Journal of the American Chemical Society

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ISSN / EISSN : 0002-7863 / 1520-5126
Published by: American Chemical Society (ACS) (10.1021)
Total articles ≅ 200,856
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Yuya Inaba, Yu Nomata, Yuki Ide, Jenny Pirillo, , , , ,
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c06331

A long-standing question in porphyrin chemistry is why pyrrole monomers selectively form tetrapyrrolic macrocycles, whereas the corresponding tripyrrolic macrocycles are never observed. Calix[3]pyrrole, a tripyrrolic porphyrinogen-like macrocycle bearing three sp3-carbon linkages, is a missing link molecule that might hold the key to this enigma; however, it has remained elusive. Here we report the synthesis and strain-induced transformations of calix[3]pyrrole and its furan analogue, calix[3]furan. These macrocycles are readily accessed from cyclic oligoketones. Crystallographic and theoretical analyses reveal that these three-subunit systems possess the largest strain energy among known calix[n]-type macrocycles. The ring-strain triggers transformation of calix[3]pyrrole into first calix[6]pyrrole and then calix[4]pyrrole under porphyrin cyclization conditions. The present results help explain the absence of naturally occurring three-pyrrole macrocycles and the fact that they are not observed as products or intermediate during classic porphyrin syntheses.
Taylor D. Spivey,
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c04234

In the limit of dilute alloying—the so-called “single-atom alloy” (SAA) regime—certain bimetallic systems exhibit weak mixing between constituent metal wave functions, resulting in sharp, single-atom-like electronic states localized on the dilute component of the alloy. This work shows that when these sharp states are appropriately positioned relative to given molecular orbitals, selective hybridization is enhanced, in accordance with intuitive principles of molecular orbital theory. We demonstrate the phenomenon for activation pathways of crotonaldehyde, a model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde relevant to a wide range of chemical manufacturing. This analysis suggests new possible strategies for selectivity control in heterogeneous catalysis.
Shanfan Lin, Yuchun Zhi, , Huan Li, Wenna Zhang, Caiyi Lou, Xinqiang Wu, Shu Zeng, , , et al.
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c03475

The industrially important methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction is driven and sustained by autocatalysis in a dynamic and complex manner. Hitherto, the entire molecular routes and chemical nature of the autocatalytic network have not been well understood. Herein, with a multitechnique approach and multiscale analysis, we have obtained a full theoretical picture of the domino cascade of autocatalytic reaction network taking place on HZSM-5 zeolite. The autocatalytic reaction is demonstrated to be plausibly initiated by reacting dimethyl ether (DME) with the surface methoxy species (SMS) to generate the initial olefins, as evidenced by combining the kinetic analysis, in situ DRIFT spectroscopy, 2D 13C–13C MAS NMR, electronic states, and projected density of state (PDOS) analysis. This process is operando tracked and visualized at the picosecond time scale by advanced ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. The initial olefins ignite autocatalysis by building the first autocatalytic cycle—olefins-based cycle—followed by the speciation of methylcyclopentenyl (MCP) and aromatic cyclic active species. In doing so, the active sites accomplish the dynamic evolution from proton acid sites to supramolecular active centers that are experimentally identified with an ever-evolving and fluid feature. The olefins-guided and cyclic-species-guided catalytic cycles are interdependently linked to forge a previously unidentified hypercycle, being composed of one “selfish” autocatalytic cycle (i.e., olefins-based cycle with lighter olefins as autocatalysts for catalyzing the formation of olefins) and three cross-catalysis cycles (with olefinic, MCP, and aromatic species as autocatalysts for catalyzing each other’s formation). The unraveled dynamic autocatalytic cycles/network would facilitate the catalyst design and process control for MTH technology.
Michael L. Nosella, Maria Tereshchenko, Iva Pritišanac, P. Andrew Chong, Jeffrey A. Toretsky, Hyun O. Lee,
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c04194

Many membraneless organelles are thought to be biomolecular condensates formed by phase separation of proteins and other biopolymers. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) can impact protein phase separation behavior, although for many PTMs this aspect of their function is unknown. O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is an abundant form of intracellular glycosylation whose roles in regulating biomolecular condensate assembly and dynamics have not been delineated. Using an in vitro approach, we found that O-GlcNAcylation reduces the phase separation propensity of the EWS N-terminal low complexity region (LCRN) under different conditions, including in the presence of the arginine- and glycine-rich RNA-binding domains (RBD). O-GlcNAcylation enhances fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) within EWS LCRN condensates and causes the droplets to exhibit more liquid-like relaxation following fusion. Following extended incubation times, EWS LCRN+RBD condensates exhibit diminished FRAP, indicating a loss of fluidity, while condensates containing the O-GlcNAcylated LCRN do not. In HeLa cells, EWS is less O-GlcNAcylated following OGT knockdown, which correlates with its increased accumulation in a filter retardation assay. Relative to the human proteome, O-GlcNAcylated proteins are enriched with regions that are predicted to phase separate, suggesting a general role of O-GlcNAcylation in regulation of biomolecular condensates.
Dandan Miao, Vanessa Di Michele, Félix Gagnon, Cyril Aumaître, Andrea Lucotti, Mirella Del Zoppo, Frédéric Lirette, ,
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c05616

