Indian Journal of Economics and Development

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2277-5412 / 2322-0430
Total articles ≅ 1,227
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Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 237-244; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20130

Abstract:
The study was carried out by collecting information from 80 milk producers-cum-consumers and 50 consumers from the rural and urban areas, respectively, to assess the production and utilization pattern of milk and milk products at the household level. The selected 80 producer households were further post stratified into three categories, namely, 42 small (1-2 milch animals), 26 medium (3-4 milch animals), and 12 large (5 and above milch animals) herd size categories. The analysis revealed that indigenous cattle were dominating the bovine composition among the various species. However, buffaloes contributed the largest quantity of milk (35.79 percent), followed by indigenous cattle and crossbred cows with 34.57 and 29.64 percent, respectively. Across the various herd size categories, medium category households were contributing the highest milk (38.93 percent), followed by small (30.54 percent) and large herd size category households (30.52 percent). It was found that overall per capita milk availability and milk consumptions were 1.49 and 0.37 litres/day, respectively, in the study area. The utilization pattern show that rural consumers ed consumed 53.78 percent of their retained milk as liquid milk, whereas urban consumers consumed 46.54 percent. Overall, 49.69 percent of the total milk was utilized for intake in liquid form, while 50.31 percent was utilized for making milk products. Overall, among milk products, a nearly equal proportion of milk was utilized for making curd (22.57 percent) and ghee (22.41 percent). The proportion of milk consumed in the form of khoa (3.8 percent) and paneer (1.39 percent) was very less.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 420-431; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20241

Abstract:
The Covid-19 situation has thrown lights for a reality check about managing personal finance among the households. The research was designed in the context of the pandemic affecting the personal finance of millions of households. It stressed the need for financial literacy by explaining the various aspects – understanding the concept, identifying the benefits out of acquiring knowledge and skills in financial literacy, establishing the relationship of financial literacy with financial wellbeing, mapping the global situation in financial literacy, suggesting the remedial measures in ensuring financial wellness in the Covid-19 pandemic situation. The methodology of the study was to review the existing literature on financial literacy and education. The approaches and practices of financial education followed by countries interpreted by researchers in this field were reviewed and documented. The study contributes to the existing literature by summarizing the findings of the researchers in terms of knowledge one possesses in financial products and processes, the ability to make appropriate decisions to invest, borrow and secure, to understand the importance of savings and investment for retired life, etc. The global scenario versus India in financial literacy was brought out, throwing the light that India needs to travel further in the financial literacy landscape. It concludes by prescribing a series of financial wellness measures to make people resilient and reach financial well-being. The policy options suggested by the authors to start the learning of financial literacy from school education onwards, introduce financial education at the workplace, and implement financial education for the elderly and women invite the attention of policymakers and practitioners. The study can influence policymakers and practitioners to design target-specific financial education measures.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 468-473; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20230

Abstract:
The present study, dealing with the inequality in consumption of the rural households across the different regions, is based upon the primary data of the Punjab state. The analysis showed that Malwa excelled other two regions in the per capita consumption. The highest average propensity to consume was observed for Doaba, and it was the lowest for Malwa. All the rural households except large farm of all the three regions and medium farm households of Malwa and Majha were in deficit. Considering all households together, the inequality of household consumption expenditure was relatively high in all three regions, with the same being highest in Majha, followed by Malwa and Doaba. The concentration of consumption expenditure among the land-owning households was greater than the landless households.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 410-419; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21036

Abstract:
The deadly coronavirus has affected not only the lives of the people but also the economies of all states of the world. Mainly the lockdown to control the spread of the virus has affected economies. The primary objective of this study was to explore the impacts of novel coronavirus pneumonia on the economy of Pakistan and the government response to it. It has also severely affected the already vulnerable economy of Pakistan by limiting the economic activities, a lot of industrial units and small and medium-sized enterprises either stopped or limited their productions, foreign trade decreased by 40.74 percent, affected the services sector, reduced the tax collection volume, 2.06 million people lost their jobs, increased poverty ratio, tourism industry ruined, and GDP recorded negative for the first time in the history (0.38 percent). The pandemic not only affected the economy of the state but also severely affected the individual economies. The government of Pakistan released some relief packages for industries and poor people but could not control the impacts of a pandemic on the economy. Pakistan is required to formulate and implement comprehensive microeconomic policies to reduce economic losses.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 432-443; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20311

Abstract:
The study aimed to analyse the studies pertaining to market conditions around public issues with a deep concentration on the hot and cold issue market. It provides an insight into the Indian IPO market in the last two decades from 2001 to 2020. The review of literature consists of four major sections concentrating on contemporary market conditions, hot and cold issue markets, and postissue performance. It attempts to synchronize the literature over the hot and cold market with reference to post-issue performance and group affiliation of the issuers. The study revealed the strong influence of market conditions (hot and cold markets) in various parts of the world. It was also observed that along with other factors, hot and cold market issues also lead to the variation in their post-issue performance. Group affiliation as an essential company characteristic was also found to influence post-issue performance substantially.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 480-485; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20286

