International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 4 April 2021
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 1-9; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2121
Resistance training has been commonly used as a method of intervention in the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries affecting the knee. Thus, the objective of this systematic review was to identify the methods employed with and without implements in leg press and squat exercises for the maintenance of knee alignment. The literature search was performed in the databases: PubMed, SciELO, and Lilacs. We used the descriptors "muscle strength" and "exercise" and their synonyms, available in the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), with the terms "valgus knee" and "varus knee". From the 1,117 articles found, eight studies were considered for the review. The included studies had samples composed of young men and women with advanced levels of training. Despite verifying conditions of valgus or varus knee, the studies presented different protocols and assessment methods. The implements comprised physioball, elastic resistance, and wedge. Electromyography and kinematics were used to assess muscle activity and movement patterns. These results reinforced the possibility of using implements to induce muscle and joint actions to reduce varus and valgus conditions. We suggest more studies to define the best strategies to reduce the excessive deviation of the patella in people who have valgus or varus knee.
Published: 26 March 2021
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 34-44; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2115
To determine the effects of a virtual physical activity (PA) program in college students during social distancing due to COVID-19. 44 college students, male and female. Methods: Participants completed self-reported measures of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, weekly PA, and a short-survey of the educational experience during social distancing. Participants completed the instruments at baseline and after 10-weeks of an on-line virtual PA program. Increased overall PA (p = 0.040) and transportation PA (p = 0.004), leisure-time PA (p = 0.031) domains increased following the program. The sitting time increased following the intervention (p = 0.0001). Students who failed to comply with at least 150 min/week of PA reduced the frequency of positive emotions compared to those who complied (p = 0.017). Social distancing and daily college tasks seem to lessen the effect of PA on sedentary behavior in college students regardless of an increase in PA.
Published: 26 March 2021
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 24-33; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2114
To examine long term changes on glycated hemoglobin in sedentary employees exposed to two different walking programs during a 10-week intervention. A total of 68 sedentary employees participated in a 10-week walking intervention and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: intermittent walking, continuous walking or control group. Hemoglobin A1cNOW+ device tested glycated hemoglobin and accelerometry assessed physical activity. Results showed glycated hemoglobin significantly decreased over the ten weeks (5.82±0.49, 5.66±0.44) F(1,64) =4.229, p=.044) in the continuous walking group. Post-Hoc test showed the continuous walking group was significantly affected, F=8.463, p=.009, with a large size effect n2=.297. There were no changes within the intermittent group (5.69±0.63, 5.63±0.6) or control group (5.59±0.6, 5.6±0.54) (p>0.05). Accelerometry showed a main effect of time by group interaction F(4,124) =4.688, p=0.001). Post-Hoc indicated that the continuous walking group took significantly longer bouts of moderate to vigorous intensity walking at week-6 compared to pre-test (p=0.006) at this could have influenced the results, there were no changes in the length of bouts in the intermittent or control groups (p>0.05). Sedentary employees who perform a moderate intensity continuous walking program show benefits in controlling blood glucose, thereby, reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Published: 18 February 2021
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 16-23; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2113
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of coach leadership style on resilience level of volleyball players and to trace possible differences that exist between the two genders. Participants included 101 volleyball players (53 females and 48 males) and 31 coaches (11 females and 20 males), with the Self Evaluation Resilience test and the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS) used as instruments. The data was analyzed with SPSS 21.0 using t-test for independent samples, and simple regression (stepwise) analysis. Results of t-test showed statistically significant differences between male and female volleyball players in ‘‘orientation on solution and aims’’ and ‘‘self-efficacy’’ variables, with no other statistically significant differences observed for the rest resilience variables. Additionally, no statistically significant differences were observed for the LSS variables between the two genders of volleyball coaches. The results of simple regression (stepwise) analysis suggest that the autocratic behavior of volleyball coach has a significant impact on volleyball players’ resilience. Future research should investigate whether variables such as anxiety affect the resilience level of volleyball players.
Published: 26 January 2021
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 10-15; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2112
The development of instruments and the use of the same is expanding from year to year. The paper aims to determine the usefulness of Myotesta (MT), Optojump (OJ), Globe Ergo System (GES) as modern methods for assessing motor performance. The research included nine original scientific papers. All works satisfied the problem and could answer the set goal. The selection of works from 2009. to 2014. was taken as a method. There are specific differences when comparing the results for each of the instruments. Myotest has stood out as the smallest instrument and is easily portable and therefore effective to use. The assessment of explosive power is easy to perform, and the results it gives are reliable.
