Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International

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EISSN : 2456-9119
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 4,438
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Mustafa Elsaied Esmail, Mohamad Abdulrahman Alhazouri, Nourah Abdulaziz Al Modahka, Haidar Nasser Alhassan, Arwa Abdullah Zabran, Ali Jafar Almutawah, Bandar Badar Almutairi, Ali Shaker AlQadhib, Hamad Abdulaziz Alshuaib, Safaa Khalid Dhafar, et al.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 1694-1700; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i60b34743

Abstract:
Viruses are abundant, and several have been found to infect the CNS, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders affecting the cognitive, emotional, behavioural, and perceptual domains. As the pandemic of the disease now known as COVID-19 has progressed, the psychological ramifications of the sickness have become more widely recognized. The present COVID-19 pandemic could have psychological effects for numerous causes. Certain situations, such as pervasive anxiety, social isolation, stress in health-care employees and other social workers, unemployment, and financial troubles, may make both infected and non-infected people vulnerable. Furthermore, psychological distress was found to be adversely linked with suggested health behaviours to reduce infection risk and favourably associated with non-recommended behaviours in quarantine conditions. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about the psychological and neuropsychiatric long-term effects of COVID-19. According to the existing literature, the COVID-19 pandemic has a significant negative influence on mental health, particularly in older persons with and without dementia. Viral infection, as well as the social isolation that follows in order to prevent it from spreading, has a variety of neuropsychiatric repercussions. To clarify such impacts and assess the long-term ramifications for the mental health of older persons, as well as explore alternative mitigating techniques, larger and more robustly designed research studies are needed.
Anitha Akilan, Josephine Anthony, Revathi Kasthuri
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 349-354; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i59a34278

Abstract:
Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Padikara Parpam against Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Pneumoniae using agar well diffusion method. To identify ESBL producing bacteria by phenotypic confirmatory test using disk diffusion method. Study Design: Analysis of Antibacterial activity of Padikara Parpam using agar well diffusion method. Place and Duration of Study: Central Research Laboratory, Meenakshi Academy of higher Education and Research, Chennai, between June 2021 and November 2021. Methodology: Clinical isolates of ESBL were isolated by subculture into MacConkey agar and was identified by phenotypic confirmatory test. Padikara parpam's antibacterial activity was evaluated using the Agar well diffusion method at different concentrations of 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %, and 2 % drugs. 30 µg Cefotaxime and 30 µg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid disk were used as controls to standardize the antibacterial activity test and to identify the ESBL by phenotypic confirmatory test. Results: In this study, Padikara parpam at various doses of 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %, and 2 %, revealed significant antibacterial efficacy against ESBL producing bacteria. Padikara parpam was more active against ESBL Escherichia coli than ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae. As a result, it may be recommended as an antibacterial agent against ESBL. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Siddha Herbo mineral formulations of padikara parpam hold phenomenal antimicrobial activity against ESBL producing bacteria. Based on our findings, the drug may be prescribed successfully for urinary tract infections, which is caused by ESBL producing bacteria.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 604-611; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58a34157

Abstract:
One of the global health issues is Oral cancer, which has an increased death rate. Awareness of oral cancer screening is important for oral health care professionals for early detection and improving the patients' survival rate. Attitude towards oral cancer awareness and knowledge of oral cancer screening are the key factors that impact oral cancer awareness success. Materials and Methods: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental practitioners and dental students towards screening for oral pre-cancer and cancer. This study included dental practitioners working in various academic institutions and private practitioners in Chennai. Participants were asked to fill in age, gender, designation, and experience. A structured questionnaire consisting of 10 questions, each having four options, was administered to the participants. The data collected was 100 responses analyzed by statistical package for the social science (spss inc., version 16 for, Chicago, IL, USA). Simple descriptive statistics were used to describe the distribution of data collected. T-test and ANOVA were employed to assess the statistically significant difference in the KAP scores between different groups. Results: The response rate for the present study was 100%. 37% of general dental practitioners reported that they routinely do a thorough oral examination for all the patients,52% agree that they are adequately trained to examine patients for oral pre-cancer and cancer screening,8% of them reported that they never do toluidine blue staining for patients with oral lesion. Majority(57) of them agree that they would recommend biopsy for suspected cases of oral cancer. Only 9% of the participants were aware of the time required for intraoral screening examination. 31% of them were aware of the risk of malignant transformation in a white lesion. 73% of the participants were aware of the occurrence of oral cancer in non - tobacco users was rare. 53% of agree that thorough intraoral examination for oral cancer will reduce oral cancer mortality and morbidity.
Alemayehu Siffir Argawu
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 983-992; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i60b34703

