Industrial Lubrication and Tribology
ISSN : 0036-8792
Published by: Emerald (10.1108)
Total articles ≅ 4,163
Latest articles in this journal
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-10-2020-0382
Purpose This paper aims to reveal the effects of the copper third body on different copper matrix friction materials with a novel experimental way called “exogenous powder.” Design/methodology/approach An accurate adding device of exogenous copper powder was designed to control the flow rate. The tribological properties with and without exogenous copper powder were investigated by a pin-on-disc tribometer during dry sliding. Findings Experimental results indicate that the Cu addition tends to increase the friction coefficient. For pure Cu material, the exogenous copper third body exhibits poor fluidity on the friction surface, causing serious adhesive wear on the friction interface. For the Cu 90% + 10% Gr material, the plasticity of exogenous copper powder may intensify the deformation of the third body of the surface, presenting layered accumulation distribution. For the pure Cu and Cu 95% + 5% SiO2 material, the Cu addition makes the composition and density of the third body uneven in the direction of depth. Originality/value The role of the copper component on different materials is revealed from a new perspective, and the relationship between the third body structure and the friction properties is explored.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-05-2021-0157
Purpose The screening of lube oil performance prior to field trials is the most significant for the formulation of novel lubricants. This paper aims to investigate the efficacy of trimethylolpropane trioleate oil (TMPTO) based lubricants with different additives. Design/methodology/approach In this endeavor, initially five lubricating blends along-with TMPTO based oil with variable additives were evaluated for their tribological performances using ASTM standards. Out of these, the top three best-performing oils were further investigated for possible physical or chemical synergies among lube oils, additives and ball surface using SEM. The molecule structures of TMPTO based lube oils were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Findings The wear preventive and extreme pressure characteristics of different TMPTO based samples were evaluated and compared for compatibility and synergy of additives. Morphological analysis of SEM images was used to understand the wear behavior of the worn surfaces. Practical implications Further investigation of TMPTO oil on its oxidation stability at high temperature and pressure to make it technologically competitive and commercially viable metal-working lubricant is suggested. Originality/value This paper highlights the tribo-effects of TMPTO to be rendered as a suitable lubricant for metal-cutting operations. The surface morphology of the worn-out surface significantly demonstrates the effect of loading conditions.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-12-2020-0470
Purpose The cleaning of food production equipment using cleaning detergents may contaminate the lubricant of the bearings, thereby reducing the bearing service life. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cause and mechanism of such damage of bearings lubricated by cleaning detergent/water-in-oil emulsions. Design/methodology/approach The emulsion was prepared by adding a mixture of cleaning detergent and water in one base oil. A self-designed ball-on-disc optical interference test rig was applied to examine the effect of emulsion on lubrication and wear of bearing contacts under pure sliding conditions. Findings The emulsion reduced lubricating film thickness at a relatively low-sliding speed but only when the water concentration (20%) in emulsion was high. Water droplets were trapped around the ball-on-disc contact area under static conditions because of a high capillary force. The emulsion can induce damages on the soft surface in the startup mainly due to the presence of water around the contact. Originality/value The basic lubrication behaviour of water/oil emulsions containing cleaning detergent under pure sliding was experimental studied and the mechanism of bearing damage in food production equipment was investigated. Based on the study, the solution to avoid such damage was proposed.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-05-2021-0194
Purpose In this work, the design problem of hydrodynamic plain journal bearings is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem to improve bearing performance under different operating conditions. Design/methodology/approach The problem is solved using a hybrid approach combining genetic algorithm and sequential quadratic programming. The selected state variables are oil leakage flow rate, power loss and minimum oil film thickness. The selected design variables are the radial clearance, length-to-diameter ratio, oil viscosity, oil supply pressure and oil supply groove angular position. A validated empirical model is adopted to provide relatively accurate estimation of the bearing state variables with reduced computations. Pareto optimal solution sets are obtained for different operating conditions, and secondary selection criteria are proposed to