International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 28 February 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 44-48; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2014
Male and female players may have different game characteristics and performance. The first two shots of a rally in badminton have tactical importance. The aim of this study is to identify players' actions and behaviors and to assess differences in serve and return between the genders on the international level. We observed 15 male and 15 female matches from top international badminton tournaments. A notational analysis was used while observing the serve type, return type, and the point winner. Male players hit the backhand short serve in 91 % of points and female players started the point mostly with the forehand long serve (58 %). Both genders won 50 % of the serving points. The distribution of return type is quite equal among the drop, lob, clear, smash and net shots in female matches. While returning a short serve, the lob was 4-5 % less efficient than a net shot in both genders. Women can try to use backhand short serve more often as we found the highest efficiency of all the serve types.
Published: 26 February 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 26-43; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2013
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the literature on the associations between breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health, in children and adolescents. The search was conducted using five databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, PSYCINFO and CINAHL) through to 01 October 2019. Due to heterogeneity of the data, meta-analyses were not possible. We screened 2577 studies, and 15 studies were included, representing 9116 participants, from six different countries. Five observational studies and four experimental studies showed associations between breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health, i.e. an increased number of breaks in sitting time was negatively associated with a cardiovascular health outcome. No associations between number of breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health outcomes were found in the six remaining studies. Studies examining associations between breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health in children have shown some favorable associations. More epidemiological evidence is required, to inform lifestyle interventions and public health policies, which could translate into long-term implications on population health.
Published: 25 February 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 1-15; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2011
This study investigated the effects of a strength-power complex on subsequent ballistic activity (BA) performance responses across a profile of jumps in adolescent talent-identified rugby players. Rate of force development (RFD) and BA performance responses was recorded in 22 participants over four intracomplex rest intervals (ICRI) (15s, 30s, 45s, 60s) following a complex of 3 repetitions of back squat @80% 1RM and 7 countermovement jumps (CMJs) in a randomised, counterbalanced design. Within subjects, repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on peak rate of force development (PRFD), time to peak rate of force development (TPRFD), peak force (PF), and time to a peak force (TPF). Confidence limits were set at ±90% and effect size across the sample (partial ɳ²) was calculated across P1-P4 for all jump profiles. No significant effects were observed across jump profiles or ICRI. The research confirms RFD and BA performance responses were maintained across all jump profiles and each ICRI. In contrast to previous research, the use of minimal ICRI of 15s, 30s, 45s and 60s following strength-power complex training is a practical time-efficient means of maintaining RFD and BA performance responses across jump profiles of seven jumps, which has important implications in practical coaching environments.
Published: 25 February 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 9, pp 16-25; doi:10.34256/ijpefs2012
Ten-pin bowling is considered a highly skilled recreational activity with players demonstrating various anthropometric and physiological characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to assess both static and dynamic body balance, an ability that has not been yet investigated in ten-pin bowlers of different level of competitiveness. Thirty four ten-pin bowlers who competed at a high (Level-A, n=17) and a lower level (Level-B, n=17) as well as eighteen individuals without participation in (Non-bowlers) participated in the study. Static balance was determined based on the anteroposterior (APd) and mediolateral displacement (MLd) of the center-of-foot-pressure (CoP) that was recorded during single-leg-stance with opened and closed eyes as well as with opened eyes and head extension. Dynamic balance was determined based on the APd and MLd of CoP as well as the normalized distances reached during execution of Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in the posterior, posterolateral and lateral directions. Significantly better dynamic balance, in terms of the distances reached during SEBT execution, was demonstrated by Level-A bowlers compared to Level-B bowlers and non-bowlers. The differences between groups regarding APd and MLd, during both static and dynamic balance testing, were in general not significant. Our findings revealed that ten-pin bowlers who compete at a higher level demonstrate better dynamic balance ability. Sports scientists and coaches should be aware of these differences to optimize performance or distinguish ten-pin bowlers with different level of competitiveness.
