UKH Journal of Science and Engineering

Journal Information
EISSN : 2520-7792
Published by: University of Kurdistan Hewler (10.25079)
Total articles ≅ 98
Current Coverage
DOAJ
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

Heba Adnan Ahmed
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp52-60

Abstract:
Geotechnical engineering requires the use of ecologically acceptable, long-lasting, and effective solutions to fortify clayey soil. The mechanical behavior of clayey soil strengthened with carbon fibres (CFs) was studied in this work. Soil specimens were subjected to uniaxial compression strength tests at their optimal moisture content (OMC). The impacts of CFs length and percentage on the strengthened soil specimens' shear resistance, and stress-strain curve behavior were investigated. The effect of CFs on specimen cohesiveness and angles of internal friction was also investigated. The results showed that adding CFs to clayey soil can increase its shear resistance and cohesiveness greatly. Because the fibres can be spread easily in soil samples and had a suitable length that can generate an interlaced network among soil grains that restricted soil movement once exposed to external stresses, it is presumed that utilizing three percent of CFs weight content had six millimeters length could indeed give the highest impact on resistance development among all the specimens.
Bashdar Omer, Shwana Manguri, Araz Hamza
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp69-83

Abstract:
Geotechnical map is a vital guidance to visualize the behavior of soils. The objective of this paper is to present the geotechnical maps that can be used for preliminary investigation in Ranya city of northern Iraq. The study area is 13.02 km2 with latitude and longitude of 36°15'14" N 44°52'59" E, respectively. A total number of 116 boreholes with the depth up to 5.0 m were utilized to create allowable bearing capacity, particle size, and Atterberg limit maps. Kriging interpolation tool in the ArcGIS software was used to analyze the soil properties data and to achieve the maps. The appraisal study area was divided into three layers 0.5-1.5, 1.5-3.0, and 3.0-5.0 m and the results show the average bearing capacity of 112.2, 168.5, and 244.2 kN/m2 sequentially. Moreover, Particle size distribution’s results illustrate that gravel percentage increases in the deeper layers, while fines content decreases with no significant change of sand content. In addition, very high bearing capacity areas were mostly found in the southern and northern parts of the studied area. However, the eastern area represents the area with the minimum bearing capacity where it gradually increases toward the west. Furthermore, the liquid limit and plasticity index reduce from the north to south with an increase in depth of the layers from 3.0-5.0 m. The highest liquid limit value is observed in the depth of 1.5-3.0 m.
Hozan Hamarashid, Shko M. Qader, Soran A. Saeed, , Nzar A. Ali
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp1-11

Abstract:
Machine Learning (ML) is a part of Artificial intelligence (AI) that designs and produces systems, which is capable of developing and learning from experiences automatically without making them programmable. ML concentrates on the computer program improvement, which has the ability to access and utilize data for learning from itself. There are different algorithms in ML field, but the most important questions that arise are: Which technique should be utilized on a dataset? and How to investigate ML algorithm? This paper presents the answer for the mentioned questions. Besides, investigation and checking algorithms for a data set will be addressed. In addition, it illustrates choosing the provided test options and metrics assessment. Finally, researchers will be able to conduct this research work on their datasets to select an appropriate model for their datasets.
Hawkar A. Haji, , Brwa H. Salihi,
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp84-93

Abstract:
Performance of Unreinforced Hollow-Block Masonry Houses During 23 August 2017 Ranya Earthquake
Ararat Rahimy, , Akram Hamoodi Al-Hiti,
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp21-32

Abstract:
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has long proven to be a good method to mobilize the residual oil that is by passed and capillary trapped by secondary recovery methods. Chemical EOR methods enhance the microscopic and macroscopic efficiency, and ultimately the overall oil recovery is improved. However, the adsorption rate of the surfactant, low resistance to high temperature and salinity are some of the factors that would turn chemical flooding impractical and uneconomic in many cases. Lately, the application of nanotechnology in enhanced oil recovery has showcased some good and prolific results in terms of incremental oil recovery. In this study, the applicability of Nanoparticle flooding in carbonate rocks of Pilaspi formation was probed through a series of tests such as thin section analysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, interfacial tension and contact angle measurements. The results showed that the composition of the carbonate rocks is predominantly calcite (CaCO3) with minor traces of quartz and dolomite. From the interfacial tension (IFT) measurements, it was figured out that the silica and alumina Nanofluids lowered the IFT by 27% and 42% with the light oil, and 43% and 49% with the heavy oil, respectively. The contact angle measurements revealed that the Alumina Nano-fluid at 0.25 wt. % reduced the contact angle on the surface of the light and heavy oil aged thin sections from 169◦ and 115◦ to nearly 119◦ and 78◦. On the other hand, the silica nanoparticle at 0.25 wt. % reduced the contact angles on both thin section types to around 129◦ and 80◦, respectively.
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp42-51

