Plastic Surgery

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2292-5503 / 2292-5503
Published by: SAGE Publications (10.1177)
Total articles ≅ 1,363
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Erman Ak, Ömer Ayik, Ömer Berköz, Erol Kozanoğlu, Bora Edim Akalin, Serkan Bayram, Türker Şahinkaya, Ufuk Emekli
Published: 16 October 2021
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes, shoulder muscle strength, and donor site morbidity following the free latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle pedicle flap transfer. Materials: Patients with free LD muscle pedicle flap reconstructions and with asymptomatic shoulders (affected and contralateral side) were included. The follow-up duration was 12 months. The combined shoulder range of motion (ROM), Constant–Murley shoulder (CMS), and quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (QuickDASH) scores were measured preoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively. The ratio of the isokinetic muscle strength and total work was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex 350®) both preoperatively and at sixth month postoperatively. Results: Twenty patients with a mean age of 37.06 ± 9.74 years and a mean body mass index of 23.49 ± 8.6 kg/m2 were included. The difference in shoulder ROM and CMS and increase in QuickDASH were not significant at the first postoperative year. The peak torque and total work performed decreased by 13%–16% for the adductor and extensor functions at the six month postoperatively, and these differences were significant. Although the adductor peak torque was significantly lower in the postoperative test of the operated side, no significant difference was found between the operated and unaffected shoulder peak torque values. Moreover, no significant difference was noted between the operated and unaffected shoulders in all isokinetic tests pre- and postoperatively. Conclusion: The free LD muscle pedicle flap harvest did not decrease function and ROM at the first postoperative year. The muscle strength and total work of shoulders after the LD muscle transfer returned to the preoperative condition at the sixth month, except adductor and extensor muscle strengths. However, adductor and extensor muscle strengths of the operated shoulders were not significantly different postoperatively. Level of Evidence: Level IV, Diagnostic study
, Abdulaziz Alabdulkarim, Rafael Galli, Mirko S. Gilardino
Published: 12 October 2021
Timing of extubation on post-mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) surgery is critical, given that at baseline these infants have difficult airways and failed extubation requires either re-intubation of an already complex airway with a fragile, recently osteotomized mandible, or adjunctive airway measures such as CPAP that may apply unwanted pressure to the surgical site. Thus, the goal is to plan extubation when the risk of failure is minimal. Currently, there is a void in the literature addressing the timing of extubation post-MDO and no objective sign of extubation readiness has been elucidated. This study describes a simple clinical pearl to assist in the evaluation of extubation readiness in these patients. Postoperatively, we obtain weekly radiographs to assess distractor stability and advancement, and to assess for the “Air Sign”. The Air Sign describes a radiolucent space (air) visualized in the oropharynx on lateral radiographs, likely indicating that the tongue based airway obstruction has been relieved by mandibular advancement.
Marshall Thibedeau, , Madeleine McKenzie, Justin Yeung, Duncan Alexander Nickerson
Published: 18 August 2021
Background: Single index finger replantation is often listed as a contraindication due to its hindrance of hand function when replanted. Recent studies demonstrate comparable subjective and global functional outcomes for index flexor zone II finger replants versus revision amputations. We therefore sought to identify current opinions of plastic surgery trainees and staff treating single index finger zone II amputations including influential patient and injury characteristics. Methods: With the approval of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgery, a 17-question survey was sent via email to all listed members on 3 separate occasions. Participation was voluntary and survey responses were compiled and analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Results: Survey response rate was 38.5%. When asked whether the surgeon would replant a single index digit, flexor zone II, sharp amputation, 55.3% of respondents chose “yes,” while 44.7% responded “no.” Staff (51.5%) were less likely to replant a single index digit amputation. Likelihood of replant dropped substantially in crush (12.4%) and avulsion (17.1%) injury. Smoking was the most likely patient characteristic to change a surgeon’s decision (61.9%). Poor range of motion (77.5%) and patient satisfaction (72.5%) were the most frequently listed reasons not to replant. Conclusion: Among Canadian plastic surgeons, there exists disagreement in how single index flexor zone II amputations should be managed. In review of the literature, these notions and previous teaching around replants highlight many inherent surgeon biases with regard to the merit and value of single digit replantation.
, Ammar Saed Aldien, Andrew Gorgy, Ali Salimi, Mirko S Gilardino
Published: 13 August 2021
Introduction: Plastic surgeons are more likely to face medical litigation, compared to other specialists. Although this has been previously studied in other countries, there is a paucity of data regarding legal medical cases within Canada. The goal of this study was to compile and analyze all medical litigations in plastic surgery in Canada and identify themes associated them. Methods: A systematic search of the 2 largest Canadian online legal databases, LexisNexis Canada and WestLawNext Canada, was conducted to retrieve all legal medical cases against plastic surgeons in Canadian courts. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed to dissect the characteristics of plastic surgery litigation in Canada. Results: A total of 105 legal cases were included in this analysis, including 81 lawsuits and 24 appeals. The preponderance of cases was related to breast surgeries (47.0%), followed by head and neck surgeries (18.1%), with 76.5% being related to cosmetic surgery; 64.2% were ruled in favour of the surgeon. The lack of preoperative informed consent was highly associated with a final ruling in favour of the patient ( P < .0001). The average monetary value of damages awarded was $61 076. There was no significant difference in monetary value between cosmetic and reconstructive cases. Conclusion: The majority of medical litigation in plastic surgery in Canada is associated with cosmetic surgeries, most commonly of the breast. Lack of informed consent is associated with judicial rulings in favour of patients. By understanding the themes underlying these legal cases, we hope to highlight the main issues that lead to litigation in plastic surgery.