Abstract:
Introduction: In Africa region on the date of December 09, 2021 at 14:46 GMT, the total cumulative cases of COVID-19 was 8,889,437 with total deaths and total recoveries of 224,731 (2.5% of death rate) and 8,185,382 (92% of recovery rate) respectively. Thus, this study aimed modelling and forecasting of COVID-19 new cases in top seven infected African countries using time series models. Methods: The top seven infected African countries COVID-19 new cases dataset was taken from our World COVID-19 dataset. The study period was from February 14 to September 06, 2020. Different time series models were used for modelling and forecasting of COVID-19 new cases data. Models comparisons were done by normalized BIC, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and R-squared values. Results: The COVID-19 new cases data of Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Morocco, and South Africa were fitted by ARIMA (0,1,0), ARIMA (0,1,0), Damped trend, Brown, and ARIMA (0,1,14) models in the study period, respectively. Whereas Ghana, and Nigeria COVID-19 new cases data were followed by simple exponential smoothing models. The 95% confidence levels for lowest to highest forecasted COVID-19 new cases were 258 to 197 with decreasing trend in Algeria, 63 to 933 with increasing trend in Egypt, 636 to 2,141 with increasing trend in Ethiopia, 0 to 1,022 with constant trend in Ghana, 1,900 to 2,807 with increasing trend in Morocco, 0 to 543 with constant trend in Nigeria, and 2,056 to 2,444 with increasing trend in South Africa for the next one month (from September 7 to October 6, 2020). Conclusion: The findings of the study used for preparedness planning against further spread of the COVID-19 epidemic in African countries. The author recommends that as many countries continue to relax restrictions on movement and mass gatherings, and more are opening their air spaces, and the countries’ other public and private sectors are reopening and then strong appropriate public health and social measures must be instituted on the ground again and again before the virus is distributed and attacked more and more peoples in the region. And, the researcher recommended that risk factors of COVID-19 new cases should be conducted for next time in Africa countries.
, Anjali Modak
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 977-982; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i60b34702

Abstract:
Background: Various degrees of pain is seen in the post-operative period following almost every arthroscopic knee surgery. The reason behind this pain is due to the irritation that occurs to the nerve endings that are found free in the synovium of the knee. Hence, to make this difficult period pain free various analgesics are given to the patient. They are given through various routes and they may be given as sole analgesics or in combination. One such routes used is the intra-articular route in which analgesics are given intra-articularly for post -operative analgesia. Dexmedetomidine is a drug which can be used the aforementioned route. The main of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Intra-articular Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to Intra-articular Bupivacaine. Aim: This study aims to compare Intra-articular Bupivacaine vs Bupivacaine and Dexmedetomidine for prolonging post-operative analgesia following knee arthroscopy surgery. Objectives: The primary objective is to assess the duration of postoperative analgesia produced by Dexmedetomidine when used as an adjuvant to Intra-articular Bupivacaine after arthroscopic knee surgeries. The secondary objectives are to evaluate Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to Intra-articular Bupivacaine, with respect to: Quality of analgesia, Number of doses of rescue analgesic required during study period, Systemic/Local side effects. Methods: 60 patients within the age group 20-60 undergoing arthroscopic knee surgeries will be enrolled for the study. Following the completion of surgery, patients allotted to Group B will receive 19ml of Intra-articular Bupivacaine with 1ml of normal saline and patients allotted to Group D will receive 19 ml of Intra-articular Bupivacaine with 1mcg/kg Dexmedetomidine. Post-operative analgesia will be monitored using VAS and the requirement of rescue analgesics in both groups will be noted down and compared. Expected Outcomes: The VAS and total requirement of rescue analgesics is expected to be less in Group D with minimal/no side effects.
Bhavesh Modi, Komal Shah, Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Deepak Shukla, Abhay Gaidhane, Deepak Saxena
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 865-878; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i60b34689