Published: 10 February 2020
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports; doi:10.26524/ijpefs
Published: 23 December 2019
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 142-148; doi:10.26524/ijpefs19414
The present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between tennis playing and self-esteem, and also, some variables at an intercollegiate tennis tournament. To this and, a total of 240 students (Mage:21,05±1,78) from different universities voluntarily participated in the study. In the process, as a data collection tool, Coopersmith Self-esteem inventory by developed Coopersmith in 1967 was used in this study and it was used to determine the participants' scores of self-esteem. A comparing design was used in the present research. This design was chosen because differences between three and more parameters were investigated in the study group. Descriptive statistics and frequency analysis were calculated for determining demographic features and scores (M, SD etc.). Participants were compared using Mann-Whitney U & Kruskal-Wallis H Tests analysis. According to the results of the research, there was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between male and female students. There was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem among different departments and universities. There was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between having a physical injury and not having a physical injury. On the other hand, there was a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between having a psychological disorder and not having a psychological disorder. This result shows that playing tennis can change the self-esteem level in a positive direction.
Published: 23 December 2019
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 149-157; doi:10.26524/ijpefs19415
This study investigated the effects of repetition ranges with modified intensity and volume on muscle mass and maximal strength. Fourteen healthy athletes from a sports club were randomly assigned to either a low repetitions or high repetitions group. The low repetitions (LR) group performed 3 sets of 3-5 reps at 90-95% one repetition maximum (1RM) and high repetitions (HR) group performed 5 sets of 10-12 repetitions at 60-70% 1RM in specific strength training exercises for eight weeks. Muscle strength and muscle thickness measures were taken at baseline, four weeks and after the eight weeks of training. Results show LR gained better maximal strength than the HR group after the eight weeks of training in both the flat bench press and the squat test (p=0.0201 and p=0.0165 respectively). As for muscle thickness, outcomes of the quadriceps cross section thickness were almost identical between the two groups. There was no significant difference in 4 or 8 weeks (p=0.8776 and p=0.9335 respectively). Our findings suggest performing low repetitions with high intensity (load) is more beneficial for gaining maximal strength and muscle mass in short training cycles. Further research is needed to substantiate these findings in a larger cohort.
Published: 8 November 2019
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 125-141; doi:10.26524/ijpefs19413
This study assessed the attitude and perceptions of college students in China before and immediately after the 2008 Beijing Olympics toward the international media's reporting of the Games and China. A total of 657 students from seven campuses eight months before the Olympics and 1,000 students from ten campuses immediately after the Olympics were randomly surveyed. The data analysis (independent t-Test) depicts that the students' attitudes and perceptions toward the international media had positively changed from the pre- to the post-Olympic surveys. One-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Scheffe’s post hoc test results revealed that the survey respondents’ political preferences were the constant factors that influenced their attitude and perception change toward the international media. This study illustrates a media effect on changing the survey participants’ and their represented population’s attitude and perceptions toward the international media’s coverage of sport mega-events that is supported by the theories of mega-events and modernity, media communication and social behaviour, and social impact.
Published: 6 November 2019
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 117-124; doi:10.26524/ijpefs19412
The number of individual with autism has been increased past decades. Along with the prevalence, diverse instruction strategies were introduced and implemented in the field of adapted physical education/activity. The purpose of this case study is investigating the effectiveness of the instructional strategies for children with disabilities. A student, nine years old boy with autism, participated in this study. Four different teaching strategies, reproductive teaching style, video modeling, system of least prompts, and chaining strategy, were implemented to teach a target skill, overhand throw. Task analysis were implemented to measure the skill performance weekly for three weeks. The result indicated that the participant showed improvement in on a skill component, T position. The participant did not showed notable improvement on overall skill performance.
Published: 29 October 2019
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 8, pp 1-17; doi:10.26524/ijpefs1941
We conducted two studies to investigate predictors of coaching motivation. In Study One, we focused on variables linked to coaching motivation and burnout in adult sports coaches. We examined high school extracurricular experiences, and coaching engagement. Positive interpersonal events experienced during high school predicted coaching motivation and a motivation. Positive interpersonal and performance events in high school predicted feelings of reduced accomplishment, while negative interpersonal and performance events in high school predicted physical exhaustion. Two aspects of coaching engagement, vigor and absorption predicted coaching motivation. Thus, coaches’ motivation was predicted by both high school and current coaching events. In Study Two, we examined whether the same high school events predicted a desire to coach in recent high school graduates. Participants retrospectively reported participation in high school sports or heavy investment in alternate activities (e.g., marching band). For both groups, identification with the activity and dedication to the activity predicted a desire to coach. A desire to coach was not predicted by high school extracurricular events. Our findings indicate that high school experiences exerted differential effects on recent graduates versus adult coaches in terms of attitudes toward coaching.