SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2541-9129 / 2541-9129
Published by: FSFEI HE Don State Technical University (10.23947)
Total articles ≅ 144
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, Andrey A. Kondashov, Vitaliy I. Sibirko, Valentina S. Goncharenko
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-3-40-46

Abstract:
Introduction. The article presents the results of studies on assessing the performance of fire alarm systems in buildings (structures) for various purposes in the period from 2016 to 2020. The analysis of the regulatory framework and the results of previous studies in the field of assessing the effectiveness of fire automatics, including at industrial and residential facilities, is presented. This article explores other types of protected objects. Problem Statement. The objective of the research is to study the efficiency of functioning of fire alarm systems. Theoretical Part. Based on the statistical data for the period from 2016 to 2020 about fires and their consequences, the operability of fire alarms in buildings (structures) for various purposes has been investigated. The social (the number of dead and injured people) and economic (direct material damage) consequences of fires when the fire alarm systems are triggered are analyzed. Conclusion. The results of the study of the operability of the fire alarm in general indicate an increase in the efficiency of its operation compared to the period up to 2016. At the same time, the number of protected objects is characterized by rather low values (less than 50 %) of response efficiency indicators and significant socio-economic consequences of fires.
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-3-33-39

Abstract:
Introduction. Modern construction is characterized by work at a height using stairs. The article presents various engineering solutions aimed at preventing injuries during such work. Problem Statement. The objective of this study is to compare the available engineering solutions aimed at preventing the upper part of the ladder from shifting when performing work at height. Theoretical Part. The work shows the ranking of the existing technical means that allow fixing the upper part of the ladder on the surface of the support and reducing the risk of sliding the upper part of the ladder on the support. It is shown that the structure fixed to the support has the least risk in ensuring the safety of work at height. Conclusion. The article defines the most promising directions of development of technical solutions against shifting the upper part of the ladder.
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-3-47-54

Abstract:
Introduction. The issues of ensuring the environmental safety of metalworking industries are still very relevant. Moreover, the primary role in these issues is played by the protection of atmospheric air from the emissions of industrial enterprises in this industry. For the successful implementation of measures aimed at ensuring the environmental safety of atmospheric air, it is important to study in detail the composition and properties of the emission components. Problem Statement. The aim of the study is to analyze the entire range of modern methods for measuring the parameters of the properties of metal dust, as the main component of emissions from metalworking industries; to select the method of experimental research; to conduct a dispersion analysis of metal dust particles. Theoretical Part. As a rule, the productivity of experimental studies of the parameters of the properties of pollutants largely depends on the methods that were used in the performance of the work. To solve these problems, the authors have analyzed modern methods for measuring the parameters of the properties of metal dust. The choice is made according to the basic principles: relativity, relevance, completeness, labor intensity. The conditions for the final results of the research, their accuracy and reliability, the conditions for the terms, resources, technical means of research used, and the positive and negative aspects of each of the methods under consideration are also taken into account. Conclusion. The article presents the result of the choice of the research method and the results of experimental studies of the properties of metal dust.
, Vasily V. Ermakov
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-3-55-63

Abstract:
Introduction. The article considers the problem of monitoring technologically loaded landscapes. To solve it, the authors proposed an innovative method for studying the chemical composition of objects using direct spectral sensing means. Problem Statement. The objective of this study is to consider the possibility of using spectral sensing to control the composition of soils in technogenically loaded territories. Practical Part. To confirm the hypothesis that observing changes in the parameters of reflection spectra in non-selective areas will make it possible to establish the presence of basic biogenic macroelements for plants in the soil and evaluate its fertility, or determine the degree of contamination of the territory, a laboratory experiment was conducted using modern spectral equipment and multidimensional data calibration was performed. Conclusion. The results of the analysis show the fundamental possibility of using spectral sensing in the monitoring of technogenically loaded territories using methods of multidimensional data analysis.
, Evgeniy E. Kosenko, Vera V. Kosenko, , Ilya V. Deryushev, Aleksey S. Timofeev
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-3-2-12

Abstract:
Introduction. The article deals with the issues related to provision of air humidity parameters required for non-hazardous operation of various technical facilities. Problem Statement. The paper considers analytical methods for energy efficiency assessment of adsorption and condensation methods of air dehumidification, which provide safe microclimatic working conditions, and the influence of the operating modes of dehumidifying plants on the parameters of the microclimate. Theoretical Part. As indicators of the energy efficiency of each of the methods, it is proposed to use the energy costs that are minimally necessary for the implementation of ideal physical dehumidification processes and per unit mass of water units emitted from air. This ensures safe and comfortable microclimatic working conditions with minimal energy costs. The ratio of the specific energy costs of the condensation and adsorption methods shows their comparative efficiency. An electronic Id-diagram was used to determine the air parameters in the implemented dehumidification processes (cooling, condensation and adsorption of water vapor). Conclusion. Analytical dependences are obtained for the analyzed energy efficiency indicators that provide safe and comfortable microclimatic working conditions with minimal energy costs. Numerical estimates were carried out according to the most probable modes of dehumidification processes and air parameters. The parametric restrictions on the implementation of the adsorption dehumidification method are justified, in which it becomes energetically more profitable. The conditions under which it is possible to implement a combined dehumidification method to ensure safe microclimatic working conditions are determined.
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-3-13-22

