International Journal of Business and Management

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1833-3850 / 1833-8119
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 3,713
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Latest articles in this journal

Evita Allodi, Enrico M. Bocchino, Gian P. Stella
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n2p65

The conceptualisation of the insurance culture and the identification of a standard measuring instrument are the first steps towards defining a literate consumer. Obviously knowledge, understood as the ability to understand and use concepts in a conscious way, is considered to be a key variable for measuring the levels of many conceptual definitions of literacy, so also for insurance literacy. The aim of our research is precisely to verify the validity and reliability of a questionnaire that is composed of 7 questions that can represent a tool for measuring the level of insurance knowledge of consumers. The questions investigate the mere knowledge of insurance definitions and concepts, without going into too much detail about specific types of policies. To pursue this goal, a factor analysis has been conducted through a sample that is composed of 274 Italian respondents. The results show that those items are able to measure the basic insurance knowledge of a consumer.
Lucong Wang, Jingchao Dai
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n2p54

As a tool of communication and a carrier of information, language learning needs to pay the price and cost, language ability is also a form of human capital, which has an impact on income and employment. In order to found the economics effects of language ability, we studied relationship between language ability and income using China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) data from 2010 to 2016. We found that improvement of both Mandarin proficiency and English proficiency can significantly promote the total income and wage income. Considering the missing variables in the model and the endogeneity problem of reverse causality, instrumental variables were used to deal with the endogeneity problem, and the income effect of language ability still existed. From the perspective of the influence mechanism, social capital is an important channel through which language ability affects the total income of employees.
Abdullah Mohammed Aldakhil
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n2p46

Many scholars have explored the Knowledge Integration (KI) with the improvement of firm’s performance. However, there is still scarcity of the literature available on integrating the knowledge and exploring process improvement of the firms, specifically the manufacturing firms operating in an emerging economy (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia KSA). The available literature focused on investigating and defining knowledge integration conceptually and ignored the need to investigate the knowledge integration. Therefore, this paper provides the guidelines for researchers, practitioners as well as policy makers about the integration of knowledge and its impact on process improvement. The paper explores a comprehensive understanding of knowledge integration with some motivational factors – Employee Empowerment and Recognition and Rewards. The paper provides significant contributions to Saudi-Manufacturing firms. The paper first, explores the literature that the manufacturing firms should understand before implementing the knowledge integration capabilities in their businesses. Second, it provides a successful framework for the Saudi-Manufacturing firms. Hypotheses are developed on the relationships among the KI (internal integration as well as external integration) and process improvement. The data is collected through a survey questionnaire from senior managers working in in Saudi Manufacturing firms and is analysed by using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results have revealed that the firms implementing knowledge integration in their processes from supplier to customers are performing exceptionally well as compared to the other firms.
Ateyah Mohammad Alawneh
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n2p30

The study aims to build a model of government spending in Jordan using ARDL analysis through the use of an E-views program by determining the relationships between government spending and variables, such as the gross domestic product (GDP), government revenues, economic openness (OP), inflation rate, unemployment, population growth rate, and public debt. The statistical analysis showed a significant positive relationship between government spending and (GDP) and government revenues. It revealed significant positive relationships between government spending and) OP (and inflation. It found the statistically significant negative effect of the unemployment rate and the population growth rate on government spending. A negative relationship was found between government spending lag (1) and current government spending. Public debt was found to have a positive but not statistically significant effect on government spending. The relationships between the dependent variable and independent variables of government spending were consistent with unrestricted ARDL analysis in the long term. The analysis showed a statistically significant positive relationship between government spending and GDP at a short-term level but a statistically significant negative relationship between government spending and independent variables, such as population growth rate, inflation rate, and unemployment rate at a short-term level. One of the most important recommendations of the study was working to increase government spending in a way that is compatible with the increasing population growth. The study recommends government intervention to bring in more revenue through income-generating economic activities. Contribution / Originality: This will be one of the few studies to build a model of government spending using Autonomous Distributed Regression (ARDL). The study also provides a scientific addition in the field of financial and economic sciences from a scientific point of view through the use of different statistical methods using ARDL analysis on the long and short levels to assist the government in preparing the state's general budget. The study also helps the government to develop in the field of public finances and prepare an unconventional general budget.
Ramzi Belkacemi, Kamal Bouzinab, Andrew Papadopoulos
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n2p1

