Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2168-1546 / 2168-1554
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 19
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Simon Skurkovich, Galina Lukina, Yakov Sigidin, Olga Pushkova, Evelyna Mach, Boris Skurkovich
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 04, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2015.41001

Abstract:
In 1974, in Nature, one of us has proposed a radically new idea that led to the development of anticytokine therapy which is now used around the world for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. We were the first to use antibodies to IFN-γ and were some of the first to suggest using antagonists of TNF-α in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well. Our method suppresses one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases. Antibodies to IFN-γ and TNF-α exhibit dramatic effects on clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, in our trial ultrasound assessment of the synovial membrane thickness in RA patients showed that only anti-IFN-γ exerted pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. Some patients who underwent treatment with antibodies to TNF-α developed a number of complications. Anticytokine therapy (mono- and poly-) alone or in combination with other drugs can possibly be used not only in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, but also in other pathologies with cytokine synthesis disturbances (a number of neurological, psychiatric, endocrine, and other diseases).
Maha G. Soliman, Omaima M. Ashry, Mervat A. E. Ahmed, Yasmine H. Abd El-Naby
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 04, pp 9-18; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2015.42002

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the wheat germ oil (WGO) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in boosting the immuno response and protecting from oxidative stress in irradiated rats. BM was given by intravenous injection to male rats, one hour post gamma irradiation at the dose level of 5 Gy. Rats were orally administrated with 54 mg/Kg body wt of wheat germ oil daily for 2 weeks before irradiation. After 14 days, results revealed that total body irradiation induced significant decreases in RBCs, WBCs and lymphocytes, as well as Glutathione (GSH) and zinc superoxide dismutase (Zn/SOD), splenocyte count, bone marrow lymphocyte count and viability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) also recorded significant decrease while interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehde (MDA) in serum and spleen were conversely elevated. In irradiated animals receiving BMT and WGO, values of MDA in serum and tissue were significantly depressed as compared with the irradiated group, while lymphocytes, bone marrow viability percentage, splenocytes percentage, IL-2, IL-6 and GSH were significantly elevated. The curative action of WGO enforcing significant innate response could trigger and augment adaptive immune response by BMT, thus protecting immune system from radiation induced damage as well as oxidative stress.
, Danesi Sadoh, Bret Jones
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 03, pp 1-9; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2014.31001

Abstract:
The human 60 kDa and microbial 65 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis (CP) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We have studied 100 subjects: Group (a) consisted of patients with gingivitis (n = 25), group (b) were patients with CP (n = 25), group (c) patients with CHD and gingivitis (n = 25) and group (d) patients with CHD and CP (n = 25). PBMCs separated from peripheral blood were stimulated with medium, PMA/ionomycin, human HSP60, microbial HSP65, or no stimulus for 18 hours before intracellular IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, or IL-17 were detected by flow cytometry. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFLI) for intracellular TNF-α was significantly increased when PBMC were stimulated with human HSP60 amongst the four groups (p = 0.001, ANOVA); pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in MFLI between the gingivitis group and the CP (p = 0.017); between gingivitis and ging/CHD (p = 0.001) as well; but no significant difference between the CP and CP/CHD (p = 0.442). There was no significant difference in intracellular expression of IL-17, or any of the other cytokines tested; and the MFLI for HSP-stimulated were comparable to unstimulated cultures. When heat-labile human HSP60 was heated, intracellular cellular TNF-α expression was abrogated. In contrast, heat-stable LPS elicited TNF-α expression from monocytes in bulk cultures in all groups. These results suggest that the cytokine expression was dependent on human HSP60 and not LPS. Serum CRP was significantly associated with MFLI of intracellular TNF-α in CP patients (rs = 0.665, p = 0.026) and CP/CHD (rs = 0.699, p = 0.011). We conclude that human HSP60 elicits increased monocytic expression of TNF-α in patients with CP, CP/CHD or ging/CHD compared to patients with gingivitis. Since the marker of inflammation, namely CRP correlates with CP with or without CHD and not with mild chronic gingivitis or ging/CHD, this suggests that human HSP60-induced production of TNF-α is associated with CP and not CHD. There was no significant difference in intracellular expression of IL-17.
Simon Skurkovich, Boris Skurkovich
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 03, pp 29-31; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2014.32004

