Energy and Environment Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1927-0569 / 1927-0577
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 222
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Lesley Luo
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/eer.v11n1p93

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Energy and Environment Research, Vol. 11, No. 1
Jiongming Wang, Feng Wang, Zhenglong Yu, Xiaochen Chen, Xiaojie Lin, Peng Zhang, Zhouyong Lin, Jincheng Chen, Hongyu Guan, Yutong Gong
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/eer.v11n1p86

Abstract:
The first phase of a power plant has two subcritical 300 MW units, and each boiler feed water pump is equipped with two with 50% capacity steam driven feed pumps and one 50% capacity electric start-up feed pump. The two steam pumps are put into operation during normal operation. After the heat supply transformation in the unit of the first phase of this power plant and based on the calculation and analysis of the heat balance of the unit, it is found that there will be insufficient output of the feed pump due to the insufficient steam source after the flow-through transformation, which will affect the water supply of the unit and reduce the energy utilization rate. To avoid this, the steam source of feed pump turbine needs to be selected again. Taking the original steam turbine condition of feed pump and the original steam source of feed pump turbine as the research basis, this paper makes analysis on the steam source transformation, and concludes the scheme of steam source selection and reconstruction based on energy matching. The feasibility of the scheme is tested and verified finally.
Jianbo He, Zhenyu Wang, Mingdong Zhang
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/eer.v11n1p78

Abstract:
When the signal to noise ratio of seismic data is very low, velocity spectrum focusing will be poor., the velocity model obtained by conventional velocity analysis methods is not accurate enough, which results in inaccurate migration. For the low signal noise ratio (SNR) data, this paper proposes to use partial Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack to build CRS gathers, making full use of all of the reflection information of the first Fresnel zone, and improves the signal to noise ratio of pre-stack gathers by increasing the number of folds. In consideration of the CRS parameters of the zero-offset rays emitted angle and normal wave front curvature radius are searched on zero offset profile, we use ellipse evolving stacking to improve the zero offset section quality, in order to improve the reliability of CRS parameters. After CRS gathers are obtained, we use principal component analysis (PCA) approach to do velocity analysis, which improves the noise immunity of velocity analysis. Models and actual data results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.
C. Anandan, C. Senthil Kumar
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/eer.v11n1p65

Abstract:
The Tsunami, which struck the east coast of India on 26th December 2004, caused huge damage to life, property and environment. Beyond the heavy toll on human lives, it had caused an enormous environmental impact. Kalpakkam located in the south east coast of India is one of the areas affected by the tsunami. At some locations along the coast around Kalpakkam, morphological changes, vegetation loss and fatality were reported. Later, a slew of remedial measures were initiated at Kalpakkam in 2006 and construction of coastal armoring in the form of Tsunami Protection Wall (TPW) of 3.2 km length was one of them. A study was undertaken to assess the impact of this TPW on the surroundings based on periodic measurements of High Water Line (HWL) before and after construction of the wall. Also beach profiles were made at selected locations to observe seasonal changes in sedimentation pattern (i.e. accretion and erosion). As the residential area at Kalpakkam is located between fishing hamlets at northern and southern side, it is necessary to understand the impact of TPW, if any, in the surrounding area and on the fishing hamlets. Towards this assessment, high resolution satellite data such as Quickbird and IKONOS were employed (for the years 2002, 2003, 2009 and 2011) to measure the HWL. In addition, monthly beach profiles were carried out to measure the sedimentation pattern at selected transects with the help of N3 Precision Level survey instrument for the year 2009. The detailed investigations and analysis revealed no significant impact on the beach morphology and sedimentation patterns due to the construction of TPW, within the residential areas as well as at fishing hamlets. The average variations in the position of HWL along the coast was 4.6m and sedimentation changes were in the range of ≈ 0.5m in the berm of backshore region and ≈ 1.7m in the swash zone of the foreshore region all along the study area. No adverse effect is observed and the variations observed are similar to that in an unarmored control beach. The study provides the confidence that multi-dated satellite monitoring together with the profiling of beach would suffice the need for understanding the changes in the beach morphology due to the construction of beach armoring.
F. B. Elehinafe, O. B. Okedere, A. O. Mamudu, M. E. Emetere
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/eer.v11n1p50

