Journal of Geography and Geology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1916-9779 / 1916-9787
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 383
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Latest articles in this journal

Maureen L. Schmidt, Fei Yuan, Woo Jang
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n2p40

This study examines how geospatial technologies can be used in the aid of local-level cemetery management with limited resources using a case study in Woodland Hills Memorial Park Cemetery, Minnesota, USA. The hard-copy records in a handwritten ledger were manually transferred into an Excel table. The spatial data of the gravesites were collected using a Trimble Geo 7X unit with a Zephyr antenna and a Laser Rangefinder sensor over the summer of 2017. A geodatabase was constructed by joining the Excel table with the GPS data in GIS. A procedure was also developed to map the spatial distributions of plots and analyze the demographic data. It was demonstrated that a very high locational accuracy could be achieved based on carefully designed GPS data collection strategies. In addition, the data analysis results revealed that there were 12,190 plots in total, approximately half of which were still available for purchase. Among the 5,906 inhabitants buried at the Woodland Hills, many were ethnically German and Scandinavian, of whom 9.7% were veterans and nearly half were from the Greatest Generation (born between 1901 and 1927). The birth, death, and age distributions are significantly different between the nonveteran and veteran groups. Clustered patterns were identified for the filled plots and all the Generation categories. Such results will be beneficial to local cemetery managers to plan for further development as well as to future historians or individuals interested in the local culture and history. The proposed methods can greatly facilitate local-level cemetery data collection, mapping, query, and analysis.
S. Adamu, A. K. Yusuf, A.G. Kodomi, I. B. Wulo
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n2p57

From the results, three to four electrostratigraphic layers with resistivity value ranging from 44 to 997 ohm/m and thickness ranging from 0.5 to 39.7 m were observed in the study area. The top loose rocks, the weathered conductive zone, the fractured basement rock and the fresh basement rock of older granite suite were encountered respectively. From this research, it can be deduce that, the thicker top soil and deeper weathered basement rock at the depth of 30 to 45 meters within this area produce a productive site for sitting future borehole. Insufficient groundwater supply in some places leading to scarcity is noticed in VES 10, VES 12 and VES 13. H, I, and A curve types are generally the most common in the area and are typical of basement complex area. Geographical Positioning System tool (model: GPSmap 76CSx), was used to locate the VES points. Fifteen VES points with electrode spacing [AB/2] of 100 meters separation around Ndanaku and environs were undertaken using Schlumberger configuration. IPI 2 Win [1990-2003] Geosoft resistivity sounding software was used to model the field curves from the measured data on the field. Groundwater in the area is regarded as poor due to localized nature of the aquifer and the study aimed at addressing this scarcity of water within the area by studying the conductive zone and knows the aquifer types through resistivity sounding techniques for future drilling.
Curt D. Peterson, Debra L. Doyle, Charles L. Rosenfeld, Kara E.P. Kingen
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n2p1

Three small subcells (Nehalem, Tillamook, and Netarts) totaling ~55 km shoreline length in the high-wave energy northern Oregon coast are evaluated for potential beach sand loss from sea level rise (SLR) of 0.5–1.0 m during the next century. The predicted erosion is based on beach sand displacement from the narrow beaches (average ~120 m width) to increased submarine accommodation spaces in the innermost-shelf (to 30 m water depth) and in the subcell estuaries (Tillamook Bay, Netarts Bay, and Nehalem Bay), following predicted near-future SLR. Beach sand sources from local rivers, paleo-shelf deposits, and/or sea cliff retreat are discriminated by distinctive heavy-mineral tracers. Modern beach sands in the study area are derived from river sand (~75 %) and paleo-shelf sand (~25 %). The supplies of paleo-shelf sand to the beaches have largely diminished in late-Holocene time. The river-enriched beach sands have been transported offshore to the inner-shelf (0–50 m water depth) to fill increasing accommodation space in the inner-shelf during latest-Holocene conditions of relative SLR (1.0 m ka-1). To evaluate the beach sand response to future SLR, representative beach profiles (n=17) and intervening beach segment distances were compiled to yield beach sand volumes above mean lower low water (MLLW) or shallower wave-cut platforms ‘bedrock’. Across-shore cross-sectional areas, as averaged for each subcell, are as follows; Cannon Beach (304 m2), Tillamook (683 m2), and Netarts (227 m2). Littoral sand displacements to the adjacent innermost-shelf (to 30 m water depth) and the marine-dominated areas of the three estuaries are based on assumed vertical sand accretion rates of 1.0 m per century and a conservative value of 0.5 m per century. The filling of such submarine accommodation spaces will displace all active-beach sand reserves in all three subcells for either the 1.0 m or 0.5 m thickness accommodation space scenarios. Large beach sand deficits, primarily from the filling of offshore accommodation spaces, could cause further retreat of soft-shorelines, including barrier spit and beach plain/dune deposits, in the Tillamook subcell (150-280 m) and in the southern half of the Netarts subcell (370-770 m). The accommodation space approach used to predict beach sand volume loss from future SLR should have broad applicability in complex littoral systems worldwide.
Eric Clausen
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n2p28

