International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 7 January 2021
by IOR Press
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 10, pp 1-9; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2111
Olympic weightlifting movements and their derivates are commonly used within resistance training sessions. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of different rest intervals (RI) over five sets of the high-pull (HP) on power output performance, lactate concentration [La] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses in trained subjects. Eleven well-trained males attended four testing sessions. The first session consisted of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) assessment. The next three sessions consisted of the same protocol (5 sets x 6 repetitions at 80% 1RM in the HP) but differing in the RI between sets used (1, 2 and 3 min). No significant power output decreases over the five sets in any RI condition. [La] did not significantly differ between RI conditions. The 1 min RI condition led to greater RPE values (6.5 ± 1.8) than both 2 (5.4 ± 1.6) and 3 min RI (5.0 ± 1.8). The present study shows that short RIs (i.e., 1 min) can be used by strength coaches to design more time-efficient sessions. The use of RPE during power training sessions should be considered as a sensitive tool to quantify training intensity.
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 85-90; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2049
The aim of the study was to determine the intensity of coping strategies used by students of Physical Education during a pandemic. Women and men were compared in terms of strategies considered positive and negative. The study used the psychological tool: Inventory for the Measurement of Coping with Stress. The participants were students of Physical Education (aged 25.69 ± 5.908); 26 women, 28 men. Results: the examined women show a higher intensity of both positive and negative coping strategies. The most common strategy among students is positive re-evaluation. Conclusions: The surveyed students experiencing difficult situations choose rather positive than negative strategies of coping with the problem. Women showing a higher level of coping strategies may be more aware of a difficult situation or experience a pandemic more intensely in relation to men.
Published: 25 December 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 91-96; doi:10.34256/ijpefs20410
We examined the energy costs of different resistance training protocols where exercise and recovery periods were equated: 48 total seconds of exercise and 210 seconds of between-set recovery. Two separate investigations were carried out at 65% of a 1 repetition maximum (1RM): back squat (7 men, 3 women) and bench press (9 men). Lifting cadence for concentric and eccentric phases was set at 1.5 sec each with 30 sec between-set recovery periods for the 8 sets, 2 reps protocol (sets) and a 3 min and 30 sec between-set recovery period for the 2 sets, 8 reps protocol (reps). The amount of oxygen consumed during lifting and between-set recovery periods was significantly greater for sets vs. reps protocol for both the back squat (+41%) and bench press (+27%) (p = 0.0001). Moreover, the total aerobic cost including the after-lifting excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was larger for the increased sets protocol for both the squat (+27%, p = 0.01) and bench press (+29%, p = 0.04). Total energy costs - aerobic plus anaerobic, exercise and recovery - were not different among sets or reps protocols. We conclude that a greater volume of oxygen is consumed with a lower repetition, increased number of sets resistance training protocol. We suggest that more recovery periods promote a greater potential for fat oxidation.
Published: 18 December 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 70-84; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2048
To determine the effect of small-sided games (SSG) on the repeated sprint ability (RSA) in male soccer players. A meta-analysis was conducted in which studies were selected from the electronic databases Medline, SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Results: Six studies were included and 44 effect sizes (ES) were computed from 116 men (age = 18.0 ± 2.8 yr., height = 175.8 ± 3.3 cm, weight = 68.6 ± 5.6 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 22.3 ± 1.1 kgm2, VO2max = 56.9 ± 2.1 mlkg-1min-1). The SSG training improved the overall RSA performance (ES = -.54, 95%CI = -.89, -.20, p < .05), reduced RSA total time (ES = -.41, 95%CI = -.81, -.01, p < .05), and fatigue index (ES = -.83, 95%CI = -1.65, -.02, p < 0.05). Moderator analysis showed that the fatigue index is impaired when several sessions/week are performed (β = .69, 95%CI = .29, 1.10, R2 = 82.9, p = .001) and is enhanced when the duration of the intervention is extended over several weeks (β = -.25, 95%CI = -.47, -.03, R2 = 56.6, p = .05). The methodological use of SSG enhances the capacity of repeated sprints, while technical and tactical elements are worked concomitantly.
Published: 12 December 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 60-69; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2047
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder impacts children’s participation in activities that require attention to instruction, sustained mental effort, and executive functioning. Physical activity has been correlated to improvement in attention in children with ADHD. Rock climbing challenges muscular endurance, attention, and route planning. Five participants, aged 8-13, participated in the climbing program. Attention was measured pre and post climbing intervention with Trail Making Test B (TMT-B) for time to complete. Exercise intensity was measured by heart rate. Parent feedback on behavior was collected with the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). The social validity of the intervention was measured by the IRP-15 measures. Statistically, significant intrasession attention improvements were noted in all 5 climbers (p=.43). Two climbers were consistently working at a moderate intensity (40-60% HRmax) while 3 climbers maintained a light level of intensity (20-40% HRmax). No statistically significant improvements were found on the CPRS, although improvements are noted with qualitative reports from parents. The IRP-15 showed 100% of parents believed rock climbing was an effective intervention for their children with ADHD. Rock climbing at a light to moderate intensity is associated with improvements in attention and behavior in children with ADHD.
