International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1913-3715 / 1913-3723
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 833
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Abdulkareem Adinoyi, Moudhi Aljamae, Ahmed Aljlaoud
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 53-66; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.155005

Abstract:
This paper looks at the landscape of broadband connectivity as consumers welcome disruptive newcomers, the satellite service providers, into the telecommunication and internet ecosystem. It highlights the developments that have made it possible for satellites communication to form a competitive alternative for terrestrial broadband internet services. We motivate discussions on ways and approaches to ensure terrestrial mobile operators construct effective strategy in integrating and working with the newcomers for interconnecting their terrestrial nodes with those of the satellite service providers. We discuss some technology and business perspectives for a healthy co-existence, and postulate that customers’ finances (price consideration) and perception of quality of experience and satisfaction may be the battleground for satellites and terrestrial service providers. Finally, it is concluded that, in the history of human endeavor, smart and effective cooperation has always been the best strategy to fight extinction.
Ahmed Mohamed Abdalla, Salem H. Salamah
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.151001

Abstract:
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a new emerging recently developed advanced technology that allows a wide group of applications related to providing more safety on roads, more convenience for passengers, self-driven vehicles, and intelligent transportation systems (ITS). There are various routing protocol categories used in VANETs, like unicast, multicast, and broadcast protocols. In unicast position-based protocols, the routing decisions are based on the geographic position of the vehicles. This does not require establishment or maintenance of routes but needs location services to determine the position of the destination. Non-delay-tolerant network protocols (non-DTN), also identified as minimum delay protocols, are aimed at minimizing the delivery time of the information. Delay-tolerant protocols (DTN) are used in a variety of operating environments, including those that are subject to failures and interruptions and those with high delay, such as VANETs. This paper discusses the comparison between non-DTN and DTN routing protocols belonging to the unicast delay-tolerant position-based category. The comparison was conducted using the NS2 simulator, and the simulations of three non-DTN routing protocols and three DTN routing protocols were recorded. Simulation results show that the DTN routing protocols outperform in delivery ratio compared to the non-DTN routing protocols, but they lead to more average delay due to buffering, the processing algorithm, and priority calculation. In conclusion, non-DTN protocols are more suitable for the city environment since the distance between nodes is relatively smaller and the variations in the network topology are slower than they are on highways. On the other hand, DTN protocols are more suitable for highways due to the buffering of packets until a clear route to destination is available.
Ishtiaque Zaman, Mahmudul Hasan, Miao He, Michael G. Giesselmann
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 94-110; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.157008

Abstract:
A secured and scalable Peer-to-Peer (P2P) energy trading platform can facilitate the integration of renewable energy and thus contribute to building sustainable energy infrastructure. The decentralized architecture of blockchain makes it a befitting candidate to actualize an efficient P2P energy trading market. However, for a sustainable and dynamic blockchain-based P2P energy trading platform, few critical aspects such as security, privacy and scalability need to be addressed with high priority. This paper proposes a blockchain-based solution for energy trading among the consumers which ensures the systems’ security, protects users’ privacy, and improves the overall scalability. More specifically, we develop a multilayered semi-permissioned blockchain-based platform to facilitate energy transactions. The practical byzantine fault tolerant algorithm is employed as the underlying consensus for verification and validation of transactions which ensures the system’s tolerance against internal error and malicious attacks. Additionally, we introduce the idea of quality of transaction (QoT)—a reward system for the participants of the network that eventually helps determine the participant’s eligibility for future transactions. The resiliency of the framework against the transaction malleability attack is demonstrated with two uses cases. Finally, a qualitative analysis is presented to indicate the system’s usefulness in improving the overall security, privacy, and scalability of the network.
Chevroen Washington, Phillip Yarbrough, Shavon Parker, Rafia Islam, Vishnu Vardhan Patamsetti, Olatunde Abiona
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 15-30; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.152002

Abstract:
This research paper analyzes data breaches in the human service sector. The hypothesis for the solution to this problem is that there will be a significant reduction in data breaches in the human service sector due to an increase in information assurance. The hypothesis is tested using data from the United States Department of Health and Human Services data breach notification repository during January 2018-December 2020. Our result shows that without the increased mitigation of information assurance, data breaches in the human service sector will continue to increase.
Hay Mar Mo Mo Lwin, Yutaka Ishibashi, Khin Than Mya
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 31-42; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.153003

Abstract:
This paper examines dependencies of voice and video contents on human perception of group (or inter-destination) synchronization error in remote learning by Quality of Experience (QoE) assessment. In our assessment, we use two videos and three voices (two voices for one video and one voice for the other video). We also investigate influences of silence periods in the voices and temporal relations between the voices and videos (called the tightly-coupled and loosely-coupled contents here). The voices are spoken by a teacher according to the videos. Each subject as a student assesses the group synchronization quality by watching each lecture video and the corresponding explanation voice, and then the subject answers whether he/she perceives the group synchronization error or not. As a result, assessment results illustrate that silence periods mitigate the perception rate of the error, and we can also find that we can more easily perceive the error for tightly-coupled contents than loosely-coupled ones.
Phillip Yarbrough, Tyler Welker, Damian Silva, Rafia Islam, Vishnu Vardhan Patamsetti, Olatunde Abiona
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 67-77; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.156006