Abstract:
Introduction. In the age of automation and mechanization of labor, noise and vibration have become the leading dangerous and harmful production factors (DHPF) in various industries and agriculture. In order to reduce the harmful effects of vibroacoustic factors on the human body, first of all, it is necessary to evaluate this factor. The article provides general information on the assessment of working conditions under the influence of vibroacoustic factors. Problem Statement. The aim of this work is to study the main aspects in the assessment of vibroacoustic factors. Theoretical Part. As basic information, the paper provides the definitions of noise and vibration, their main characteristics, classification, hygienic regulation, the negative impact of these factors on human health, methods of assessment and measures of protection against them. Conclusion. The study of the main aspects of the assessment of vibroacoustic factors allows us to analyze the DHPF and further develop measures to reduce the negative impact of these factors on the human body.
, Evgeniya A. Fanina, Oksana N. Tomarovshchenko, Igor V. Prushkovskiy
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-3-23-32

Abstract:
Introduction. The article proposes a model for assessing the integrated safety of the labor process of workers with the risk of the spread of infectious respiratory diseases, for the development of which multifactorial dependences of occupational risk on working conditions at the workplace were used, taking into account the likelihood of contracting coronavirus infection. Problem Statement. The objective of this study is to formulate methodological aspects of ensuring the safety of the workplace and the working environment, reflecting the need for constant epidemiological monitoring of objects of control (employees and the ways of virus transmission) with an assessment of the controlled parameters. Theoretical Part. Official data provided by the Federal State Statistics Service was used as basic information. Conclusion. The results of the analysis indicate the need for a rapid assessment of occupational risk, taking into account the epidemiological circumstances
V. Ya. Manokhin, , E. I. Golovina
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-2-8-13

Abstract:
Introduction. In order to determine the height of the rise of the polluted substances above the source of the pollution, it is important to know the exact distribution of the gas plume. Problem Statement. The determination of the dust concentration in the working area of asphalt concrete plants should take into account the assessment of the concentration of harmful substances in the working area of the asphalt concrete plant. The study is the analysis of methods for determining the effective height of the pipe, taking into account the dispersion of emissions in the working area. Theoretical Part. The paper considers the dependences of the estimation of the initial rise of the gas jet, proposed by Berland, Holland, Briggs, and the specialists of the Tennessee Valley. The value of the initial rise of the impurity jet depends on the moment of the amount of gas movement, the thermal power of the wind speed carrying the jet, and the conditions of thermophoresis. The paper presents the comparative graphs of the calculation of the level of the initial rise of the gas jet at different rates of gas exit from the pipe and constant wind speed. Conclusion. The method of taking into account the initial rise of the heated gas jet gives us better convergence in the calculations of the maximum surface concentrations of harmful substances and in the estimation of distances to them.
O. G. Meretukova, , E. Yu. Udavtsova, E. V. Bobrinev, A. A. Kondashov
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-2-19-24

Abstract:
Introduction. Risk assessment is an integral initial stage of the risk management procedure aimed at reducing damage to the health and life of employees. Currently, the legislation does not establish uniform concepts and criteria for assessing occupational risk. Scientific literature presents a variety of approaches and methods for assessing occupational risk from harmful and dangerous factors of industrial activity. Problem Statement. It is necessary to develop a model for assessing occupational risk in the units of the Federal Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia, which allows us to take into account the likelihood of harm to the health of an employee as a result of exposure to harmful and (or) dangerous industrial factors and the severity of health disorders as a result of such exposure. Theoretical Part. For the assessment of occupational risk in the units of the Federal Fire-Fighting Service of EMERCOM of Russia, we take the definition of risk established by the National Standard of the Russian Federation GOST R 12.0.010-2009 "Occupational safety standards system. Occupational safety and health management systems. Hazard and risks identification and estimation of risks". The assessment of the probability of causing harm to the health of an employee was carried out using the following indicators: the frequency of injuries, the frequency of death, the frequency of disability. The severity of health disorder was assessed through the indicator of labor loss by personnel from health damage. Conclusion. The paper considers various methods for assessing occupational risk from harmful and hazardous factors of industrial activity. A mathematical model is proposed for assessing the risk of health damage in the units of the Federal Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia on the principle of labor loss by personnel from various types of health damage. Its values were calculated for employees of the Federal Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia for 2015-2019.
L. E. Pustovaya,
SAFETY OF TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SYSTEMS; https://doi.org/10.23947/2541-9129-2021-2-43-49

Abstract:
Introduction. The article deals with the problems of analysis and assessment of the safety level of hazardous production facilities of port facilities that have a negative impact on both the environment and the personnel working at the facility. Objects of this kind are referred to the first class of hazard; therefore, they require a comprehensive assessment of their resistance to emergencies in terms of the likelihood of their occurrence in specific industrial conditions. Problem Statement. The objective of this study is a comprehensive analysis of the safety level of the most vulnerable areas of the technological process of port activities. Theoretical Part. The results of a scheduled inspection of the AO “Ust-Donetsk Port” conducted by the Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resources were used as basic information. Conclusion. Based on the calculation results, it was found that the probability of an emergency for the most dangerous scenario is 2.4×10-8 and corresponds to the acceptable risk zone.
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