International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2277-5447 / 2457-0753
Published by: IOR PRESS (10.34256)
Total articles ≅ 348
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Rađević N, Simović S, Ponorac N, Drljačić D
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 42-56; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2146

Abstract:
Handball is a sport with a high risk of injury, The prevalence of injury is only obtainable through a thorough and comprehensive analysis. One of the most commonly used test batteries for interpreting the characteristics of an injury is the Functional Movement Screen (FMSTM). It makes possible to possible to identify movement limitations and asymmetries which are believed to impact injury risk in sports. The aim of this study is to use the FMSTM to determine whether an eight-week training protocol can predict and prevent injuries in handball. The study sample comprised the fifteen members of the Borac handball club youth team. The initial measurement showed that most players (80%) had an overall score in the test battery ranging from 15 to 20 points. In addition, three players were found to have asymmetry. Only one of the three players had an overall score in the FMSTM of ≤14. The participants scored the lowest in the initial measurement for Rotary Stability, followed by Deep Squat and Hurdle Step Left. They scored the highest in the Shoulder Mobility. After the implementation of the exercise protocol for improving body mobility and stability, the final measurements showed that all the participants had an overall score in the FMSTM of >14. The value of eta squared showed that training in between the two measurements had a significant impact. At the time of testing and protocol implementation no players sustained any injuries during matches or in training. This study confirmed that the FMSTM can be used to predict injuries in sports.
Deborah Van Langen, Alexander Generali
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 32-41; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2145

Abstract:
The purpose of this investigation was to investigate how the exercise habits of college students changed during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Data were collected via an online survey distributed through the University of Southern Maine student email distribution list. All current university students were invited to participate in the survey starting in February 2021 through March 2021. The study included a questionnaire designed to capture the exercise habits of university students three months before the lockdown of COVID-19 (January – March 2020) and their exercise habits after a lockdown in (February - April 2021). The survey questions were based on the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) physical activity guidelines to analyze the participant's exercise habits. The participants showed a decrease in the exercise along with an increase in weekly sitting time. Before COVID-19, 21.8% of participants were sitting >35 hours per week. After the COVID-19 lockdown, 50.45% of participants were sitting >35 hours per week. The results of this study could be used for further research to promote an increase in exercise at home. With the uncertainty of the pandemic, motivating people to stand and walk more could be the first step in breaking the increase in sitting habits and help to increase exercise habits. The COVID-19 pandemic has indeed imposed many restrictions on our daily routines, but it could also guide us to new approaches for prescribing exercise programs in the future.
Carpio-Rivera E, Moncada-Jiménez J, Salazar-Roja W, Araya-Vargas G
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2144

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of different intensity aerobic (AE) and resistance training (RT) exercises on BI in adult women. Participants were 62 adult women (19.47 ± 2.53 yr., range 18 a 33 yr.), who were randomly assigned to three sessions of either: 1) Control group, 2) Low-intensity AE, 3) High-intensity AE, 4) Low-intensity RT, or 5) High-intensity RT. Before and immediately following each experimental intervention, BI, body weight, and arm and leg circumferences were measured. Three familiarization sessions were performed every 7 days before the AE and RT experimental interventions. Also, 5-RM tests were performed one week before the RT experimental interventions. Data were analyzed using mixed 3-way ANOVA, mixed 4-way ANOVA, and post-hoc analysis. An acute effect of RT on BI was observed, regardless of the exercise intensity, women felt more muscular immediately following the RT session. Regardless of the exercise intensity, 30-min of acute RT exercise changed BI perception, contrary to 30 min AE.
, Mensur Vrcić
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 13-21; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2143

Abstract:
The hands are anatomically specialized for manipulative tasks with different physical objects, where they can cope with certain loads with different forces and intensity. During various physical and sports activities, the hands produce the appropriate muscular force for gripping, which manifests as the hand grip's force. For this reason, hand grip strength (HGS) is recognized as a limiting factor in all manipulative activities performed by the cranial part of the body. The current research included a sample of 22 subjects, 16 male Body Height (BH=180.28±4.65cm); Body Weight (BW=80.05±9.96kg), Body Mass Index (BMI=24.61±2.74kg/m²) and 6 female subjects Body Height (BH=167.42±11.11cm); Body Weight (BW=64.80±10.09kg); Body Mass Index (BMI=23.02±1.57kg/m²) on the third year of study at the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports. This study aimed to determine the maximum isometric muscle force of the handgrip and differences between the same gender of students. A t-test for small samples was applied for data processing, and the relevant statistical parameters were calculated. The obtained t-test results confirmed statistically significant differences between the so-called dominant and non-dominant hands in male subjects (t=4.158; p<0.05) and female subjects (t=3.176; p<0.05). The obtained results of this research will be used for analytical and diagnostic purposes with a wide range of activities in the population of physical education and sports students (assessment of physical ability, trends, and tendencies to monitor and change abilities, influence on the implementation of certain curricula of some subjects studied at the faculty, etc.).
Daniel Rhind, Frank Owusu-Sekyere, Daichi Ando
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 4-12; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2142

Abstract:
The present study explored the strategies used to maintain the quality of the coach-athlete relationship amongst rowers in Japan and the United Kingdom. A total of 93 athletes from Japan (N = 49) and UK (N = 44) completed the Coach Athlete Relationship Maintenance Questionnaire (CARM-Q) and the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ). The results of T-tests showed that (a) university rowers in the UK were significantly more satisfied with the coach-athlete relationship than those in Japan; (b) the athletes in Japan expressed higher scores on Preventative strategies than the ones in the UK; (c) the athletes in the UK expressed higher scores on all other CARM-Q subscales with the exception of Social Networks. The results of correlation analyses revealed positive associations between the use of maintenance strategies and athlete satisfaction. These findings evidence the importance of coaches using strategies to maintain the effectiveness of their relationship with athletes as well as the importance of researchers taking cultural factors into account.
Jan Carboch
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2141

