulation gene CsTTG1. Root auxin level and its transport gene CsAUX1 was both up-regulated by mycorrhizal inoculation and shading. Interestingly, auxin biosynthesis gene CsYUCCA1 has not been affected, which suggested that both mycorrhizal and shading mainly regulate auxin transport but not biosynthesis pathway. The contents of gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) in root were notably increased by mycorrhizal inoculation and shading, accompanied with up-regulation of its biosynthesis genes, CsGA3OX1 and CsDWF4. With regard to the growth inhibiting phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA), mycorrhizal inoculation and shading significantly decreased their levels in root, in company with down-regulation of biosynthesis genes, CsNCED2 and CsAOS. These results implied that both AMF inoculation and shading could enhance the tea plant stress resistance and increase nutrient absorption, root biomass and the contents of root phytohormones by up-regulating its transport and biosynthesis pathway.
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