International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 12 October 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 17-26; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2042
Low physical activity in children of pre-school and younger school age has been a multifaceted problem for several years, which is being addressed by several scientists, primarily doctors, educationalists, and psychologists. The purpose of our study is to compare somatic and motion prerequisites among physically active and physically inactive children from the first grades of primary schools in the Pilsen region. The research sample consisted of 753 pupils from the first grades of primary schools in the Pilsen region, of which 421 boys and 332 girls. Of a total number of pupils, 176 (23.4%) girls and 275 (36.5%) boys are engaged in any sporting activities. At the time of measurement, their average age was 6.87±0.59 years. To obtain somatic characteristics, body heights and weights of children were measured, and from the measured data, a body mass index (BMI) for the child category was calculated. To determine the level of motion prerequisites, we used the DMT 6-18 test battery, consisting of 8 tests. The tests are aim to assess the level of dynamic and explosive power, speed, coordination, balance, flexibility, and endurance. The results of our study highlight the fact that even in the age range of 6 to 7 years, there are significant differences between physically active and physically inactive children in the tests, which monitor motion prerequisites of children. Statistically significant differences were seen primarily in tests which monitor the level of fitness abilities, i.e. the components of the body health-oriented fitness.
Published: 12 October 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 01-16; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2041
This study aimed to examine the effects of an exposure-based resistance training (RT) intervention on perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for RT in college-aged females and to assess moderating effects of a trainer-trainee relationship on any intervention outcomes. A sample of 13 (Mage = 20.7 ± 1.3y) physically active, non-resistance training female students completed an 8-week intervention (1hr 45min, twice per week). The intervention was effective in reducing perceived time/effort (t = 5.02, p < 0.001, d = 1.81), physical effect (t = 2.48, p = 0.029, d = 0.86) and social (t = 4.86, p < .001, d = 1.97) RT barriers. A positive change pattern was established in stress management (t = 2.21, p = 0.048, d = 0.62), revitalization (t = 2.71, p = .019, d = 0.95), and enjoyment (t = 3.53, p = .004, d = 1.18). Finally, the analyses showed that goal (β = 0.23[0.02], p < 0001, R2 = 0.979) and bond (β = 0.21[.01], p < 0001, R2 = 0.995) alliances were positive moderators with large-sized effects on changes in physical barriers. For stress management, bond alliance was the only statistically significant, small-sized moderator, with a greater bond increasing the effect on the intervention (β = 0.21[.01], p < 0001, R2 = 0.997). This data suggests that an exposure-based RT intervention is beneficial for reducing perceived RT barriers in physically active, non-resistance training college-aged women and that bond-oriented support from the trainer is especially impactful in reducing some of those perceived barriers.
Published: 30 September 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 46-51; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2037
This study aimed to evaluate and compare functional capacity and biochemical factors among elderly women living in the urban and rural sectors of Yumbe, Chile. The sample consisted of 2 groups of elderly women from the province of Ñuble, from the eighth region of Chile, divided into urban elderly (UE) (n = 20) with a mean age of 67.57 ± 3.4 years, and rural elderly (RE) (n = 20), with a mean age of 71.25 ± 2.2 years. The following biochemical variables were analyzed: glycemic index a, and triglycerides levels and cholesterol levels. The test battery used to assess functional capacity was the Senior Fitness Test. It was found that the UE group presented better indices than the RE group for all variables except glycemia, for which the RE group presented better indices. In the functional capacity, in particular, the upper and lower body strength is significantly lower in the RE. The functional capacity and the biochemical parameters studied have shown that the elderly women of different social conditions in the Yumbe-Chile region do not present a good degree of functionality, and also show high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, which might be the cause of the increased prevalence of health problems in this population.
Published: 30 September 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 39-45; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2036
The objective of this study was to investigate the resilience of youth high level volleyball players. Forty-eight volleyball national team players U16 from Greece and Romania participated to the study (18 females and 30 males). The Self Evaluation Resilience test was used for the study. The data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0 using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni adjustment test. Results showed statistically significant differences between the males and females national team volleyball players in variables ‘‘healthy lifestyle’’ and ‘‘self-efficacy’’. It was concluded that coaches and volleyball players should recognize that female’s volleyball players focused more in healthy life style and having less self-efficacy comparing to same aged male’s volleyball players.
Published: 22 September 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 32-38; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2035
The diagnosis of morphological characteristics is an integral part of the entire training process in sports. This study aimed to determine the influence of morphological characteristics on the ball's speed of movement after the shoot from a spot and movement in handball. The sample included 36 female handball players aged 14.33 years. The predictor set consisted of 10 morphological variables. In comparison, the three variables constituted the criterion variables by which the ball's speed of movement was determined after different ways of shooting. Using regression analysis, it was found that the predictor set of variables explains about 70% of the variance for all three criterion variables. Individually, a statistically significant and positive influence on the speed of movement of the ball after the shot was recorded at the height and weight of the body, while a negative effect was observed for the variables; arm length, leg length and skin fold on the abdomen. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that morphological characteristics significantly influence the speed of movement of the ball after a shot in the handball, which can significantly contribute to the selection of handball players, as well as in establishing the tactics of handball, especially in situations where one shot decides the match. Also, the obtained results indicate the necessity of considering the age characteristics of the female respondents, that is, the need to adjust the training process to the period of intensive growth and development.