Detailed topographic maps of the western Nebraska North Platte River-South Platte River confluence area show a low relief and gently sloping southeast-oriented upland surface, asymmetrical drainage divides, nearly adjacent and parallel east-oriented North and South Platte River valley segments, barbed tributaries, and shallow divide crossings (low points along drainage divides) in a region south of the Nebraska Sand Hills and at the Nebraska loess region’s western margin. Published interpretations of North and South Platte River confluence area landforms (referred to as the accepted paradigm) do not explain most drainage features and are compared with a new paradigm’s interpretations to determine which of the two paradigms explains the regional drainage history and related surface features in a simple and consistent manner. New paradigm interpretations require large sheets of slowly-moving southeast-oriented water to have flowed toward what was probably an actively eroding Republican River valley and to have shaped the upland surface while the Platte and North and South Platte River valleys eroded headward into and across the region so as to create the asymmetric drainage divides, barbed tributaries, and shallow divide crossings. These new paradigm interpretations are consistent with each other and with recently published new paradigm interpretations of upstream North and South Platte River drainage system history. New paradigm interpretations also suggest the adjacent Nebraska Sand Hills developed on a large flood deposited delta (typical of sand dune areas on former glacial lake deltas further to the north) and the slowly-moving sheets of water may have been responsible for some or all of Nebraska’s loess deposits, although the new paradigm leads to a fundamentally different middle and late Cenozoic regional geologic and glacial history than what workers using the accepted paradigm have described.
, Ikenna A. Okonkwo, Silas S. Dada
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n1p65

The Upper Benue trough of Nigeria consists of basins and horsts characterized by numerous structural features. Detailed study of one of the basins revealed sets of “centimetric”, riedel type “en-echelon” NE-SW trending strike slip faults contained in a number of brittle and ductile shear zones characterizing the basement/sediment boundary. Structural analysis suggests that the Moku sub-basin has been pulled apart along a releasing bend in between NE – SW strike slip faults and that three principal axes of stress were acting on the sub-basin during its formation. The maximum stress (1) with orientation 34/304 was responsible for the fault overlap (basin length), whereas the minimum stress (σ_3) with orientation 18/201 controlled the fault separation (basin width). These suggest a qualitative model showing the Moku sub-basin as a separate basin, which must have coalesced with adjacent sub-basins. Deposition of Bima sediments in the basin was closely controlled by tectonism. The immature B1 sediments are restricted mostly to the faulted margin of the basin. The more matured B2 and B3 sediments are distributed around the less disturbed areas.
Lesley Luo
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n1p76

Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Geography and Geology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2020
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n1p50

Detailed topographic maps are used to identify and briefly describe named (and a few unnamed) mountain passes crossing high elevation east-west continental divide segments encircling south- and southwest-oriented Colorado River headwaters and linking the Colorado River drainage basin (draining to the Pacific Ocean) with the North and South Platte River drainage basins (draining to the Platte, Missouri, and Mississippi Rivers and Gulf of Mexico). Previous researchers following commonly accepted geomorphology paradigm rules have not explained how most, if any of these mountain passes originated. A recently proposed geomorphology paradigm requires all Missouri River drainage basin valleys to have eroded headward across massive south- and southeast-oriented floods, which implies south- and southeast-oriented floods flowed from what are today north-oriented North Platte River headwaters across the continental divide, the present-day south- and southwest-oriented Colorado River headwaters valley, and then across what is now the continental divide a second time to reach east- and southeast-oriented South Platte River headwaters. Paradigms are rules determining how a scientific discipline governs its research and by themselves are neither correct nor incorrect and are judged on their ability to explain observed evidence. From the new paradigm perspective, a stream eroded each of the passes into a rising mountain range until the uplift rate outpaced the erosion rate and forced a flow reversal in what would have been the upstream valley. The passes and the valleys leading in both directions from the continental divide are best explained if diverging and converging south- and southeast-oriented flood flow channels crossed rising mountain ranges. While explaining observed drainage patterns and erosional landforms such an interpretation requires a fundamentally different regional middle and late Cenozoic glacial and geologic history than what previous investigators using the accepted paradigm perspective have described.
, Harry M. Jol, David Percy, Robert Perkins
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n1p25