Abstract:
In 1974, in Nature, we hypothesized that removal of cytokines can be effective in the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We call this approach anticytokino-therapy. Later it was shown that neutralization of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon alpha (IFN-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), leads to a good therapeutic effect. Anticytokinotherapy is currently used around the world for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and other Th-1-mediated inflammatory diseases. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have also been found in other conditions (myocardial infarctions, strokes, chronic pain syndromes, etc.). This leads us to believe that hyper- production of pro-inflammatory cytokines forms a basis of a variety of pathological conditions and represents a uniform response of the organism to a wide variety of insults in any part of the body. Thus, we propose to add monoclonal antibodies to (or other blockers of) pro-inflammatory cytokines to the treatment regimens for myocardial infarctions, strokes, and possibly other Th-1-mediated diseases.
, Anita Sari, Laila Wahyuningsih, Meutia Srikandi Fitria, Okid Parama Astirin, Ambar Mudigdo, Suhartono Taat Putra
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 03, pp 37-41; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2014.34006

Abstract:
Now molecular epidemiology was meaningful. On the surface of the tumor, cells will express its antigen specific as a tumor cell (example: TSA, tumor specific antigen) and can induce cellular immune response. The result of interactions between group antigens with the immune system cells of the body will cause a rise in the expression of lymphocytes CD8+. The aim of this research is to find out differences in the number of lymphocytes CD8+ expression between benign and malignant tissues. This research is a laboratory experiment with the approach of cross sectional. Samples are taken from benign and malignant tissue biopsy of the breast and cervical uterine that were got from anatomical pathology laboratory, period January to February 2004. A technique using random sampling, is sample acquiring 30 benign cancer and 30 malignant of the breast or cervical uterine. To find out the significance of the difference in the number of lymphocytes CD8+ between benign and malignant of breast or cervical uterine, we used a statistical analysis Anova in SPSS for Windows 15.0 program. In this research the number of lymphocytes average in the benign cancer is 2.9667 cells (breast) and 4.2667 cells (cervical uterine), on the other side malignant tissue of 23.8000 cells (breast) and 25.0333 cells (cervical uterine). From the statistical analyses with Anova the number of lymphocytes CD8+ was very significant differences between benign and malignant of the breast or cervical uterine tissue (p < 0.001). The conclusion of this research is that there is a significant increase of the number of lymphocytes CD8+ expression in cancer tissue.
, Kouacou Amah, Akré Paul, Yeboah Richard, Nguessan Koffi, Sombo François
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 03, pp 11-21; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2014.32002

Abstract:
Background and Aims: In Ivoirian’s school, the management of vaso-occlusive painful crisis in sickle cell disease requires non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Although their effectiveness, these drugs may be accompanied by intolerance reactions. When these occur, no codified alternative therapeutic seems to be used to our knowledge. Authors aimed to evaluate the induction of tolerance to NSAIDs as an effective alternative therapeutic. Methods: 22 patients (15 men and 7 women aged from 12 to 39 years with mean age: 22.41 ± 7.88) suffering from vaso-occlusive painful crisis were enrolled. They were known to have a history of sickle cell disease and at least one episode of adverse reactions following the Ibuprofen or Diclofenac intake. A rapid protocol of oral challenge was used in patients to induce tolerance to NSAIDs. The first day, initial doses (8.82 mg for Ibuprofen and 2.20 mg for Diclofenac) were given and gradually increased at intervals of 1 hour over a total period of 6 hours. On the second and third days, the therapeutic dose has been orally administrated with an interval of 6 hours over a period of 12 hours. Results: Despite of some cases of failure that might be related to the severity of symptoms or possible patho-physiological mechanism, more than 80% of patients have successfully tolerated Diclofenac and Ibuprofen. Conclusion: This experience appears to be the first in our context. It might be used as a solution in the lack of alternative therapeutic in the management of vaso-occlusive painful crisis of sickle cell disease as well as in other diseases such as HIV infection where patients often develop intolerance to none alternative antibiotics.
Zhenhu Jia, Yufang Cao, Yaju Xue, Fangxiang Li, Min Liu, Cai Zhang, Yufei Yang,
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 03, pp 22-28; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2014.32003