Abstract:
The ever-expanding urban architecture in developing areas requires more land space for construction purposes to be available. For this, utilizing the sub-surface areas through excavations in populous cities is now on the increasing trend. Two major concerns in such excavation projects are excavation-wall stability and the induced ground settlements which can be countered by a soil nailing-ground anchor system. In this regard, influential factors such as nail length and nail inclination angles can affect the overall performance of stabilized ground. Therefore, the focus of the present study is on how the aforementioned influence excavation-induced ground deformations. The numerical simulation is conducted using the software Plaxis 2D. The established numerical models help to explain how changes in the nails’ inclination angles and anchor lengths can change the observed behavior of the walls; from which helpful tips for practicing engineers are drawn accordingly. Such results could also be utilized for classroom presentations to aid students’ understanding of geotechnical engineering concepts.
Shko Muhammed Qader, , Hawkar Omar Ahmed, Hozan Khalid Hamarashid
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp12-20

Abstract:
The competitive advantage of aspect oriented programming (AOP) is that it improves the maintainability and understandability of software systems by modularizing crosscutting concerns. However, some concerns, such as logging or debugging, may be overlooked and should be entangled and distributed across the code base. AOP is a software development paradigm that enables developers to capture crosscutting concerns in split-aspect modes. Additionally, it is a novel notion that has the potential to improve the quality of software programs by removing the complexity involved with the production of code tangles via the usage of separation of concerns. As a result, it provides more modularity. Throughout its early development, some believed that AOP was easier to build and maintain than other implementations since it was based on an existing one. The statements are predicated on the premise that local improvements are easier to implement. Additionally, without appropriate visualization tools for both static and dynamic structures, cross-cutting challenges may be difficult for developers and researchers to appreciate. In recent years, AspectJ has begun to enable the depiction of crosscutting concerns via the release of IDE plugins. This article explains aspect oriented programming and how it may be used to improve the readability and maintainability of software projects. Additionally, it will evaluate the challenges it presents to application developers and academics.
Shene Jalil Jamal, Chnoor M. Rahman, Mzhda S. Abdulkarim
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp33-41

Abstract:
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that is developed to organize the structure of information in a text file. The data in XML formatted documents are represented by specifying a number of tags and determining the structural relationship between those tags. It has a simple structure and can be handled by any text editor. Therefore, XML formatted data is being commonly used to transfer and share data between different applications and organizations without having to convert the format of the data (Yang, 2019). In the XML world, “well-formed” and “valid” are the two most frequently used terms. A well-formed XML document is free from errors that can cause the document to not parse, such as: spelling, punctuation, grammar, and syntax errors. While in addition to having a well-formed markup, a valid XML must conform to a document type definition, this means the document must be semantically correct and matches a described standard of schemas and relationships (Appel, 2020).There are two standards of document type definition that can be used to validate an XML document, one is DTD or Document Type Definition which is used to identify the legal structure and names the legal elements of an XML document (Dykes and Tittel, 2011), and the other is XSD or XML Schema Definition. XSD is a diagrammatic representation that defines the valid structure of an XML document, it enables specifying the building blocks of an XML data set such as elements and attributes and their data types, number of child elements, fixed and default values of the elements and attributes that can appear in the documents (XML Schema Tutorial, 2020). In some applications the process of validating XML documents is combined with parsing the document. However, in some other cases the process of parsing and validating the XML documents need to be separated. This study focuses on constructing a separate XML document validator and validating XML documents against the defined XSD rules. A Java program is used to perform this experiment. Furthermore, the critical differences between XSD and DTD are also mentioned.
, Imad A. Aziz, Fuad W. Khdhr, Dler Fd Mahmood
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v6n1y2022.pp61-68

Abstract:
Up to April 9, 2020, 142490 cases have been confirmed as COVID-19 infection including 5705 associated deaths in the Middle East. Most of the countries, such as Qatar, Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia have imported COVID-19 cases from Iran. Using the available data from WHO webpage, up to 9 April 2020, we traced epidemic curves and estimated the basic reproduction number ( ) of COVID-19 through the susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model for the Middle East countries. Epidemic curves for Middle East countries and territory show similar trend as Iran, with a couple of weeks’ delay in time. In SIR model, ranged between 7.41 as in Turkey to lowest as 2.60 for Oman whereas basic reproduction number for Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, West Bank and Gaza Strip territory, and Cyprus were 4.13, 2.71, 3.39, 4.18, 4.45, 2.75, 2.60, 3.52, 3.35, 3.16, 4.99, 4.08, 2.89, and 4.05, respectively. This study indicates an important trend on an early outbreak of COVID-19 based on estimated for the Middle East countries, mean 3.76 for COVID-19, with median and interquartile range (IQR) in the Middle East.
Ukh Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 5, pp 81-89; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjse.v5n2y2021.pp81-89

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a numerical method for solving a quadratic interval equation in its dual form. The method is based on the generalized procedure of interval extension called” interval extended zero” method. It is shown that the solution of interval quadratic equation based on the proposed method may be naturally treated as a fuzzy number. An important advantage of the proposed method is that it substantially decreases the excess width defect. Several numerical examples are included to demonstrate the applicability and validity of the proposed method.
Back to Top Top