Frances-Claire Eichorn, Arbind Dubey,
Published: 10 August 2021
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the head and neck is a rare and aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the oncological outcome of MCC by retrospective review of electronic and paper records of a population-based cohort of 17 consecutive cases of the head and neck MCC without distant metastasis, diagnosed in Manitoba between 2004 and 2016. The average age of the patients at initial presentation was 74.1 ± 14.4 years with 6 patients presenting with stage I, 4 with stage II, and 7 with stage III disease. Both surgery or radiotherapy alone were the primary treatment modalities in 4 patients each and the remaining 9 patients had a combination of surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy. During the median follow-up of 52 months, 8 patients had recurrent/residual disease and 7 eventually died of it ( P = .001). Metastatic spread of disease to the regional lymph nodes was observed in 11 patients either at presentation or during the follow-up and to the distant sites in 3 patients. At the time of the last contact on November 30, 2020, 4 patients were alive and disease-free, 7 had died of disease, and 6 had died of other causes. The case fatality rate was 41.2%. Five-year disease-free and disease-specific survivals were 51.8% and 59.7%, respectively. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 75% for early stage MCC (stage I and II) and 35.7% for stage III MCC. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial for disease control and improving survival.
Sahil Chawla, Sarim Faheem, Sandeep Shelly, Faisal Khosa
Published: 19 July 2021
Background: Plastic surgery residency program websites are an important source of information to prospective applicants, especially given the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and resulting suspension of all visiting electives and in-person interviews. This study aimed to analyze the online content of Canadian plastic surgery residency program websites. Methods: The content of all accredited Canadian plastic surgery residency websites was evaluated using 77-point criteria in the following 10 domains: recruitment, faculty, residents, research and education, surgical program, clinical work, benefits and career planning, wellness, environment, and gender of faculty leadership. Results: All accredited Canadian plastic surgery residency programs (n = 13) were identified using Canadian Resident Matching Service and had their dedicated program websites available for analysis. On average, residency program websites obtained a score of 33.5 (standard deviation = 13.7). The majority of programs did not score differently on the criteria by geographical distribution ( P > .05) nor by ranking ( P > .05). Conclusions: Most Canadian plastic surgery residency program websites are lacking content relevant to prospective applicants. Addressing inadequacies in online content may support programs to inform and recruit strong applicants into residency programs.
Ashley N. Boustany, Carly D. Comer, Harsha Gopal, Samuel J. Lin, Sumner A. Slavin
Published: 19 July 2021
Diplopia after rhinoplasty is a rare complication that requires immediate medical attention. Workup should include a complete history and physical examination, appropriate imaging, and consultation with ophthalmology. Diagnosis may be challenging due to the wide differential ranging from dry eyes to orbital emphysema to an acute stroke. Patient evaluation should be expedient, though thorough to facilitate time-sensitive therapeutic interventions. Here, we present a case of transient binocular diplopia presenting 2 days after closed septorhinoplasty. The visual symptoms were attributed to either intra-orbital emphysema or a decompensated exophoria. This is the second documented case of orbital emphysema after rhinoplasty presenting with diplopia. It is the only case with a delayed presentation as well as the only case that resolved after positional maneuvers.
Joshua H. Choo, Bradley J. Vivace, Luke T. Meredith, Swapnil Kachare, Thomas J. Lee, Milind Kachare, Bradon J. Wilhelmi
Published: 14 July 2021
Introduction: The increasing prevalence of obesity in patients with breast cancer has prompted a reappraisal of the role of the latissimus dorsi flap (LDF) in breast reconstruction. Although the reliability of this flap in obese patients is well-documented, it is unclear whether sufficient volume can be achieved through a purely autologous reconstruction (eg, extended harvest of the subfascial fat layer). Additionally, the traditional combined autologous and prosthetic approach (LDF + expander/implant) is subject to increased implant-related complication rates related to flap thickness in obese patients. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the thicknesses of the various components of the latissimus flap and discuss the implications for breast reconstruction in patients with increasing body mass index (BMI). Methods: Measurements of back thickness in the usual donor site area of an LDF were obtained in 518 patients undergoing prone computed tomography–guided lung biopsies. Thicknesses of the soft tissue overall and of individual layers (e.g., muscle, subfascial fat) were obtained. Patient, demographics including age, gender, and BMI were obtained. Results: A range of BMI from 15.7 to 65.7 was observed. In females, total back thickness (skin, fat, muscle) ranged from 0.6 to 9.4 cm. Every 1-point increase in BMI resulted in an increase of flap thickness by 1.11 mm (adjusted R 2 of 0.682, P < .001) and an increase in the thickness of the subfascial fat layer by 0.513 mm (adjusted R 2 of 0.553, P < .001). Mean total thicknesses for each weight category were 1.0, 1.7, 2.4, 3.0, 3.6, and 4.5 cm in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and class I, II, III obese individuals, respectively. The average contribution of the subfascial fat layer to flap thickness was 8.2 mm (32%) overall and 3.4 mm (21%), 6.7 mm (29%), 9.0 mm (30%), 11.1 mm (32%), and 15.6 mm (35%) in normal weight, overweight, class I, II, III obese individuals, respectively. Conclusion: The above findings demonstrate that the thickness of the LDF overall and of the subfascial layer closely correlated with BMI. The contribution of the subfascial layer to overall flap thickness tends to increase as a percentage of overall flap thickness with increasing BMI, which is favourable for extended LDF harvests. Because this layer cannot be separated from overall thickness on examination, these results are useful in estimating the amount of additional volume obtained from an extended latissimus harvest technique.
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