Abstract:
This study analyzed the economic impact of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP) on women labourers in rural Tamil Nadu. MGNREGP benefits the rural poor by providing equal wages to both men and women, guarantees 100 days of employment, and provides worksite facilities. This study was conducted in the newly established Tirupattur District of Tamil Nadu in 2018-2019. Tirupattur is one of the 20 blocks in the Vellore District. In Tamil Nadu, MGNREGP was implemented in three phases. In the Vellore district, MGNREGP was implemented under the third phase. A multistage random sampling technique was employed to collect the data from 99 sample households in Karupanur village panchayat. The findings revealed that all women labourers participated in the programme irrespective of their age groups, and the majority of them belonged to the economically weaker sections of society. The study showed that generally, the married women participated in the programme since their husbands could not manage the home with their little earnings. The majority of them, around 93.94 percent, were unaware of the worksite facilities like drinking water, rest shed, first aid box, and creche for their children. The sampled women labourers were unaware of compensation for injuries at the worksite and ex-gratia payment for death and disability. The majority of the scheduled caste women labourers spent their income on children's education. The Chi-square test revealed that women labourers found MGNREGP was very useful irrespective of their communities.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 289-297; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20229

Abstract:
The present study attempted to determine the determinants of the water conservation practices in rainfed agriculture, especially in the watershed program Keonjhar district of Odisha state in the eastern part of India. Primary data were collected by a multi-stage random sampling method. The sample size was 125 households, and information was collected by canvassing a pre-designed schedule to the head of the households through door-to-door interviews. Focus group discussions were conducted to get qualitative information. A probit binary model was applied for analysis. The factors like awareness of the farmers, participation, the share of agriculture income to the total income of the household, the slope of agricultural land, access to information were positively influenced the water conservation practice. In contrast, the caste of SC / ST household and distance of agricultural land negatively influences soil water conservation practices. The results revealed that better awareness with the active participation of people in the government program could neutralize the influence of socio-economic factors in the adoption of soil water conservation practices.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 321-330; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20095

Abstract:
In 2011, two of Asia's largest economies signed free trade agreement called Indo-Japan CEPA. From the signing of the agreement, based on trade value, India will abolish tariffs on items covering about 90 percent of its imports from Japan by 2021, whereas Japan will eliminate tariffs on items covering about 97 percent of its imports from India in the same year. Trade-in goods' agreement proposes to gradually reduce tariffs for over 4500 tariff lines or products at the six-digit level by 2021 on both sides. The study aimed to identify the list of potential agricultural products in which India will gain from increased exports and a list of commodities where India needs to adopt a defensive strategy in trading with Japan. It covered ten years from 2007-08 to 2017-18, and the same was divided into two sub-periods: the pre-FTA period (2007-08 to 2010-11) and the post-FTA period (2011-12 to 2017-18). Seventeen agricultural products such as chickpeas, frozen pacific salmon, ground-nut oil-cake, cottonseed oil-cake, frozen livers and roes, fennel seeds, opium sap, wheat, and meslin were identified as potential products in which India can gain from increasing its exports to Japan. Eight agricultural products were identified as sensitive products; out of these five were kept under the Exclusion category by India under IJCEPA. Therefore, India cautiously defended these products, but three products, such as soups and broths, pasta, and yeasts subjected to a gradual reduction in tariffs (i.e., duty-free by 2021). Technical and financial assistance to the traders and producers of these products will help them to match the requirements imposed by Japan of SPS and TBT measures and increase their exports. Government should also provide clear directives and necessary assistance to the domestic producers or processors to counter the competition from Japanese exporters
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 245-255; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21003

Abstract:
Punjab's agrarian economy witnessed structural transformations under the influence of various policies and practices followed after that. The study attempted to bring out temporal changes in cropping patterns over a period of time and identify various factors responsible for the change. The study brought out that the cropping pattern had mainly shifted in favour of wheat and paddy crops, although the productivity of crops such as maize, cotton, and pulses increased over a period of time. The decline in crop diversification was primarily influenced by the increasing contribution of area and yield effects of land to the total production of crops, especially for wheat and rice crops. The study concluded that diversification could only be brought in the state
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 314-320; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20219

Abstract:
Considering the significance of trade relation between India and ASEAN, the present study was conducted to analyze the determinants of India-ASEAN trade in agricultural products. This study incorporated HS 2-digit codes from 01 to 24 chapters, which constituted 85 percent of the total chapter falling under agricultural products. To perceive the significance of ASEAN as a major trading partner, shares of India's trade with ASEAN relative to the world was computed via trade intensity approach. Furthermore, the gravity model was employed to witness the determinants of agriculture trade between the two trading partners. The study found that the GDP of ASEAN and India, the common border between the two trading blocs, was positive and significant. The variable distance and landlocked was observed to be negative and significant, which confirmed that trade would decrease if distance increases and if the country was landlocked, respectively. Interestingly, variables like FTA, GDP of India, common language, and common colony showed no significant effect on the bilateral trade.
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