Published: 5 December 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 51-59; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2046
Our study presents a methodological proposal for the practice of judo as a viable, alternative exercise method to improve the health of older men and seniors. Bibliographic survey was utilized to analyze the results. A number of studies attempt to adapt the practice of judo to enhance different health variables in middle-aged and elderly men. The proposal of adapting judo methodology to older men was conceived based on these studies. The methodological proposal presented in this study corroborates the health and quality of life needs of judo enthusiasts, in addition to providing an opportunity for exercise that is normally appealing to men. In this respect, the methodological adaptations described in the present study may be an effective and viable way to prevent disease, maintain and promote health and quality of life, applying an exercise method that uses adapted judo training.
Published: 27 November 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 37-50; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2045
The objective of the study was to explore the effect of Oxyjun™ on the cardiovascular function of overweight people by reducing obesity induced systemic inflammation. Males aged between 18 - 35 years and body mass index of 25 - 34.9 kg/m2 were recruited in the study. Participants were randomized on baseline visit in two groups to receive either single dose of 400 mg of Oxyjun™ and placebo (for 8-weeks. Participants were evaluate for obesity related inflammation and quality of life using the change in neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) and 36 items short form survey (SF-36). NLR was reduced by 0.71 in the Oxyjun™ group and by 0.42 in the placebo group. Within group comparison was significant for Oxyjun™ when compared from baseline (p
Published: 2 November 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 31-36; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2044
Post-activation potentiation enhancement (PAPE) refers to increased force generation following a muscular conditioning pre-activity that acutely enhances subsequent strength and power performance. Athlete apprehension to use heavy weights (i.e. >80%1RM) immediately before a competition or inability to use weights before the performance (e.g. due to regulations) prevent materialising the benefits of PAPE. Therefore, this study examined whether PAPE can be induced with bodyweight squats. Sixteen healthy, team sports players (male: 10, female: 6, mean ± SD: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years, height 1.67 ± 0.08 m, body mass 70.2 ± 8.2 kg) performed three sets of ten repetitions of bodyweight squats with 30 seconds recovery between each set. A countermovement jump was performed 5 minutes before, 2 and 4 minutes after the squat sets and jump height was calculated. The results showed existence of PAPE with the jump height increasing at both 2 (30.8 ± 5.6 cm, p = 0.045, g = 0.21) and 4 (30.8 ± 6.1 cm, p = 0.037, g = 0.20) minutes, compared to baseline (29.5 ± 6.4 cm). This is the first study to use bodyweight squats rather than loaded squats. Our findings indicate that three sets of ten repetitions of squats using bodyweight only can be a sufficient stimulus to induce PAPE.
Published: 22 October 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 27-30; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2043
Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood. Cerebral palsy can significantly impact the amount of physical activity and individual obtains, and the scope and quality of the physical activity may be limited by cerebral palsy. High-quality physical education can integrate children with cerebral palsy into movement programing, as to enable children with cerebral palsy to achieve goals related to cognitive skills associated with exploring physical health, maintaining physical health, as well as affective values towards physical health, movement, play, and general wellbeing. This article provides a basic overview of the physical characteristics of cerebral palsy, as well as outlines ways the child’s educational care-team can work with physical educators and physical therapist to enhance movement skills and health behavior.
Published: 12 October 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 01-16; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2041
This study aimed to examine the effects of an exposure-based resistance training (RT) intervention on perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for RT in college-aged females and to assess moderating effects of a trainer-trainee relationship on any intervention outcomes. A sample of 13 (Mage = 20.7 ± 1.3y) physically active, non-resistance training female students completed an 8-week intervention (1hr 45min, twice per week). The intervention was effective in reducing perceived time/effort (t = 5.02, p < 0.001, d = 1.81), physical effect (t = 2.48, p = 0.029, d = 0.86) and social (t = 4.86, p < .001, d = 1.97) RT barriers. A positive change pattern was established in stress management (t = 2.21, p = 0.048, d = 0.62), revitalization (t = 2.71, p = .019, d = 0.95), and enjoyment (t = 3.53, p = .004, d = 1.18). Finally, the analyses showed that goal (β = 0.23[0.02], p < 0001, R2 = 0.979) and bond (β = 0.21[.01], p < 0001, R2 = 0.995) alliances were positive moderators with large-sized effects on changes in physical barriers. For stress management, bond alliance was the only statistically significant, small-sized moderator, with a greater bond increasing the effect on the intervention (β = 0.21[.01], p < 0001, R2 = 0.997). This data suggests that an exposure-based RT intervention is beneficial for reducing perceived RT barriers in physically active, non-resistance training college-aged women and that bond-oriented support from the trainer is especially impactful in reducing some of those perceived barriers.