Published: 21 September 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 24-31; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2034
The aim of the study was to determine the performance indices of a repeated jumping test (RJT) over three different stages of a basketball game, and to examine their relationships with the aerobic capacity of young basketball players. Sixteen young (17.2 ± 0.4 yrs) trained basketball players performed an RJT (six sets of six consecutive vertical jumps) after warm-up, at halftime, and after completing a full game, as well as an aerobic power test (shuttle run test for 20m), each test taking place on a different day. Performance indices for each of the RJTs were the ideal jump height (IJ), the total jump height (TJ) of all the jumps, and the performance decrement (PD) throughout the tests. The IJ and TJ were significantly higher at the halftime compared with both after warm-up and after a full-time game (p
Published: 12 September 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 18-23; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2033
An athlete’s 4-year Olympic preparation cycle requires systematic planning involving the use of short- and long-term goals. These goals provide athletes with increased motivation, persistence, effort and direction in their goal pursuit. Short-term goals can be viewed as steppingstones towards the long-term goals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the use of short- and long-term goals by Olympic athletes. A qualitative design was used, with semi-structured interviews as the major data source. Participants were purposefully sampled from a typically understudied sports population. Four male Olympians, representing swimming and athletics, shared their experiences about how and why they set and used short- and long-term goals. The athletes spent an average of 11.3 years training and competing at the elite level. Findings revealed that winning a national championship and competing at the Olympic Games were their major long-term goals. Furthermore, these goals did not change during their athletic career. Short-term goals were primarily set to learn, develop and improve their skills/techniques that would allow them to reach their ultimate goals. Major competitive events (e.g. national championships, Pan Am Games, Olympic Games) dictated how they planned these goals. The findings also support previous research suggesting the use of both short and long-term goals. Coaches and young athletes can use the information provided to plan their sports goals. Future research should investigate the goal setting practices of team versus individual sport Olympic athletes.
Published: 30 August 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 9-17; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2032
The purpose of this study is to investigate the heart rate adaptations during deep dave diving with MCCR (mechanical closed circuit rebreather). Previous studies on this matter have not been conducted to the depths reached in this study and most of them have been conducted inside hyperbaric chambers trying to recreate the immersion conditions. The data collection took place during the exploration of two hydrogeological sites by a professional cave diver. The recordings were made using a SCUBAPRO GALILEO SOL® dive computer capable of monitoring the heart rate, with a sampling interval of 0,25 Hz. The data collected confirm a direct relationship between the increase in diving depth and the increase in the detected heart rate.
Published: 15 August 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 1-8; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2031
In this present work we took an initiation to compares the effects of two common approaches to group exercise: CXWORXTM and TabataTM , which employ differing exercise strategies, on common fitness measures and psychological perceptions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TabataTM versus CXWORXTM on body mass index (BMI), body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) measured self-perceptions in adult exercisers. The mixed gender sample consisted of a sub-set of 10 adult cross fit exercisers and 10 students from a regional comprehensive university class randomized to each exercise program. Analysis of Variance was used to examine program effects. While no significant main effect of the training period on body composition or BMI was found; mean VO2max was significantly increased as a large main effect across the study groups (F=1.054, P
Published: 28 June 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 79-89; doi:10.34256/ijpefs20210
The purpose of this study was to examine if performing a lower body resistance training priming activity effects athletic performance completed 24 hours later. University level field hockey players (N = 10) completed 1 control (CON) and 2 experimental trials on separate days. A randomised, counter-balanced experimental design with cross-over was used across three conditions. The CON trial consisted of complete abstention from physical activity. For the ‘strength’ (STR) experimental trial participants performed a parallel back squat exercise for 5 sets of 2 repetitions with 90% 1RM; while for the ‘hypertrophy’ (HYP) experimental approach was 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 75% 1RM. Subjects attended a testing session 24 hours after each trial, consisting of CMJ, SJ, 22-cm DJ, 38-cm DJ and 40 m sprint. The 5 m sprint performance was significantly better (p < 0.05) for CON group when compared to the HYP group. No other significant differences were highlighted between trials. The results indicate that performing resistance training in-line with STR and HYP the day before competition does not improve athletes’ performance. The results also suggest how a lower body STR priming activity can be implemented the day before competition without negatively impact subsequent performance. For the strength and conditioning coach, this may be a useful window to train athletes during the ‘in-season’ schedule.