Fluvial-tidal wetlands in the Ni-les’tun Unit (~200 hectares) of the Bandon Marsh, Coquille Estuary, Oregon, were analyzed for shallow aquifer conditions that could influence surface water-qualities in reconstructed marsh, pond, and discharge/tidal channels. The wetlands were surveyed for pre-historic channel features, depth to groundwater surface (GWS), and subsurface salinity intrusion by ground penetrating radar (GPR) in 50 profiles, totaling 11.1 km in track line distance. Only small flood-discharge/tidal channel features (<10 m width and 1–2 m depth) were recorded in the interior floodplain areas. GWS reflections were observed at 0.5–2.0 depth, where the GPR signal was not obscured by localized salinity intrusion (~0.5 km landward distance) from the adjacent Coquille Estuary channel. Top-sealed piezometers (1.5–2.0 m depth) were installed at 10 sites, where in-situ groundwaters were monitored for temperature (8.5–16.5° C), conductivity (<100–18,800 μS cm-1), and pH (2.5–7.8) on a seasonal basis. Dissolved oxygen was semi-quantitatively measured (ChemSticks) at some sites, and all sites were monitored (fall, winter, summer) for GWS level. Low dissolved oxygen (DO <1 ppm) at four sites was of particular concern for potential discharge into small channels that were to be constructed for juvenile salmonid nursery habitat. The horizontal and vertical asymmetries of conductivity (salinity), used as a conservative groundwater source tracer, and measured GWS elevation trends (gradients) led to a four-part flow model for shallow groundwater supply in the Ni-les’tun floodplain. Freshwater supplied, in part, by hillslope discharge contributes to low pH and low DO water quality in the shallow aquifer. Saline water, supplied by subsurface salinity intrusion and evaporative capillary rise, could introduce salinity toxicity to isolated (stagnant) surface ponds. Following construction of a dense channel network (2009–2011) by the Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge, selected Ni-les’tun channel waters (13 sites) were monitored (2011-2012) for resulting water-quality. The tidally-connected channels generally showed improved water-quality relative to groundwater in some nearby piezometer sites. However, low-quality groundwater supply compromised some channel reaches (DO ~2.0–4.7 ppm) that depended on groundwater recharge from hillslope discharge during either summer or winter conditions.
Anna –Marie Niipare, Andries Jordaan,
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n1p8

Floods are among the global natural disasters that are known to have major negative societal effects. The extent of floods can determine the degree of impact to be made. Floods can cause extensive economic losses, consequently affecting livelihoods, businesses, infrastructures and basic services. This study investigated the impact of floods in communities within the Oshana Region in the northern areas of Namibia. Primary and secondary data were collected in efforts to understand the impact of floods, and the causes of vulnerability to such events. Loss of field crops, destruction of houses, destruction of roads and other infrastructure, and loss of human lives were the major flood impacts that have been identified. The study findings revealed that vulnerability to floods is mainly due to lack of resources, poverty, poor infrastructure, limited budget, inactive disaster risk management structures in the region, rapid population change, non-existing Early Warning System (EWS), lack of awareness of the flood impacts, low income, and the fact that many houses are headed by females. In the absence of coping strategies, communities mainly depend on external relief, particularly for temporary shelter and provision of basic needs. It was concluded that the ability of communities and individuals to cope with flood impacts is related to their culture, history, knowledge system, power dynamics and governance. A further conclusion was that, the vulnerability of communities in the Oshana Region resulted in reduced household resilience to flood disasters. The study recommended a further investigation into other flood prone regions in Namibia. Other notable recommendations included: • the availing of information on climate variability and best coping strategies in flood prone communities, • flood hazards awareness, • developing and implementing mitigation measures for flood disasters, • development of a policy on the construction of houses in efforts to avoid flood risks, • and the development of information communication channels for EWS.
, Amadi Akobundu Nwanosike, Kyari Reuben, Samuel Abel, Samson Bitrus Awu
Journal of Geography and Geology, Volume 12; doi:10.5539/jgg.v12n1p1

Groundwater from hand dug wells and boreholes in Paiko, northcentral Nigeria were subjected to physico-chemical as well as microbiological analysis to determine their suitability for drinking purpose. The water from the hand dug wells are predominantly calcium magnesium chloride (Ca-Mg-Cl) water while those from boreholes are calcium magnesium bicarbonate water (Ca-Mg-HCO3) facies. The results showed elevated cations and anions concentration in the hand dug wells in addition to the water being slightly acidic. Also, the nitrate concentration in the hand dug wells is above the maximum permissible limit of 50mg/l postulated by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDQ). Microbiological analysis revealed Total Coliform Count of 100cfu and 360cfu in the hand dug wells and borehole respectively signifying faecal contamination. The study revealed that improper sewage systems as well as poor waste disposal is responsible for the poor water quality as well as elevated concentration of nitrate in hand dug wells, and as such the shallow aquifer groundwater in the area are not safe for drinking purpose with respect to all the parameters taken together.
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