International Journal of Green Pharmacy

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0973-8258 / 1998-4103
Published by: BRNSS Publication Hub (10.22377)
Total articles ≅ 478
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G. Andhuvan Andhuvan
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgpmds

Abstract:
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare, genetically inherited autosomal recessive disorder that manifests as bone marrow failure syndrome. Defects in genes with 16 complementation groups alter the stability of the DNA which is characterized by congenital malformations and progressive pancytopenia. This, in turn, can predispose to acute myeloid leukemia and other solid tumors. The most common diagnostic methods used in the detection of FA includes bone marrow biopsy and chromosome breakage test. We report a case of a 6-year-old Asian female child who presented with major complaints of lower abdominal pain, difficulty in swallowing, generalized tiredness, and gum bleeding. Her physical features were manifested as short stature, partial ptosis, hypopigmented spots on both hands, and thumb hypoplasia. Her bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed markedly hypocellular bone marrow with reduced trilineage hematopoiesis which was suggestive of FA.
Puneshwar Keshari
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2200

Abstract:
Background: Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem. is considered as a genuine source of Rohitaka which is mentioned in Ayurvedaclassics for Yakrit Pliha Roga (liver and spleen diseases). In different parts of India, various other species are used as substituteof Rohitaka due to non-availability of the genuine source. In Nepal, folklore traditional practitioners use Rhododendronarboreum Sm. for the treatment of jaundice and it is marketed by the name of Rohitaka. Objective: The present studyoutlines the concept of substitution. The stem bark of T. undulata (Sm.) Seem. and R. arboreum Sm. is compared on the basisof macroscopic/organoleptic evaluation, microscopic evaluation, physicochemical analysis, phytochemical analysis, andhigh-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Materials and Methods: Macroscopic/organoleptic evaluation,microscopic evaluation, and physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical screening were carried out using standardmethods. Semi-automatic applicator was used for HPTLC profiling. Results: Macroscopic/organoleptic evaluation showedlongitudinally fissured and fibrous fracture in T. undulata with bitter taste, while longitudinally furrowed, laminated barkwith bitter taste in R. arboreum. Powder microscopy revealed the presence of parenchyma with starch, parenchyma withcell content, and cork cells in both drugs. On physiochemical analysis, T. undulata showed greater water and alcoholicextractive value than R. arboreum. Carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, and phenols were the chemical constituents found inboth the drugs. HPTLC study revealed that there are 18 active phytoconstituents in R. arboreum barks and 24 in T. undulataon the basis of peaks observed. Conclusion: The present study revealed few common phytoconstituents found in bothT. undulata and R. arboreum.
Venkata Gopaiah
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2210

Abstract:
Aim: The leaves of the plant Tecomaria capensis were extracted with different solvents and screened for their analgesic activity. Materials and Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of the plant T. capensis has showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids. The analgesic activity of ethyl acetate extract of T. capensis leaves is evaluated by Eddy’s hot plate and tail flick method. Results and Discussion: This study demonstrates that ethyl acetate extracts of T. capensis have significant analgesic activities. Further, with column chromatography technique, different compounds are isolated from the extract. Among the different compounds, 3, 7-dimethyloct-6-en-1-ol showed a comparable activity to standard. Conclusion: The present investigation indicates the probable use of T. capensis extracts in the evaluation of analgesic activity.
Anuj Kumar Srivastava
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2258

Abstract:
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate hepato- and nephroprotective potential of extracts of polyherbal formulations against acetaminophen (paracetamol [PCM])-induced dysfunction in experimental rodents. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of hydroalcoholic polyherbal formulation (HAF) was performed according to the OECD guidelines. Sprague Dawley female rats were grouped into three containing six animals each for acute toxicity study. For subacute toxicity study, animals were observed periodically for the symptoms of toxicity and death within 24 h and then daily for 14 days. Acetaminophen-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity models were used for this study. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were performed it to control group rats received normal saline (p.o.) per day for 7 days. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (PCM) were administered at a dose of 750 mg/kg/day/oral for 7 day and Groups III & IV were treated with PCM (750 mg/kg/day/oral) and HAF of doses 200 and 400 mg/kg/day/oral for 7 days respectively. The liver weight, kidney weight, liver function test, and kidney function test were evaluated along with histopathological investigation in various experimental groups of rats. Results: It was observed that the PCM treatment induced significant elevation (P < 0.001) in creatinine, kidney weight, liver weight, and liver functions such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and triglycerides. Treatment of HAF of doses 200 and 400 mg/kg/d (p.o) for 7 day) on experimental rats recorded significant decrement (up to P < 0.001) in creatinine, kidney weight, liver weight, and liver functions such as ALT and AST. The doses of 400 mg/ kg/body weight/oral of HAF were found significant when compare with at doses of 200 mg/kg/body weight/oral. A histological observation of liver and kidney tissues provides positive response on experimental groups having PCM + HAF 400 mg/kg-induced model and significant data also correlate the biochemical parameters. Conclusions: This finding powerfully supports that polyherbal formulation acts in the liver and kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent the toxic effects of PCM. The biochemical and histopathological parameters of polyherbal formulation validate its ethnomedicinal uses and polyphenolic presence.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2271