Abstract:
The review looked at Nigeria's energy status, energy mix, and renewable energy potentials in order to provide information on the opportunities in the country's energy sector that could be taken advantage of, by people, researchers, investors, businesses, and governments. This is critical in light of the existing energy supply gaps hence the need for sustainable energy production.
Satoshi Matsuda, Reni Sutri Suherman, Akira Yanagihara, Tadashi Yamauchi
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/eer.v11n1p37

Abstract:
Previously, we developed a “static type” garbage treatment system whose performance exceeds that of conventional garbage treatment systems. However, we could not explain the system’s excellent performance especially from a microbial ecosystem’s stand point (Matsuda et al, 2017). Microbial activity causes the decomposition of organic materials in a garbage treatment process. However, we do not know which microbes are effective in garbage decomposition and what relationship exists between the succession of a microbial community and the decomposition of organic materials in a garbage composting process.  This study analyzed the relationship between a continuous operation garbage treatment system’s microbial community and the decomposition of organic matter and evaluated for effective microbes in the same garbage treatment system. Although many research articles have been published on the composting processes throughout the world, most of them employ batch processes and not continuous processes. Conversely, most real-world practical composting plants adopt a continuous operation system in which fresh feed is usually input once a day with continuous aeration and intermittent mixing.  To comprehensively analyze the microbial community, three different approaches were adopted in this study; 1) colony observation, 2) DNA analysis, and 3) the enzymatic activities of each colony. In our experiment, the working volume was 10 L of leaf mold and 40 g/(day L) of garbage (the organic load) was input to the reactor every day at a fixed time. Dog food with 70 % moisture content was used as a model garbage substrate. The reactor’s internal temperature, the total reactor’s weight and the sampled residue’s weight, moisture content and pH were measured before inputting garbage. Additionally, the reactor’s internal temperature was measured six hours later. The internal temperature was about 55 ℃ at the highest without heating. The organic matter decomposition rate was about 50 % and the weight reduction rate was over 90 %, implying successful garbage decomposition was achieved. The microbial composition and the number of the colonies seen on the medium plate changed every day and did not realize a “steady state.” Thus an extremely efficient microbe does not exist. Only eleven microbes were isolated; yet many more microbes must exist in the system but were not counted due to a high dilution rate. From our DNA analysis, the PCR-DGGE profile of the microbial community in the garbage residue showed that bands of isolated colonies were detected in the same positions as the bands of garbage residue, which contained all kinds of microbes. Nine microbes were identified using 16S rRNA genome from eleven isolated ones. The identified microbes were of different bacterial species and their characteristics were examined from the stand point of nutritional property and enzymatic activity.  The garbage decomposition process consists of two steps, solubilization and metabolization. Extracellular enzymes act during solubilization of solid garbage residue, and intracellular enzymes work when water-soluble substances are taken up into bacterial cells and metabolized. Protease and amylase activity were measured to assess extracellular enzymatic activity and dehydrogenase activity was measured to evaluate intracellular enzymatic activity. The enzyme activities of bacterial strains significantly differed by strain. Results from this study suggest complementary microbial activity and that Bordetella trematum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtills subtills and Streptomyces thermocarboxydus effectively decompose garbage.
Abhijeet Acharya
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/eer.v11n1p1

