International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2277-5447 / 2457-0753
Published by: IOR PRESS (10.34256)
Total articles ≅ 361
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Surojit Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Dey, Gouriprosad Datta, Amit Bandyopadhyay
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2225

Abstract:
Creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cortisol are widely accepted as biological markers. The purpose of the study was to frame the reference interval for muscle damage indices (CK, LDH) and cortisol in the young athletic population of various sports disciplines. 260 young male players [i.e., football (n=62), hockey (n=60), gymnastics (n=36), swimming (n=28), table tennis (n=25), sprint-jump-throw (n=36) and middle-long distance running (n=13)] were recruited for the study (mean age = 15.6±1.59 yrs). Assay of LDH, CK and cortisol was done using the standard enzymatic protocol. The reference interval was calculated by following the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) C28-A3 guideline and “MedCalc” software (version 19) with a 90% confidence interval. Serum LDH range was from 148.00-324.00 IU/L with a mean of 233.2±34.74 and a median around 236.25. Serum CK ranged from 17.00-43.50 IU/L with a mean of 28.93±5.23 IU/L and a median around 28.00. Cortisol ranged from 4.99-15.78 µg/dl with a mean of 9.31±2.09 µg/dl and a median around 8.90. The present study confers 165.63 - 303.43 IU/L, 19.00 – 40.09 IU/L and 6.07-14.15 µg/dl as the reference interval values for LDH, CK and cortisol, respectively. The present finding will guide the researchers to avoid misinterpretation of muscle damage indices values during any phase of competitive training of sports person.
Brandie C. Cheshier, Bert H. Jacobson, Carlos A. Estrada, Masoud Moghaddam, Carter J. Stewart
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2224

Abstract:
Training masks (TMs), marketed as simulated altitude training devices, suggest increased workout capacity, intensity tolerance and recovery. The claim is that the training mask improves respiratory power and breathing mechanics by strengthening the respiratory muscles through breathing resistance provided by the TM. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a commercially manufactured TM in conjunction with bicycle ergometry, high intensity training (HIT) on selected lung function parameters. Volunteers (N=16) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group wore the TM with progressive increased respiratory resistance and the control group wore the TM with no respiratory resistance. To determine lung function, pre- and post-test assessments consisted of forced expiratory volume at 1s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio of FEV1/FVC. Additionally, to determine the TMs effectiveness of maximal oxygen consumption pre- and post-time to failure during a maximum treadmill test was performed. Training was completed on a cycle ergometer on 3d/wk for 4 wks. Participants exercised at 85% of HRmax with a pedal rate of 100-120 rpm at individually set resistance levels. Training sessions consisted of 10 bouts of 30s exercise followed by 30s of active recovery for a total time of 10 minutes. The respiratory resistance for the experimental group progressively increased over the training period. Repeated measures ANOVAs yielded significant between group difference in FVC (p = 0.02) but not for FEV1 or maximum treadmill time. In conclusion, TMs in combination with HIT failed to improve lung function but created sufficient resistance to strengthen the muscles in respiratory ventilation.
Martin G. Rosario, Elizabeth Orozco
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2223

Abstract:
Motorized treadmills and weighted sleds are employed in clinical settings to improve lower extremity strength, power, and endurance. However, little is known about how the spatio-temporal parameters compare when walking on an even surface walkway, walking on a treadmill, or pushing a sled. This study aimed to examine the variations in spatial and temporal gait parameters when walking on an even surface walkway (EW), on a treadmill (TW), and while pushing a sled (SP). Forty healthy subjects participated in this pilot study. The mean age and BMI of all participants were 24.39 (± 2.86) years and 68.26 (± 13.92) kg/m^2, respectively. Spatio-temporal parameters were gathered using the Mobility Lab ADPM software and six sensors containing accelerometers and gyroscopes. Participants were directed to walk at a normal and comfortable speed for 7 m on an even surface walkway for two trials. Next, the subjects walked on the treadmill for two trials at a speed based on age. For males aged <30 and females 20-40 years of age, the speed was 1.3 m/s. While for males aged 30 or older, the speed was set to 1.4 m/s. Finally, participants were instructed to walk at their normal pace while pushing a 60 lb sled for 9.1 meters (m). Treadmill walking provoked a significant increase in temporal variables, whereas pushing a sled significantly reduced the temporal variables. Treadmill walking resulted in a decrease in double limb support time and an increase in single-limb support time compared with even surface walking. Although cadence was greater when walking on a treadmill versus an even surface walkway, the difference may be attributed to a fixed speed on the treadmill, which was determined by age. Treadmill gait training is recommended for subjects that could benefit from an increase single limb support time to improve dynamic balance such as Parkinson patients. On the other hand, for those participants that dynamic activities are challenging, such as concussion and vestibular patients, pushing the sled will slow down gait parameters allowing gait training with an added resistance benefit. Finally, it has been proposed that further investigation should focus on the differences in lower extremity muscle activation and recruitment patterns under various walking conditions.
Hernández-Gambo R, Moncada-Jiménez J
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 13-19; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2222