Abstract:
New technologies step into sports refereeing, officiating, or umpiring. This technology can assist humans to avoid blunders or errors. However, in tennis, this technology now starts to replace humans, i.e. the line umpires. In this letter, we try to provide insight into potential problems, that this technology brings, but also we try to provide its benefits. We offer considerations from the umpire (human) view. It is not very clear and we consider it still in a grey zone, what are the next best steps, even though it seems that the new technology implementation is unavoidable. In this letter, we focus on tennis line umpires, because technology is replacing them now. Therefore, would like to encourage and call for more research on this currently hot topic.
Yangyang Deng, Yongju Hwang, Todd Layne, Sami Yli-Piipari
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 103-113; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs21311

Abstract:
Parents beliefs processes has shown to relate to their children’s decisions making. Thus, grounded in the expectancy-value theory, the aim of this study was to examine parents’ role in shaping elementary school students’ beliefs and task values toward students’ school-time physical activity (PA) and their moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) behavior during unstructured recess. A convenience sample of 115 (Mage = 10.12±1.81) children and their parents/guardians were recruited, and their expectancy-beliefs and attainment, utility, and interest values toward school-time PA were assessed. In addition, children’s MVPA during recess was measured using waist-attached accelerometers. Results showed that parents impacted children’s recess PA in different ways depending on children’s gender. In girls, parents’ beliefs and values transferred directly to the subsequent values of their children, whereas parents’ beliefs were the central predictors of boys’ beliefs and values. Parents’ intrinsic value moderated girls’ MVPA via the intrinsic value of the participants possessed (Z = 1.73, p = .010, 90% CI [.36, 2.93]), whereas parents’ beliefs moderated boys’ intrinsic value – MVPA relationship (Z = .78, p < .001, 90% CI [.39, 1.10]). This study suggests applying gender-specific strategies when trying to understand how beliefs and task values impact PA-related behaviors.
Christian J. Rivera Ruiz, Farah A. Ramirez-Marrero, Martin G. Rosario
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 114-123; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs21312

Abstract:
Survival and longevity rates in people living with HIV (HIV+) have increased with the availability and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, despite the above HIV+ adults treated with ART have a higher risk of developing dyslipidemia and high waist circumference. In addition, they have lower cardiorespiratory fitness, loss of muscle mass, reduced balance, and reduced functional capacity, which affects their quality of life. To explore the impact of balance perception, treadmill time, grip strength, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on quality of life in Latino Hispanic people living with HIV. This study recruited twenty-five participants from a community-based center, La Perla de Gran Precio, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, with the medical diagnosis of HIV. Descriptive measures were obtained for all variables of interest, and correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the associations between functional capacity, quality of life, and anthropometric measures. Result: Men had greater left- and right-hand grip strength than women (86.9±18.8, 56.9±26.8 kg; p=0.003 and 87.6±15.1 vs. 61.4±26.6 kg; p =0.004). Two anthropometric variables showed a trend toward a moderate positive correlation with quality of life: WHtR (r= -0.38, p =0.12) and BMI (r= -0.38, p = p-0.14). Although gender differences in upper body strength are expected, handgrip strength is within the gender-specific average range of the general population. The integration of anthropometric characteristics and upper body strength when prescribing exercise must be considered since these factors influence functional capacity and quality of life among HIV+ adults.
Martin G. Rosario, Kelly Keitel, Josey Meyer
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 92-102; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs21310

Abstract:
The lack of exercise in society today often leads to severe muscle loss and poor physical performance. Training methods targeting specific weakened muscle groups can help prevent or counteract muscle loss. This study aimed to analyze how the lower extremity muscles are activated when pushing a sled with constant resistance at two different speeds. Twenty-six participants with an average age of 23.77 years consented to having electromyography surface electrodes placed along the gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA) of their dominant leg. Muscle activation levels were then measured while the participant walked and ran with and without sled resistance. The study results showed that muscle activation was comparable during all trials and was not influenced by speed or constant resistance. However, the muscle activation for GMax and GMed was significantly higher than the activation levels exhibited by GA and TA. While pushing a sled has been shown to impact all studied musculature similarly, adding resistance to the movement can affect gait parameters such as stride length and cadence. Our findings support the use of sled training in patients with hip pathologies who are seeking to strengthen their GMax and GMed.
Martin G. Rosario, Aleena Jose
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 84-91; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2139

Abstract:
Dual tasks are fundamental and standard for daily walking and balance movements. However, further research is required to determine the comprehensive postural profile during challenging dual cognitive tasks. To distinguish the influence of dual cognitive tasks on anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) jerk (direction of sway), velocity, and distance in young adults with normal balance systems. Nineteen subjects took part in this inquiry (2 males and 17 females), with a mean age of 23.9+\- 2.3 years. The participants were instrumented using a lumbar accelerometer and a dynamometer designed to capture sway. All subjects completed eight balance tests comprising four single and four dual-cognitive tasks involving counting backward by three, starting at the number 100 (dual-task). Postural modifications were prominent in the AP direction, with a faster jerk, velocity, and considerable distance than in the ML direction. The introduction to challenging balance situations, including dual tasks, provoke AP direction adaptations to preserve balance through variations in AP parameters, indicating the engagement of the sensory reweighting system.
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