Abstract:
Under the market reforms, the unbundling of energy systems has opened new areas for value creation at a competitive price, which was impossible in centralized energy markets dominated by utilities. The renewable energy market via Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) has emerged as a realistic business proposition within such reforms. In the last decade, the renewable energy market based on the PPA scheme has seen unprecedented growth in Europe and North America. The falling cost of renewable energy and exigency to achieve energy transition targets have created new opportunities for Independent Power Producers (IPP) via the PPA route. Alongside, the PPA improves bankability and ensures a long-term revenue stream for renewable energy projects in the subsidy-free environment. On the contrary, the complexity of PPA models, market risks, and intermittency of energy generation pose challenges to IPPs and buyers. Considering PPA is an evolving concept, this paper aims to contribute to the existing knowledge on PPAs by analyzing critical success factors in the PPA model. During analysis, the elements that emerged as critical success factors are 1) tariff design, 2) bankability to secure funds, 3) addressing intermittency, and 4) stakeholder engagement. With a focus on regional settings and emerging trends, this paper discussed the rationale for PPA model selection, risk management practices, and strategic partnerships for value creation. During analysis, we also observed that the PPA schemes are driven by local market configuration, demand patterns, and country-specific policies.
Menelik Walle Mekonen, Niranjan Sahoo
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/eer.v10n2p50

Abstract:
In this paper, energy, exergy, suitability and economic evaluation of a diesel engine running with diesel fuel and five different types of preheated biodiesel blends were evaluated experimentally. The experiments were carried out at varying engine brake mean effective pressures (bmeps). The energy and exergy rate components of the engine were callcualted and compared for each operating conditions and blends of fuel. The fuel properties of the castor oil methyl ester (COME) at different preheating temeperatures have been tested with a consideration of different biodiesel international standards. The test results shows that the fuel properties of COME improve with increase of fuel inlet temeperatures. At 114°C, kinematic viscosity and density decreased to (5.74 mm2/s and 862 kg/m3), whcich is close to diesel fuel, and the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) was improved by 33.1% and 49.6% compared to the fuel preheated temeperature of 42°C. The input fuel energy and exergy rates of blends of fuel were seen to be improved than diesel fuel. The maximum energetic and exergetic efficiency for blended fuels in the test engine at 372 bmep were found in the range of 25−28 % and 23-26%, respectively. The blends of fuel are marginally less sustainable than diesel fuel at every bmeps. The cost analyses show that, all blends of fuel offer quite higher economic cost with respect to diesel fuel. The full economic analysis reveals that only up to 60% blends of fuel is more affordable as compared to diesel.
Ebrima K. Ceesay, Hafeez O. Oladejo, Prince Abokye, Ogechi N. Ugbor
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/eer.v10n2p39

Abstract:
Linkages between Climate Change, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction have become increasingly popular in local and international communities. This is due to the fact that we are currently facing pressing issues about climate change and poverty reduction effects in our planet. In this paper an empirical testing of the effects of Climate Change, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction was carried out. Panel estimation methods of fixed effect, random effect, and panel unit root test-fisher type with trend and constant were applied. From the results, shows that economic growth has a negative and highly significant effect on the growth of poverty in the selected West African countries. Using growth rate of economics as dependent variable, the result shows that growth of poverty is highly significant. The population living in rural areas is significant with growth of poverty and highly significant with growth of food security. The policy recommendation is that the government of the west African countries should put in place strategies to reduce poverty, climate change effects on economics growth by following measures; to have strong institution and avoidance of corruption.Such strategies contain to counter climate change effects and increase the resilience of the economy, society and country in general.
Omar S. Alzaid, Basharat Salim, Jamal Orfi, Salah Khan, Hassan AlShehri
Energy and Environment Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/eer.v10n2p25

Abstract:
Solar and wind energy systems are attractive hybrid renewable energy systems suitable for various applications and most commonly for power generation. Compared to standalone wind and solar devices, hybrid systems have several advantages, including requiring lesser or no storage devices, being more reliable, damping the daily and seasonal variations and ensuring constant energy flows. This work aims to conduct a feasibility study and a performance analysis of a hybrid wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power system in selected regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A detailed review on the potential of PV, wind energy and hybrid energy systems in KSA, to reason out the potential areas of study, has identified two sites to be selected to carry out the investigation. A small size power system driven by solar and wind energy has been modeled and simulated for a year period in the selected locations. Various configuration schemes of integrated solar and wind with storage devices for such a small capacity system have been proposed and their respective performances have been evaluated. Techno-economic aspects have been included. The simulation results indicated that the developed model shows a promising future of implementing the renewable energy system in the eastern and southern regions of the Kingdom. 
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