Abstract:
The world has witnessed the dreadful COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid rate of its spread across countries. The key measures in pandemic control includes early detection of cases, isolation of cases to prevent spread and appropriate management of confirmed cases. The present diagnostic criteria for COVID-19 in India is based on RT-PCR. This technique has its own limitations. There are ongoing debates to the cost, time taken and type of diagnostic sensitivity and predictive values of RT-PCR. Researchers across globe have been exploring alternative methods to enhance the mainstay of protocols for identifying suspected cases of COVID-19. With media news of too many asymptomatic positive results from community in New Delhi, Ahmedabad and other places in India, along with prompt withdrawal of antibody based tests by ICMR after questions on validity, such test raises concerns and urgent need for exploring the need for rethinking the diagnostic algorithm. This is a systematic review to explore possibility of novel diagnostic approaches for a suspected case of COVID-19 with an objective to early detection of case and using appropriate methods to halt the chain of transmission.
, Sweta Kale Pisulkar
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 1008-1013; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i60b34706

Abstract:
Background: Complete edentulism constitutes health care burden, resulting in alterations in physical, psychological and emotional behavior. Also, a reduction in quality of life is expressed by patients, raising their levels of stress and anxiety. Stressful situations cause increased blood pressure and heart rate resulting in the secretion of cortisol hormone, which stimulates gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis causing hyperglycemia, which may favor the occurrence of Diabetes. As the diabetic’s population is rapidly rising, Prosthodontists are certain to see a greater number of diabetic edentulous patients. Thus, there is a need to assess the relationship of complete denture rehabilitation with the generic health of edentulous patients which can be done by checking the stress levels, and their effects on systemic health. Objectives: To determine anxiety levels and Salivary Cortisol levels in Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients and compare and correlate them before and after rehabilitation with Complete Dentures. Methodology: It will be a cross-sectional study, carried out on edentulous diabetic patients aged 50-70 years visiting the Department of Prosthodontics of Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital. With consent for participation, Glycated Hemoglobin and anxiety levels will be determined, along with fabrication of complete dentures. Patients will be assessed at two stages; before and 1 month after complete denture rehabilitation. Results: The research has been approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. The results expected are the significant reduction in anxiety levels after Complete Denture Rehabilitation and thus, a definitive correlation between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels. Conclusion: Adaptation of patients to their new set of Complete dentures can be improved by their clinicians by acquisition of the knowledge of relationship of the general health of the patient and correlating it to the dental rehabilitation.
Suyash Y. Ambatkar, Ratnakar Ambade
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 906-911; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i60b34693