Abstract:
Li-Fi, or known as light fidelity, is a new technology that could alleviate some network congestion for the ever-increasing internet of things (IOT). The patent for Li-Fi was created by German physicist Harald Haas in 2011 around visible light communication. The purpose of the following research includes the capabilities of Li-Fi Technologies and how the implementation of a Li-Fi network can improve network infrastructure. A main point is to highlight the advantages that Li-Fi technology brings to the table in comparison to traditional Wi-Fi networks like the increased bandwidth frequency, faster transmission speeds, as well as not being affected by network latency due to high traffic. Benefits that Li-Fi technologies provide to network infrastructure include the use of less energy, the need for fewer components to operate, as well as the simplicity of only needing a light source to provide high-speed internet traffic. Some of our research shows the implementation of these systems and how they can provide different benefits to different types of needs of the consumer. The research gave a complete idea about hybrid indoor systems based on Li-Fi and Wi-Fi that indicates how Li-Fi technology raises the possibilities to fulfill the technological demand in the future. Also, the part explained the security concerns of Li-Fi technology and we can consider this technology secure by updating some system protocols. At present day, Li-Fi lacks the infrastructure that Wi-Fi has, which makes replacement unideal. Rather, Li-Fi can be seen as complementary to Wi-Fi and used to improve current technology.
Yu Huang, Zhengyue Han, Zhenjie Wu, Hanyue Zhang, Rong Wu
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 43-52; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.154004

Abstract:
Nowadays, image copyright protection is one of the key points of information security in the field of education. Based on the transient property of human vision, the anti-theft and copyright protection strategies are proposed based on the idea of animation synthesis. In this paper, experiments are designed and compared from multiple perspectives. The results show that the strategy based on animation synthesis can not only ensure the browsing effect of images, but also effectively achieve the purpose of preventing interception via screenshot and protecting the legitimate rights of the original images.
Gang Yang, Xiao Jiang, Shuaishuai Lv
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 79-93; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.157007

Abstract:
Aiming at the torque and flux ripples in the direct torque control and the time-varying parameters for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a model predictive direct torque control with online parameter estimation based on the extended Kalman filter for PMSM is designed. By predicting the errors of torque and flux based on the model and the current states of the system, the optimal voltage vector is selected to minimize the error of torque and flux. The stator resistance and inductance are estimated online via EKF to reduce the effect of model error and the current estimation can reduce the error caused by measurement noise. The stability of the EKF is proved in theory. The simulation experiment results show the method can estimate the motor parameters, reduce the torque, and flux ripples and improve the performance of direct torque control for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM).
Mohamed Sami Rakha, Lucas Lapczyk, Costa Dafnas, Patrick Martin
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 111-125; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.158009

Abstract:
Big data and associated analytics have the potential to revolutionize healthcare through the tools and techniques they offer to manage and exploit the large volumes of heterogeneous data being collected in the healthcare domain. The strict security and privacy constraints on this data, however, pose a major obstacle to the successful use of these tools and techniques. The paper first describes the security challenges associated with big data analytics in healthcare research from a unique perspective based on the big data analytics pipeline. The paper then examines the use of data safe havens as an approach to addressing the security challenges and argues for the approach by providing a detailed introduction to the security mechanisms implemented in a novel data safe haven. The CIMVHR Data Safe Haven (CDSH) was developed to support research into the health and well-being of Canadian military, Veterans, and their families. The CDSH is shown to overcome the security challenges presented in the different stages of the big data analytics pipeline.
Sonkarlay J. Y. Weamie
International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Volume 15, pp 126-148; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2022.158010

Abstract:
The advancement of technology and the digitization of organizational functions and services have propelled the world into a new era of computing capability and sophistication. The proliferation and usability of such complex technological services raise several security concerns. One of the most critical concerns is cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. This paper has concentrated on revealing and comprehensively analyzing XSS injection attacks, detection, and prevention concisely and accurately. I have done a thorough study and reviewed several research papers and publications with a specific focus on the researchers’ defensive techniques for preventing XSS attacks and subdivided them into five categories: machine learning techniques, server-side techniques, client-side techniques, proxy-based techniques, and combined approaches. The majority of existing cutting-edge XSS defensive approaches carefully analyzed in this paper offer protection against the traditional XSS attacks, such as stored and reflected XSS. There is currently no reliable solution to provide adequate protection against the newly discovered XSS attack known as DOM-based and mutation-based XSS attacks. After reading all of the proposed models and identifying their drawbacks, I recommend a combination of static, dynamic, and code auditing in conjunction with secure coding and continuous user awareness campaigns about XSS emerging attacks.
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