Published: 7 January 2021
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 1-9; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2111
Olympic weightlifting movements and their derivates are commonly used within resistance training sessions. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of different rest intervals (RI) over five sets of the high-pull (HP) on power output performance, lactate concentration [La] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses in trained subjects. Eleven well-trained males attended four testing sessions. The first session consisted of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) assessment. The next three sessions consisted of the same protocol (5 sets x 6 repetitions at 80% 1RM in the HP) but differing in the RI between sets used (1, 2 and 3 min). No significant power output decreases over the five sets in any RI condition. [La] did not significantly differ between RI conditions. The 1 min RI condition led to greater RPE values (6.5 ± 1.8) than both 2 (5.4 ± 1.6) and 3 min RI (5.0 ± 1.8). The present study shows that short RIs (i.e., 1 min) can be used by strength coaches to design more time-efficient sessions. The use of RPE during power training sessions should be considered as a sensitive tool to quantify training intensity.
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 85-90; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2049
The aim of the study was to determine the intensity of coping strategies used by students of Physical Education during a pandemic. Women and men were compared in terms of strategies considered positive and negative. The study used the psychological tool: Inventory for the Measurement of Coping with Stress. The participants were students of Physical Education (aged 25.69 ± 5.908); 26 women, 28 men. Results: the examined women show a higher intensity of both positive and negative coping strategies. The most common strategy among students is positive re-evaluation. Conclusions: The surveyed students experiencing difficult situations choose rather positive than negative strategies of coping with the problem. Women showing a higher level of coping strategies may be more aware of a difficult situation or experience a pandemic more intensely in relation to men.
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 91-96; doi:10.34256/ijpefs20410
We examined the energy costs of different resistance training protocols where exercise and recovery periods were equated: 48 total seconds of exercise and 210 seconds of between-set recovery. Two separate investigations were carried out at 65% of a 1 repetition maximum (1RM): back squat (7 men, 3 women) and bench press (9 men). Lifting cadence for concentric and eccentric phases was set at 1.5 sec each with 30 sec between-set recovery periods for the 8 sets, 2 reps protocol (sets) and a 3 min and 30 sec between-set recovery period for the 2 sets, 8 reps protocol (reps). The amount of oxygen consumed during lifting and between-set recovery periods was significantly greater for sets vs. reps protocol for both the back squat (+41%) and bench press (+27%) (p = 0.0001). Moreover, the total aerobic cost including the after-lifting excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was larger for the increased sets protocol for both the squat (+27%, p = 0.01) and bench press (+29%, p = 0.04). Total energy costs - aerobic plus anaerobic, exercise and recovery - were not different among sets or reps protocols. We conclude that a greater volume of oxygen is consumed with a lower repetition, increased number of sets resistance training protocol. We suggest that more recovery periods promote a greater potential for fat oxidation.
Published: 18 December 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 70-84; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2048
To determine the effect of small-sided games (SSG) on the repeated sprint ability (RSA) in male soccer players. A meta-analysis was conducted in which studies were selected from the electronic databases Medline, SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Results: Six studies were included and 44 effect sizes (ES) were computed from 116 men (age = 18.0 ± 2.8 yr., height = 175.8 ± 3.3 cm, weight = 68.6 ± 5.6 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 22.3 ± 1.1 kgm2, VO2max = 56.9 ± 2.1 mlkg-1min-1). The SSG training improved the overall RSA performance (ES = -.54, 95%CI = -.89, -.20, p < .05), reduced RSA total time (ES = -.41, 95%CI = -.81, -.01, p < .05), and fatigue index (ES = -.83, 95%CI = -1.65, -.02, p < 0.05). Moderator analysis showed that the fatigue index is impaired when several sessions/week are performed (β = .69, 95%CI = .29, 1.10, R2 = 82.9, p = .001) and is enhanced when the duration of the intervention is extended over several weeks (β = -.25, 95%CI = -.47, -.03, R2 = 56.6, p = .05). The methodological use of SSG enhances the capacity of repeated sprints, while technical and tactical elements are worked concomitantly.
Published: 12 December 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 60-69; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2047
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder impacts children’s participation in activities that require attention to instruction, sustained mental effort, and executive functioning. Physical activity has been correlated to improvement in attention in children with ADHD. Rock climbing challenges muscular endurance, attention, and route planning. Five participants, aged 8-13, participated in the climbing program. Attention was measured pre and post climbing intervention with Trail Making Test B (TMT-B) for time to complete. Exercise intensity was measured by heart rate. Parent feedback on behavior was collected with the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). The social validity of the intervention was measured by the IRP-15 measures. Statistically, significant intrasession attention improvements were noted in all 5 climbers (p=.43). Two climbers were consistently working at a moderate intensity (40-60% HRmax) while 3 climbers maintained a light level of intensity (20-40% HRmax). No statistically significant improvements were found on the CPRS, although improvements are noted with qualitative reports from parents. The IRP-15 showed 100% of parents believed rock climbing was an effective intervention for their children with ADHD. Rock climbing at a light to moderate intensity is associated with improvements in attention and behavior in children with ADHD.