Abstract:
Different types of exercise interventions have shown to improve cognitive performance; however, there is scarce evidence on the acute effect of resistance training (RT) on cognitions in older adults. The purpose of this study is to determine the acute effect of RT on cognitive performance in healthy older adults. 45 adults (Mean age = 65.3 ± 3.7 yr.) were randomly allocated to one of three groups: high-intensity RT (G1), low-intensity RT (G2), or inactive control (G3). Participants completed cognitive tests assessing processing speed, visuospatial processing, executive function, and cognitive control, working memory and immediate memory. The RT protocol for G1 and G2 consisted of six exercises. A 3x2 ANCOVA was performed with education as a covariate. Significant improvements were found on visuospatial processing in G1 (Pre = 61.6 ± 2.1 vs. Post = 69.7 ± 2.4; 95%CI = 4.8, 11.4; p ≤ 0.001) and G2 (Pre = 62.4 ± 2.2 vs. Post = 67.0 ± 2.5; 95%CI = 1.2, 8.1; p = 0.009). Other tested cognitive abilities were unchanged by acute exercise or rest. Acute RT enhanced or maintained cognitive performance in older adults. It was possible to successfully perform 1RM tests with older adults. Additional evidence is needed to determine effective protocols to improve cognition in older adulthood.
Charlie Song
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2221

Abstract:
Inspired by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Legacy Strategic Approach, Beijing 2022 issued the Legacy Plan of the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games as a continuing effort from the 2008 Beijing Olympics “to promote a positive legacy from the Olympic Games to the host cities, regions and countries” (IOC, 2020). Using a qualitative approach guided by Asper’s (2009) empirical phenomenology and Alase’s (2017) interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), the author interviewed the Olympic officials in legacy planning for the 2008 Summer Games and/or the 2022 Winter Games, the scholars in Olympic studies, and a journalist reporting the Olympic legacy related news in Beijing. The narratives presented the interviewees’ positive experiences and perceptions in most of the sustainability inquiries of the “soft” legacy goals. The results revealed that the Olympic and Paralympic ideals had been well appreciated by the mass public since Beijing hosted the 2008 Summer Games and the sports and social legacies from the Games had been carried forward to Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. At the same time, a gap existed between urban and rural, especially on the sustainability of the legacy goals concerning people with disabilities.
Martin G. Rosario, Kelly Keitel, Josey Meyer, Mark Weber
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 11, pp 66-74; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2217

Abstract:
Resistance training (RT) is commonly used to target specific weakened muscle groups. Among the plethora of methods employed as RT, the current study focused on a sled that provides constant resistance proportional to speed. This study aimed to examine neuromuscular patterns of the lower extremity and trunk muscles in response to pushing a sled with constant resistance at two different speeds. Twenty-six young adults (average age, 23.8) participated in this study. Surface electromyography electrodes were placed on gluteus maximus (GMAX), gluteus medius (GMED), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GA), and erector spinae (lumbar and thoracic) of their dominant leg or side (unilateral at the same side as the dominant lower limb). Neuromuscular timing was collected during four tasks: walking, running, walking-pushing the sled (WP), and running-pushing the sled (RP). All gait activities were repeated twice, with self-selected speed and an equivalent distance of 40 feet. A MANOVA analysis showed that during WP, GMED and GMAX showed more neuromuscular recruitment than leg and trunk muscles when compared to walking. During RP, the thoracic musculature was significantly more involved than any other muscle during running. Based on our findings, we recommend that physiotherapists and trainers use this sled with constant resistance during walking in patients with pelvic or hip weakness. Further, we suggested utilizing the sled in subjects requiring mid-trunk activation at faster speeds, such as fast walking or running.
Chieh-Lun Hsieh, Lorna A. Espeso, Cheng-Yen Sun,
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 11, pp 55-65; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2216