Abstract:
Objective: A number of water objects of Abkhazia (the Western Caucasus) have been studied. Physicochemical indicators of water and characteristics of zooplankton community were investigated. Water bodies of Abkhazia are specified by high water quality, due to glacier-derived nourishment of rivers. In the mouth areas, the quality of water deteriorates, sometimes significantly, due to the pollution by sewage. However, most of the studied water bodies have high quality of water. The exceedance of maximum permissible concentration of biogenic elements was not revealed in rivers. In waterfalls water is ultra-fresh. In rivers, water is fresh with low hardness. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 zooplankton taxa were identified in the studied water bodies. The dominant species in various water objects were the following: Thermocyclops crassus, Pleuroxus aduncus, Pleuroxus trigonellus, Alona rectangula, Penilia avirostris, Macrothrix laticornis, and Eucyclops serrulatus. Zooplankton communities are characterized by low species richness. It is due to the high flow rate of mountain rivers, and their low temperature that creates unfavorable conditions for the development of zooplankton. Results and Discussion: The abundance of zooplankton varied from 5 specimens/m3 (the Mokva River) to 570 specimens/m3 (the Edyrtaa River). The biomass of zooplankton varied from 0.127 mg/m3 (the Mokva River) to 5.1 mg/m3 (the Akuna Channel). Quantitative indicators of zooplankton are low. Conclusions: According to the value of saprobity index, water in the Dzyguta, Edyrtaarivers, the channel from the Gali reservoir refers to β-mesosaprobic zone, and water in the Kudry Khuchi and Smyrakha rivers - to oligosaprobic zone.
Tatiana R. Denisova
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2294

Abstract:
Aim: The isotherms of the adsorption of nickel (Ni) (II) ions from model aqueous solutions with the initial concentration of metal ions from 0 to 1500 mg/dm3 by crushed bark, wood sawdust, and leaves of trees of Acacia auriculiformis in static mode are obtained. It has been established that crushed acacia bark has the largest adsorption capacity with respect to Ni II ions (7 mg/g), and the lowest adsorption capacity has acacia leaves (4 mg/g). Adsorption isotherms were calculated using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevich, Temkin, Flory-Huggins, Harkins-Jura, and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill models. Materials and Methods: The sorption properties of leaves, sawdust of wood, and crushed bark of A. auriculiformis were studied in the static adsorption regime using model aqueous solutions of Ni sulfate (II) with initial concentrations of Ni2+ ions from 0 to 1500 mg/dm3. Results: It is found that the isotherms of the adsorption of Ni ions by leaves, wood sawdust, and crushed bark are most adequately described by the Dubinin–Radushkevich model with the approximation coefficients R2 = 0.988, R2 = 0.988, and R2 = 0.982, respectively, indicating that the process takes place both in the pores and on the surface of sorption material. The thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process are calculated. Conclusions: The obtained values of Gibbs energy ΔG and the adsorption energy E indicate that the limiting adsorption stage of Ni (II) ions by A. auriculiformis components is physical adsorption.
Oksana O. Zavada
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2265

