International Journal of Business and Management

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ISSN / EISSN : 1833-3850 / 1833-8119
Total articles ≅ 3,766
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David Leong
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n9p29

Entrepreneurship researches started to have traction at the start of 1980 and underwent paradigmatic shift. However despite the varied veins of exploration from opportunities to innate traits, entrepreneurship literatures have yet developed a unifying conceptualization and theory with key concepts that can clearly explain why entrepreneurs act the way they do? What inspires them to action? What seduce them to move at all? This paper intends to relate the study of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial actions and activities with references to thermodynamic and energy gradient manipulation mechanism. Studying business ventures from a process view in an attempt to reconstruct the entrepreneurial process by illustrating a range of relevant perspectives from energy gradients in naturally occurring chemicals and suspension coils, this paper hopes to pull together a unifying theory on entrepreneurship basing on the forces at work with thermodynamic concepts and expressions with gradient-manipulation mechanism to explain the entrepreneurial action-motion phenomena. The gradient-manipulating mechanism and thermodynamic expressions thus become the “nature” invisible hand that operates the motion of actions. Kirzner’s theory of entrepreneurship explains the coordination of markets and of knowledge. It is that knowledge, the recognition of the opportunities in the actual imperfect markets that triggers the gradient-manipulation mechanism. The findings of this paper suggest that entrepreneurial actions are force-driven by the lure of profits to select of best pathways and means to achieve the ends. The idea that entrepreneurial actions are the results of the play of forces with thermodynamic forces at work is a powerful suggestion in the finding of this paper.
Nagendra Marisetty, Pardhasaradhi Madasu
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n8p71

Capital markets being the backbone of the economy, are expected to be functioning efficiently. Efficiently-priced financial markets are considered a catalyst for the economic growth of the nations (Malkiel, 2010). Efficient markets are the reflection of security valuations. In an informationally efficient market, no one can beat the market and make abnormal returns based on the information because the information is instantaneously observed in the stock prices. The current paper analyses the market efficiency of three of the most popular corporate events, i.e., announcement of cash dividends, bonus issues, and stock split in the Indian context. The sample is 2253 pure cash dividend announcements (627 large-caps, 552 mid-caps, and 1074 small-caps), 152 bonus issue announcements (49 large-caps, 33 mid-caps, and 70 small-caps), and 181 stock split announcements (35 large-caps, 34 mid-caps, and 112 small-caps) were used for this study. Event methodology market model used to calculate Average Abnormal Returns (AAR) and Cumulative Average Abnormal Returns (CAAR). The results of the study have few findings which are contradictory to the existing literature on market efficiency. The cash dividend announcements have shown evidence for market efficiency, and results are contrary to Gupta et al. (2012), but the results are similar to Mishra (2005). Bonus issue announcements also have shown evidence for a semi-strong form of efficiency, test results identical to Dhar and Chhaochharia (2008), Kumar and Mittal (2015). Stock split announcements have not shown market efficiency, and the effect is similar to the study of Lakshmi and Roy (2012) and contrary to Chavali and Zahid (2011). Our results also support the premise that the emerging countries depict evidence of market efficiency (Bechev, 2003). Finally, we conclude that market efficiency results differ based on corporate announcements and market capitalization.
Rei Hasegawa, Shinji Hasegawa, Takashi Akiyama
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n8p96

This study compares the factors that are inferred to directly and indirectly influence the process of determining employees’ turnover intention in Japan. This study focuses on the differences made by firm type, that is, Japanese firms vs. foreign-owned or foreign-affiliated firms. Multiple-group structural equation modeling was attempted by applying factors such as perceived organizational support, the positiveness of a worker, firm-specific skills, organizational commitment, perception of career opportunities within the current firm and in other firms, and turnover intention. It was found that the inferred determinants of turnover intention differed by firm type; specifically, career prospects, either internal or external, do not directly affect turnover intention in Japanese firms. For workers in foreign firms, positivity is significantly higher than that of Japanese firms. Positivity plays a crucial role in both firms; moreover, our study provides supporting evidence of the existence of sub-markets in Japan and shows that the transition of workers from foreign-owned to Japanese firms might be rare.
Kiconco Yvonne, Shimei Jiang
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n8p115

The sudden change in scenarios due to the COVID-19 pandemic has not only affected people’s financial situations but also their health and wellbeing. Psychological, physical discomfort along with on and off work schedules have led to stress for both the employer and employee. Gearing pressure of competition to survive in the dying economy has led to a path for the ‘New Normal’ where the current situation has been accepted as Normal with new adaptations. Employees, risking their lives and leaving the so-called comfort of their homes have had to step out to join the office while others have turned their homes into offices so as to work from home. They are at high risk of infection and stressed with the changed working scenario. The most challenging phase for the employers is the well-being of their employees for the continuous and timely work progress. The Role of HR has become the most crucial factor during this pandemic. Dealing with the employees and getting the work done with the limited resources in the crisis is the most challenging task. The present paper studies the three terms- 'New Normal', 'Employee Wellbeing' and 'Role of HR' within linked perspective and provides insight based on the various researches done in this field. It has been found that employee well-being is a well-talked topic and it has been a great concern for all the HR executives for a long time. Well- being of the employee ensures mutual gain for the employee and the organization both.
Anthony Wakwe Lawrence, Damiete Onyema Lawrence
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n9p1

Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is currently the biggest crisis affecting the world. COVID-19 has claimed the lives of millions and is impacting the economic lives, ways of life and at least psychological health of most people. We used Port Harcourt as area of study to understand if sizes and types of these businesses affect sustainability/survivability in relation to the impact of COVID-19. We administered questionnaires to 568 business owners/mangers of 11 business types of the two sizes (micro and small). The information gathered were analysed using both quantitative and qualitative means and also presented graphically. The micro-sized businesses were more successful in terms of their abilities to continue getting patronage, getting supplies, retaining workers and eventually making profit during the peak of COVID-19 pandemic. Those whose products were considered more essential in relation to lockdown and health circumstances: fruit sellers, online enabled businesses, Point of Sale units (POS), drugs and petroleum product sellers thrived better than others. Considering the subsistent level of existence of these micro and small sized businesses, their major needs are effective provision of credit facilities and availability of other supportive business interventions including provision of palliatives/relief measures during crisis to real business operators and not to ‘ghosts’ by government and others to sustainably grow their businesses. As population pressure increases, with the attendant rise in unemployment rate, recommendation is made for business entrepreneurial skills to be incorporated into all levels of educational curricula to facilitate greater chance of success for those who choose the business pathway.
Chin-Hung Liu, Jui-Lung Chen
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n8p55

We conducted a consumer survey and used SPSS to examine the effects among technology acceptance model, theory of planned behavior, conformity and government low-carbon policies. The results of this study show that: 1. perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use have a significant and positive impact on green behavior attitude; green behavior attitude, green perceived behavior control, green subjective norms, and government low-carbon policies all have a significant and positive impact on green behavioral intention, and green behavioral intention also has a significant and positive impact on green consumption behavior. 2. The normative and informational influences in conformity both have a significant and positive impact on green subjective norms, with normative influence exerting a greater impact. 3. On average, female consumers expressed a significantly higher agreement than male consumers with regard to the technology acceptance model, the theory of planned behavior, and conformity, and married consumers expressed a higher agreement than single and divorced consumers with regard to the technology acceptance model. The above results could provide companies with reference for development and business strategies involving sustainable displays.
Stephen Lee
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n7p133

Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 16 No. 7, 2021
Li Sun, Ning Cheng
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n8p37

This article studies the impacts of sense of career calling and perception of career development opportunities on work engagement, taking academic advisors as survey object. An online questionnaire survey was carried out on academic advisors of colleges and universities in Henan Province, China. Purposive sampling is used for the convenience of data collection, and a total of 400 valid questionnaires were received. SPSS statistical software is used to conduct descriptive analysis, independent sample t-test, and regression analysis of sample data. Research results show that academic advisors have a higher sense of career calling, perception of career development opportunities, and work engagement. Married teachers have a higher sense of career calling, perception of career development opportunities, and work engagement. Sense of career calling and perceived career development opportunities have a significant positive impact on work engagement, and career mission has a greater impact on work engagement than perceived career development opportunities. This research can help college administrators and decision makers realize the importance of the psychological needs of academic advisors in improving work engagement.
Damiete Onyema Lawrence, Anthony Wakwe Lawrence
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n8p21

This research is aimed at finding out if micro/small sized business owners/managers apply business planning processes and how they survived the impact of COVID-19 in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. We interviewed 568 enterprise units covering 11 classes of businesses that represent most of the micro and small-sized businesses. We applied statistical and graphical methods to analyse the data obtained. Businesses adopted creative measures like online advertisement, online marketing and home delivery where possible to remain afloat after the restrictions imposed by government. Some diversified their businesses into other areas where the market is flourishing like selling sanitizers and face masks. We also observed that a good number of these micro-sized business owners/managers do not adopt structured business plans, review the performances of their businesses, have guiding policies and do not understand the importance of having such policies. These are weak links towards sustainable growth of such businesses. Businesses that do not plan and do not know if their businesses are performing well and if they are beginning to make profit from what was invested is groping in the dark and that is not safe places for businesses to be. Based on the findings/discussions/conclusions, it will be needful to embark on further research to identify the specific business skill gaps among micro and small-sized businesses and develop appropriate interventions to bridge such capacity gaps. Finally, we recommended a 9 points model as a tool for micro and small size businesses in assessing and managing crisis.
Maria Vincenza Ciasullo, Raffaella Montera, Emilia Romeo
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n8p1

The paper aims to perform an assessment of the literature at the intersection of data and business models, examining the extent to which the data-driven business model (DDBM) is considered in the current literature and how it is characterised in terms of approaches, benefits and barriers. A systematic literature review (SRL) of the available body of knowledge on these topics was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach. The SRL reveals limited but rapidly growing coverage of the cutting-edge phenomenon on the part of scientific studies. In problematising the extant literature, competitive, cultural and strategic approaches are proposed together with the relative enablers fostering the adoption of each approach. Benefits and barriers to the implementation of a DDBM are also discussed across technical, organisational and financial dimensions. The insights derived from a critical review of the DDBM literature point out gaps, which may itself inform future research and theory development in this area, as well as support practitioners’ decision-making on the datatisation of business models.
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