Abstract:
Introduction: Foot shape and its proportions changes gradually during normal growth of human beings, but the mechanical stresses during bipedal locomotion are a key factor for development of foot. To sustain static position and to arrange for stable base while performing various functional activities, Foot plays major role in it. Deformities in lower extremities of children’s are being very common. As this conditions are physiological, that’s why most of the time this conditions do not require treatment. In an average 90% of patient who are visiting to clinic for foot problem are flat foot. Primary manifestation of flat foot is decreasing in longitudinal arch, which shows that while standing or walking, there is transmission of whole body weight towards the medial side of foot sole. This is the main reason for which flat foot is considered as problem of static alignment of foot and ankle structure. Objective: To analyze footprint of children and to determine prevalence of flat foot, their anthropometric measurement, Prevalence of structural pathologies of foot and correction of foot prints and radiological evaluation of 8 – 13 years age group of children. Methodology: All the visiting patients of orthopedic department of AVBRH of age group 8 – 13 year, with sample size. Examination will be done along with radiological examination, radiological assessment and different anthropometric will include Plain X-ray of both feet. Results: We expect that, anthropometric measurements of rural children may differ from other literatures.
V. K. Chimurkar, , Darshana Fulmali, Vaishnavi V. Chauhan
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 1086-1092; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i60b34717

Abstract:
“What is contraception?” Contraception is the method for birth control which helps to prevent unwanted pregnancies. There are so many methods of contraception including long acting reversible methods, barrier methods, hormonal methods, lactational amenorrhea method, fertility awareness based methods, emergency contraceptives, etc. In present decade, the knowledge of contraception in teenage girls is mandatory as the involvement of teenagers in sexual activities is increasing day by day. The reasons can be many such as social media, electronic gadgets, peer pressure, etc. There are so many studies that have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the teenage girls in universities remains limited and the rate of sexual activity before marriage, and unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions remains higher among college going students. It leads to various health conditions in girls as well as mental and social disturbances in both girls and boys. There is a need to make them aware about the consequences they have to face after engaging in sexual activities and ending up with teenage pregnancies, unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Current study aimed to assess the awareness of contraceptives, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptives use among female undergraduate students as well as girls who are illiterate in Wardha region, Maharashtra. Aim: ‘The study was conducted to estimate the level of awareness of contraception amongst the teenage girls’. Objectives: To provide proper sex education to the teenagers. To aware teenagers about complications of teenage pregnancies. To acknowledge them about sexual activities and their consequences. To acknowledge them about contraceptives and their proper uses. Materials and Methods: Sawangi, Wardha. Total study participants were 140 girls. One group of 70 girls, age between 13 years to 16 years, half of them from school located in Wardha and half of them from rural area around the Wardha. Another group of 70 girls belongs to 17 years to 19 years, half of them from school and half from rural area. The participants were on voluntary basis. The girls belong rural area that had never been to the school. None of them were given questionnaire to fill. Answers were recorded on the questionnaire by the social worker who was assigned the job. Adequate time was given to each adolescent to answer the questions asked. The data thus collected was analyzed. Prior permission and consent were taken from the school Principal and the parents. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there should be sensitization of teenage girls about contraception and various contraceptive methods. It will help them to prevent the unwanted pregnancies and it adverse outcomes of abortions which is beneficial to maintain their further reproductive life.
M. Vignesh, , R. Priyadharshini
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 1138-1148; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i60b34725

Abstract:
Background: Blood groups are classified into two types ABO system and Rh system and ABO system have the antigen on the RBC and the antibody of the blood and whereas Rh blood system only contain the only antigen called D antigen that is present on the surface of RBC and the criteria to find the Rh+ or Rh- is by presence or absence of D antigen and this is the prime understanding of the blood groups where the antigen, antibody and cellular units together comprise the host response to the antigen or disease and enhance it. Our study is to create the awareness among the people for different blood groups disease-causing tendency Materials And Methods: The questionnaire was made comprising of 15 questions using google forms and it is circulated among 100 peoples and the data was collected and evaluated by Chi-square test using SPSS VERSION 26. (p<0.005) Results: The results showed that more than 75% of the study population are unaware of the blood groups associated with systemic illness and further survey is needed to analyze more population. Conclusion: From the results, we concluded that certain programs and initiatives are needed to overcome the disease caused by the blood groups and our study focuses mainly on improving the knowledge of the individual about the knowledge and awareness of disease in blood groups.
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