Abstract:
Aims: Detection of general patterns of the synthesis of quinazoline derivatives contains a fragment of 2-aminoalkylimidazole and studying their antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods: Methods of organic synthesis; physical and physicochemical methods of analysis of organic compounds 1Hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analysis were used. Results: To construct a focused library of compounds with potential antimicrobial and antifungal properties, we have chosen a strategy of combining quinazoline fragments with an imidazole residue in one molecule. The possibility of using 2-aminoalkylimidazoles as an amine component in the heterocyclization reaction with o-isothiocyanato esters was considered. 3-Substituted 2-thioxoquinazoline-4-ones were synthesized by the interaction of methyl esters of 4,5-substituted 2-isothiocyanatobenzoic acids with 2-(α,β,ω-aminoalkyl)imidazoles. Experimental study of antimicrobial activity was performed for the obtained substances, which according to the results of virtual screening showed the best results. Conclusions: A virtual library design with structural fragments of quinazoline and imidazole was made. The systematic series of 6,7-substituted 3-[2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)-alkyl]-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one were synthesized. According to the results of the study of the biological effects of the new derivatives of 3-N-(alkylimidazolyl-2) pyrimidine, a number of patterns of connection “chemical structure - antibacterial action” were established and the main directions of the purposeful modification of the structure for the search of new antimicrobial and antifungal agents were determined.
Fadilah Fadilah
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2273

Abstract:
This research was determined the cytotoxic activity of extract the rhizomes of Kaempferia pandurata as anti-breast cancer in 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)-MB-231 cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and study of estrogen receptor (ER) negative with target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by molecular docking approach. Materials and Methods: The docking study was conducted using AutoDock Vina. The macromolecule was retrieved from protein data bank (PDB), with ID code 2OH4 and saved in PDB format. The ligands were prepared using Marvin Sketch and saved in.PDB format. The next step was in vitro assay of the extract against MDA-MB-231 cell line using MTT test. From this assay, we will get the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of extract. Results: Compounds pinostrobin and pinocembrin have the lowest Gibbs energy and Ki values, even lower compared to gossypol, which means that this molecule is most active when bound to VEGF. The hydrogen bonds that occur between the pinostrobin and the receptor are similar to the hydrogen bonds that are present between gossypol and its receptor, called Phe1045, Val846, Leu1033, and Cys917. This amino acid as active site of VEGF. The IC50 value of standard cisplatin, doxorubicin, and hexane extract was 18.4, 1.24, and 20.54 μg/ml, respectively. Hexane extracts of K. pandurata demonstrated antiproliferative activities. Conclusion: The extract rhizomes of K. pandurata with pinostrobin and pinocembrin chalcone as major compounds showed potent activity as anticancer against breast cancer cell line.
Kalpana Patidar
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2263

Abstract:
Context: Antioxidants are helpful in increasing the blood circulation and thus help in hair growth as well as in the treatment of diseases. Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. The antioxidant property of plant and different herbs can be utilized in hair fall conditions or many diseases. Aim: The aim of this study is to develop an herbal hair growth promoting shampoo using Piper betle and Psidium guajava leaves extract due to their antioxidant property. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of herbal shampoo formulation containing P. betle and P. guajava leaves extract was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, 0.5 ml of each sample at various concentrations was added to 1.5 ml of DPPH (0.004%) solution and allowed to stand in the dark at room temperature for 20 min. The absorbance at 520 nm was recorded using UV spectroscopy which was compared with ascorbic acid taken as standard. Results: The results of the study demonstrated that formulation FC3 exhibited best antioxidant activity and formulation was stable for 2 months. The formulation FC3 shows better pH, foamability, dirt dispersion, and wettability. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that herbal shampoo formulation containing P. betle and P. guajava leaves extract is best for hair growth promoter and many problems related to hairs.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2262

Abstract:
Aim: Vanda tessellata is an endangered orchid of high medicinal value plant containing flavonoid and polyphenol components. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antidepressant activity of leaves extract of V. tessellata. Materials and Methods: The chloroform and ethanol extracts were prepared from V. tessellata leaves. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were determined for antioxidant activity of extracts. Antidepressant activity was identified using a modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Results and Discussion: The total phenolic content of chloroform and ethanol extracts of V. tessellate were 98.25 ± 0.11 and 202.00 ± 0.21 gallic acid equivalent mg/gm, respectively. The concentrations of flavonoids in chloroform and ethanol extracts of V. tessellate were 23.57 ± 0.47 and 114.48 ± 0.12 quercetin equivalent mg/gm, respectively. The ethanol extract demonstrated significant antidepressant activity by a reduction in immobility times of rats in TST and FST. Conclusion: The findings concluded that the antidepressant activity of V. tessellate extracts may be due to the presence of polyphenol and flavonoids.
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