choose a final optimum design. Findings The adopted hybrid optimization approach is a random search algorithm that generates a different solution set for each run, thus a different bearing design. For a number of runs, it is found that the key design variables that significantly affect the optimum state variables are the bearing radial clearance, oil viscosity and oil supply pressure. Additionally, oil viscosity is found to represent the significant factor that distinguishes the optimum designs obtained using the implemented secondary selection criteria. Finally, the results of the proposed optimum design framework at different operating conditions are presented and compared. Originality/value The proposed multi-objective formulation of the bearing design problem can provide engineers with a systematic approach and an important degree of flexibility to choose the optimum design that best fits the application requirements.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-03-2021-0083
Purpose This paper aims to confirm that increasing the hardness of thrust collars can improve the load carrying capacity (LCC) and wear resistance of water lubricated thrust bearings (WTBs) made of polymers paired with non-polymeric thrust collars, and to design a WTB with high LCC and durability for a shaftless pump-jet propulsor of an autonomous underwater vehicle. Six kinds of WTBs were manufactured by matching aluminum bronze, stainless steel and silicon nitride with two different polymer bearing materials. Their tribological behaviors were tested and compared. Design/methodology/approach The tribological behaviors of the WTBs made with different materials were investigated experimentally on a specially designed test rig. Findings Aluminum bronze is not suitable for crafting thrust collars of heavy load WTBs due to severe abrasive wear. Two body abrasive wear first occurred between the thrust collar and the polymer bearing. Next, aluminum bronze wear particles were produced. The particles acted between the two materials and formed three body abrasive wear. Stainless steel/polymer bearings showed better wear resistance while Si3N4/polymer bearings were the best. Improving the hardness of thrust collars is significant to the LCC and service life of WTBs. Originality/value The wear mechanism of WTBs under heavy load conditions was revealed. Improving the hardness of the thrust collar was confirmed to be a preferable method to improve the wear resistance and LCC of WTBs. The results of this study may provide an important reference for the selection of water lubricated materials and the design of heavy load WTBs.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-12-2020-0472
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the flexible dynamic characteristics about hydro-viscous drive providing meaningful insights into the credible speed-regulating behavior during the soft-start. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive dynamic transmission model is proposed to investigate the effects of key parameters on the dynamic characteristics. To achieve a trade-off between the transmission efficiency and time proportion of hydrodynamic and mixed lubrication, a multi-objective optimization of friction pair system by genetic algorithm is presented to obtain the optimal combination of design parameters. Findings Decreasing the engagement pressure or the ratio of inner and outer radius, increasing the lubricating oil viscosity or the outer radius will result in the increase of time proportion of hydrodynamic and mixed lubrication, as well as the transmission efficiency and its maximum value. After optimization, main dynamic parameters including the oil film thickness, angular velocity of the driven disk, viscous torque and total torque show remarkable flexible transmission characteristics. Originality/value Both the dynamic transmission model and multi-objective optimization model are established to analyze the effects of main design parameters on the dynamic characteristics of hydro-viscous flexible drive.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-03-2021-0099
Purpose This paper aims to analyze the temperature field and the heat transfer performance of the counter rotating dual rotor bearings (CRDRB) based on the air phase flow field at different speeds to provide effective support for the lubrication and the thermal design of CRDRB. Design/methodology/approach In this study, taking H7006C angular contact ball bearing as an example, based on the flow visualization technique and the thermal analysis methods, the effects of outer ring speed on the air phase flow field, the temperature field and the heat transfer in bearing cavity were investigated. Findings Results indicated that there were more complex turbulent air vortices in CRDRB cavity. Turbulent cyclones in critical contact zone reduced the heat dissipation capacity of air. Compared with single rotor bearing with a static outer ring, the average heat transfer coefficient reduced by 11.78% and the average temperature raised by 3.06 K inside CRDRB cavity. Under the influence of outer ring rotation, the high temperature area in ball-inner raceway contact zone and pocket raised and reduced by 160.13% and 30.48%, respectively. The outer ring rotation had opposite effect on the heat dissipation of raceway contact zone and pocket. Originality/value The air phase flow field characteristics and the heat transfer performance of CRDRB were revealed and analyzed from the mechanism. An area quantification method was presented as an auxiliary mean of the thermal analysis to evaluate the heat transfer performance of bearing.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-02-2021-0043