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the relationship between the physical fitness performance of college freshmen and the BMI body weight status (normal/ abnormal). We conducted case studies and obtained data on 7,160 participants aged 18 years from a university in southern Taiwan. All participants completed four physical fitness tests (seated forward bench, standing long jump, sit-ups, and cardiorespiratory endurance) and BMI assessments with the professional assistance of PE teachers. BMI is used to define the normal and abnormal state of body weight. Logistic regression analysis was used in this study. The results show that the four physical fitness tests currently implemented in college physical education can be used to predict whether the weight of the freshmen is normal. Cardiorespiratory endurance seems to be the most important feature for predicting the type of BMI (normal/abnormal), whether male or female. When the "cardiorespiratory endurance" of freshman students increases by a category, the probability of males belonging to the healthy weight category increases by 4.879 times, and the probability of females increases by 2.927 times. This study provides a new perspective for predicting whether the freshman's body weight is normal or not by using different types of college physical fitness test performance.
Tambalis K.D, Arnaoutis G, Sidossis L.S
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 11, pp 43-54; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2215

Abstract:
Regular physical activity (PA) in pregnancy can benefit the pregnant woman through a shorter birth and a shorter recovery period. The study aimed to investigate the effect of PA in pregnancy, on maternal and offspring health indicators. Population-based data were obtained from a national database that included anthropometric and physical fitness data of almost all Greek children 8 to 9 years. Α random sample of 5,125 dyads of mothers-children was evaluated. Telephone interviews were carried out with the use of a standardized questionnaire for the collection of maternal lifestyle factors. Children born to mothers who participated in the recommended PA levels had lower odds (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.69-0.95) to be overweight/obese in childhood. Adequate PA levels in pregnancy were found to be associated with lower odds of preterm birth by 61% (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.87), and alcohol consumption in pregnancy by 62% (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.27-0.56) as compared to the inadequate level of PA. Also, mothers with adequate PA in pregnancy had decreased odds for excessive GWG and final BMI by almost 40% in comparison to those with inadequate PA levels. PA in pregnancy does seem to be related to offspring health indicators (e.g. obesity at 8 years) and is associated with a more favorable maternal health profile.
Yuchun Chen
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 11, pp 30-42; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2214

Abstract:
Implementation of early field experiences is a required component in nearly all teacher education programs because of the first-hand training in real-world situations that complement classroom learning. It is through the experiences that pre-service teachers have the platform to develop and demonstrate their competency in content knowledge, pedagogical skills, and professional dispositions. However, the onset of COVID-19 pandemic made it impossible to set up in-person early field experiences. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe an alternative early field experience planned and implemented to accommodate COVID-19 restrictions, (b) document what the participants learned throughout the experience, and (c) provided university faculty with suggestions for virtual early field experiences. Nineteen students enrolled in a 200-level physical education teacher education activity class in the Spring of 2021 submitted 10 weekly reports after watching self-selected videos that were related to soccer and volleyball. The duration of each video submission was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Data analyzed using the standard interpretive methods revealed three main themes. To identify their content knowledge acquisition, the participants described historical facts, abridged rules and regulations, sport-specific skills, strength and conditioning exercises, and tactical moves and team strategies. They also made game-related observations on the players, teams, and officials. Lastly, entertainment value was highlighted as a result of the freedom to choose the videos they were interested in. Suggestions for incorporating this early field experience and future research directions were discussed.
Steve S.M, Tasker E, Paine E, Hughes T.M., Heiden C, Baczala O
International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, Volume 11, pp 20-29; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2213

Abstract:
Badminton practice designs contain feeding routines that allow players to practice technical skills. Optimal skill acquisition and development is gained through practice simulating competitive match play rather than approaches centred around mass repetition with low levels of uncertainty. This study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical differences in twelve youth elite UK badminton players in activities with varying levels of predictability. The three experimental trials were handfeed, multifeed and match play trials. Motion capture cameras were used to record participant biomechanical data. Data analysis revealed several significant biomechanical differences between trials. Results showed that an increase in trial unpredictability led to increased depth of the forward lunge shot and a lower racket shuttlecock strike position with greater forward trunk bend. This study showed that visual search behaviour in badminton is a key component of the forward lunge shot. Predictable practice feeding routines may cause poor skill acquisition and development through maladaptive learning behaviours. Coaches are recommended to implement unpredictable feeding practice routines to simulate the visual search behaviour of competitive badminton match play to enhance skill acquisition and development in youth elite badminton players.
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