Abstract:
In order to assess chicken T cell-mediated responses after immune stress, 200 two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into control group(C) and treatment groups (T1 and T2). The live I-type of Newcastle disease vaccine (ND) was taken as the source of immunological stress. The chickens in group (T2) were injected with overdose of live I-type Newcastle disease vaccine. After vaccination, the dynamic changes of CD4+, CD8+T cells on thymus were detected by immunohisto-chemistry. The ultra-structure of T cells on thymus of the chickens in group (T2) was observed by electron microscopic. The result showed: (1) After immune stress, from day 1 to day 5, the number of the CD4+T cells significantly declined and reached the bottom at day 5, but the number of the CD8+T cells increased dramatically and peaked at day 5. (2) After immune stress, from day 1 to day 5, part of T cells of chicken thymus came with apoptotic and pathological changes of putrescence continually. These results underscore: the immune stress can cause transient immune adjustment. These changes for chickens were the self-protection mechanism of immune system to adapt to survival and avoid immune disorder.
Simon Skurkovich, Boris Skurkovich
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 03, pp 33-36; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2014.33005

Abstract:
Primary cancers can be prevented by immunizations. We suggest immunizing healthy people, especially the ones with genetic predisposition to cancer, with a standard oncoantigen. In patients suffering from cancer, immunotherapy can be effective only if it is administered during complete remission. Immune competent cells, like T-lymphocytes and bone marrow, are the most important components for cancer prevention and treatment. Because of the dramatic increase in the incidence of cancer, it is important to offer all adults with absolutely healthy immune system an opportunity to donate their own T-lymphocytes and bone marrow cells and preserve them at -196。C. These cells can later be used by the same people in auto-system if they develop cancer. Patients who had their cancerous tumors surgically removed can also have their own T-lymphocytes and bone marrow cells collected during remission and then used in auto-system in case of cancer reoccurrence. It is also possible to impact on cancer development during the process of cancerogenesis by administering large amounts of normal DNA and possibly different types of RNA (displacement) together with nucleases (directly into the tumor or blood). In addition, blockers of cytokines that suppress immune system should be administered as well. It is intriguing to think that injection of large amounts of normal DNA and possibly different types of RNA together with nucleases to patients with chronic and hereditary diseases (diabetes Type II, schizophrenia, and other similar diseases) can lead to therapeutic effect.
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 02, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2013.21001

Abstract:
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immunity and in mediating antibody and Icon (an antibody-like factor VII/IgG1 Fc immunoconjugate, which, to our best knowledge, was the first therapeutic agent for dual targeting of both the tumor cells and tumor angiogenic endothelial cells) for cancer immunotherapy. However, a common yet often neglected observation and challenge in antibody immunotherapy is that NK cells are often impaired in cancer patients. Here we hypothesize that the impairment of NK cells significantly contributes to host resistance to antibody immunotherapy for cancer. In order for antibody and Icon to achieve their optimal therapeutic efficacy, we briefly reviewed the current strategies to enhance NK activity, including infusion of cytokines, vaccines or NK cells, and the use of dietary supplements. Moreover, from our point of view we identified some remaining challenges and propose to combine these NK-enhancing strategies with Icon or antibody to overcome NK impairment and ultimately to optimize the efficacy of Icon and antibody immunotherapy for cancer.
Pankaj Kumar
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials, Volume 02, pp 9-13; doi:10.4236/jibtva.2013.21002

Abstract:
Despite extensive research efforts, a preventive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine remains one of the major challenges in the field of AIDS research. Experimental strategies which have been proven successful for other viral vaccines are not enough to tackle HIV-1 and new approaches to design effective preventive AIDS vaccines are of utmost importance. Due to enormous diversity among global circulating HIV strains, an effective HIV vaccine must elicit broadly protective antibodies based responses; therefore discovering new broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV has become major focus in HIV vaccine research. However further understanding of the viral targets of such antibodies and mechanisms of action of bNAbs is required for advancement of HIV vaccine research. This technical note discusses our current knowledge on the bNAbs and immunoprophylaxis using viral vectors with their relevance in designing of new candidates to HIV-1 vaccines.
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