Purpose This study and its centering device with Archimedes spirals designed on hydrodynamic lubrication aims to reduce the deviation of deep holes because the drill tube is long and easy to deviate in deep hole machining. Design/methodology/approach The centering device with Archimedes spirals was designed and fixed between the drilling tool and the drill tube. The wall of the deep hole and the novel centering device formed three wedge-shaped oil films. When the workpiece rotated relative to the centering device, pressure was generated in the oil films; therefore, three oil films supported drilling system as oil films support rotating journal in the full-film hydrodynamic bearing. Findings When the Boring and Trepanning Association (BTA) drilling system was equipped with the centering device, the cutting oil flowed smoothly and carried all the iron chips; the motors run normally; no additional vibration or sound was detected during processing; the surface of the centering device was smooth; and the deviation of the drilled deep hole decreased with a high probability. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no one has designed and made the centering device with Archimedes spirals to reduce the deviation of deep holes in deep hole machining. Three oil films formed by the centering device with Archimedes spirals support drilling system and prevent it from deviating, which has never appeared before and is creative.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-05-2021-0181
Purpose Copper-graphite (Cu/C) is a type of seal material that has been widely used in liquid rocket engines and with normal metal pairs, has a high wear rate under liquid oxygen lubrication. In this study, bearing steel disks were subjected to a high-temperature oxidization and phosphating progress to create an oxidized tricresyl phosphating film (OTCP) film, using tricresyl phosphate (TCP) as the phosphating solvent. It is hoped that the surface wear rate and friction coefficient can be reduced by this method. Design/methodology/approach This study aim to form an anti-wear film on the surface of bearing steel, which can significantly improve the lubrication performance of Cu/C and bearing steel. The surfaces of bearing steel disks were dried to remove surface water and then put on a heating plate with a magnetic stirrer and a blue glazed oxide film obtained by heating the disks in the air at 200°C for 1 h. To create the OTCP film, bearing steel disks with a blue glazed oxide film were cleaned ultrasonically three times in ethanol and then placed in baths of TCP. After heating for 2 h at 120°C, excess TCP liquid was removed from the disks using ethanol, leaving an OTCP film on the disk surface. Findings It was found that steel coated with an OTCP film demonstrated better tribological performance (lower coefficient of fiction and wear rate) when pairing with Cu/C than either oxidized or untreated bearing steel. Additional chemical reactions occur when the oxide disk is immersed in TCP and the FePO4 film is formed after heating. Additionally, the OTCP film coated steel displayed good corrosion resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical corrosion tests. This finding demonstrates the potential for this process in the aerospace industry. Originality/value The preparation of OTCP films via high-temperature oxidization and phosphating of bearing steel was demonstrated, with the tribological properties of the OTCP film being investigated alongside those of the original surface and an oxidized film surface. The fabrication of OTCP films is easily scaled up and exhibits significant advantages as a new technology for applications in mechanical contact seal lubrication.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology; https://doi.org/10.1108/ilt-10-2020-0372
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the friction noise properties of M50 matrix curved microporous channel composites filled with solid lubricant Sn-Ag-Cu (MS). Design/methodology/approach Pure M50 (MA) and MS are prepared by selective laser melting and vacuum-pressure infiltration technology. The tribological and friction noise properties of MA and MS are tested through dry sliding friction and then the influential mechanism of surface wear sate on friction noise is investigated by analyzing the variation law of noise signals and the worn surface characteristics of MS. Findings Experimental results show that the friction noise sound pressure level of MS is only 75.6 dB, and it mainly consists of low-frequency noise. The Sn-Ag-Cu improves the surface wear state, which reduces self-excited vibration of the interface caused by fluctuation of friction force, leading to the decrease of friction noise. Originality/value This investigation is meaningful to improve the tribological property and suppress the friction noise of M50 bearing steel.