Boards’ diversity has been studied mainly through the prism of ethics, which translated into a focus on characteristics such as gender and ethnicity. However, when the goal is to explain organizational outcomes, the cognitive approach seems more pertinent. Thus, rooted in a resource dependency perspective, this paper investigates the potential impact of directors’ deep level diversity (functional and educational diversity) on innovation performance based on an international sample of 97 firms for a total of 1027 directors. The findings highlight the negative effect of functional diversity (measured by diversity in the sectors of expertise), and on the opposite, the positive impact of educational diversity (measured by diversity in the fields of study) on innovation performance. This study also shows that the environment in which organizations evolve, both at the internal and external level, is crucial when it comes to innovation performance. These results are robust in that they remain consistent after addressing some potential endogeneity issues and have critical implications for both the professional and academic world.
Robinsar Jogi Yoshua Manullang, Siti Jahroh
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n2p21

Ecotourism is a nature tourism that focuses on a protected area or area that contributes to the welfare of the local community and conservation and education for the community. Meanwhile, as much as 98.9 percent of the forest area under its management rights is still controlled by corporations and capital owners. While the rest which is no more than 1.1 percent of the area of ​​forest management rights is controlled by the community. Enhancing the role of forest areas, especially conservation forests, needs to be done to improve the quality of life of communities around the buffer zones. The purpose of this study is to identify service quality factors that influence customer satisfaction and interest in ecotourism visits in Saporkren, and formulate ecotourism marketing strategies in Saporkren. This is done to increase the number of ecotourism visitors in Saporkren, which of course will provide increased income for the community and improve the quality of life of the Saporkren people. The population in this study were visitors from the Saporkren ecotourism. The sampling technique uses accidental sampling and purposive sampling. The selected respondents were tourists who were visiting Saporkren and were found by researchers and tourists who had visited Saporkren at least once in the past one year. Endogenous variables (Y) and (Z) in this study are consumer satisfaction and interest in return visits. Exogenous variables (X) in this study are tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The data processing technique used in this study is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with LISREL 8.7 software. Based on the results of the study, only three out of five service quality factors were identified that affected customer satisfaction, namely tangible, reliability, and assurance. And in this study, consumer satisfaction is proven to affect the interest in a repeat visit. After that, from the interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD), a strategy that could be implemented in ecotourism in Saporkren was formulated to explore potential tourism that could be exploited in addition to birdwatching for tangibles, and to train and certify tour guides in Saporkren for reliability and assurance.
Stephen Lee
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n1p116

Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 16 No. 1, 20201
Mansour S. M. Lotayif
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n1p110

The current article addresses the leadership in higher education institutions (HEIs) with diversified cultures’ academics. It stresses the importance of leadership in academia by presenting a self-experience case in this perspective. The experience of 100 academics were utilized, via one-to-one interview, in this perspective in answer two research questions i.e. “how to deal appropriately with a much diversified work culture” and “how to exercise leadership traits in a diversified higher education context?
Roberto Bruni, Annarita Colamatteo, Evgenia Nekhoda
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n1p79

The world is living in a period of turbulence in terms of health and environmental emergencies, markets and societies complexity. Providing sustainable wellbeing and quality of life to population is a challenge for governments. Policy makers are searching for useful strategies to satisfying the needs of population, and forecasting problems for the future. Technology, use of data, international cooperation and networks are change-generating forces that cause effects on markets and societies and modify the design, production, and consumption of products and services. Companies manage the factors that stimulate the change, modifying or adapting their management and marketing approaches. The challenge of managing turbulence of societies and the relationship with internal and external stakeholders appears to be more difficult for governments. Including literature from sociology, geography, and business and management, a selection of multidisciplinary contributions is presented to explain the role of advanced marketing frameworks appliable by governments to overcome the complexity within territories caused by the change-generating forces. The paper presents the place marketing ‘value co-creation driven’ as a useful framework to manage the place value proposition by governments, using specific capabilities and a systemic approach.
Khleef A. Alkhawaldeh
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n1p92

This research paper attempts to reveal the level of innovation types in Jordanian services companies. It also investigates the relationship between the overall innovation and profitability in these services companies. Innovation types have been measured through a questionnaire distributed to the members of Securities Depository Center SDC - Public Shareholding Companies – Service Sector. Profitability has been measured through the mean of net profits after taxes for the two years 2018 and 2019. The research findings indicate that innovation types in these companies is slightly below the average level. The results of research also indicate that there is a statistically significant positive impact of overall innovation on profitability of Jordanian services companies. The research concludes that investment in innovation is a key pillar for profitability of business companies.
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