Linear and helical graphene nanoribbons (L-PyGNR and H-PyGNR) bearing electron-rich pyrrole units have been synthesized by using the photochemical cyclodehydrochlorination (CDHC) reaction. The pyrrole units in the polymer backbone make the polymer electron-rich with moderate bandgap values and relatively high HOMO energy levels. The planarization of the pyrrole unit through cyclization yields a bandgap value almost 0.5 eV lower than that measured for polypyrrole. Conductivity values in the thin film up to 0.12 S/cm were measured for the chemically oxidized L-PyGNR (four-point method). Both GNRs showed excellent fluorescence sensing properties for TNT in solution with KSV values up to 6.4 × 106 M–1.
Wen Liu, , Jun He, Tinghui Zhang, , Xiaohua Liu, ,
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c05881

Azidation of alkenes is an efficient protocol to synthesize organic azides which are important structural motifs in organic synthesis. Enantioselective radical azidation, as a useful strategy to install a C–N3 bond, remains challenging due to the inherently instability and unique structure of radicals. Here, we disclose an efficient enantioselective radical carboazidation and diazidation of α,β-unsaturated ketones and amides catalyzed by chiral N,N′-dioxide/Fe(OTf)2 complexes. An array of substituted alkenes was transformed to the corresponding α-azido carbonyl derivatives in good to excellent enantioselectivities, benefiting the preparation of chiral α-amino ketones, vicinal amino alcohols, and vicinal diamines. Control experiments and mechanistic studies proved the radical pathway in the reaction process. The DFT calculations showed that the azido transferred to the radical intermediate via an intramolecular five-membered transition state with the internal nitrogen of the Fe–N3 species.
Florian Reichenauer, Cui Wang, Christoph Förster, Pit Boden, Naz Ugur, Ricardo Báez-Cruz, Jens Kalmbach, Luca M. Carrella, , Charusheela Ramanan, et al.
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c05971

Gaining chemical control over the thermodynamics and kinetics of photoexcited states is paramount to an efficient and sustainable utilization of photoactive transition metal complexes in a plethora of technologies. In contrast to energies of charge transfer states described by spatially separated orbitals, the energies of spin-flip states cannot straightforwardly be predicted as Pauli repulsion and the nephelauxetic effect play key roles. Guided by multireference quantum chemical calculations, we report a novel highly luminescent spin-flip emitter with a quantum chemically predicted blue-shifted luminescence. The spin-flip emission band of the chromium complex [Cr(bpmp)2]3+ (bpmp = 2,6-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)pyridine) shifted to higher energy from ca. 780 nm observed for known highly emissive chromium(III) complexes to 709 nm. The photoluminescence quantum yields climb to 20%, and very long excited state lifetimes in the millisecond range are achieved at room temperature in acidic D2O solution. Partial ligand deuteration increases the quantum yield to 25%. The high excited state energy of [Cr(bpmp)2]3+ and its facile reduction to [Cr(bpmp)2]2+ result in a high excited state redox potential. The ligand’s methylene bridge acts as a Brønsted acid quenching the luminescence at high pH. Combined with a pH-insensitive chromium(III) emitter, ratiometric optical pH sensing is achieved with single wavelength excitation. The photophysical and ground state properties (quantum yield, lifetime, redox potential, and acid/base) of this spin-flip complex incorporating an earth-abundant metal surpass those of the classical precious metal [Ru(α-diimine)3]2+ charge transfer complexes, which are commonly employed in optical sensing and photo(redox) catalysis, underlining the bright future of these molecular ruby analogues.
Nishanth D. Tirukoti, , Talia Haris, Benjamin Lerner, , Hyla Allouche-Arnon,
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c05376

Fast ion-chelate dissociation rates and weak ion-chelate affinities are desired kinetic and thermodynamic features for imaging probes to allow reversible binding and to prevent deviation from basal ionic levels. Nevertheless, such properties often result in poor readouts upon ion binding, frequently result in low ion specificity, and do not allow the detection of a wide range of concentrations. Herein, we show the design, synthesis, characterization, and implementation of a Zn2+-probe developed for MRI that possesses reversible Zn2+-binding properties with a rapid dissociation rate (koff = 845 ± 35 s–1) for the detection of a wide range of biologically relevant concentrations. Benefiting from the implementation of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST), which is here applied in the 19F-MRI framework in an approach termed ion CEST (iCEST), we demonstrate the ability to map labile Zn2+ with spectrally resolved specificity and with no interference from competitive cations. Relying on fast koff rates for enhanced signal amplification, the use of iCEST allowed the designed fluorinated chelate to experience weak Zn2+-binding affinity (Kd at the mM range), but without compromising high cationic specificity, which is demonstrated here for mapping the distribution of labile Zn2+ in the hippocampal tissue of a live mouse. This strategy for accelerating ion-chelate koff rates for the enhancement of MRI signal amplifications without affecting ion specificity could open new avenues for the design of additional probes for other metal ions beyond zinc.
Thomas Varlet, Mateja Matišić, Elsa Van Elslande, , Vincent Gandon,
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c04648

A diastereodivergent and enantioselective synthesis of chiral spirocyclohexyl-indolenines with four contiguous stereogenic centers is achieved by a chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed cycloaddition of 2-susbtituted 3-indolylmethanols with 1,3-dienecarbamates. Modular access to two different diastereoisomers with high enantioselectivities was obtained by careful choice of reaction conditions. Their functional group manipulation provides an efficient access to enantioenriched spirocyclohexyl-indolines and -oxindoles. The origins of this stereocontrol have been identified using DFT calculations, which reveal an unexpected mechanism compared to our previous work dealing with enecarbamates.
Bin Lu, Xinyi Liang, Jinyu Zhang, Zijian Wang, ,
Journal of the American Chemical Society; doi:10.1021/jacs.1c05701

Although dirhodium-catalyzed multicomponent reactions of diazo compounds, nucleophiles and electrophiles have achieved great advance in organic synthesis, the introduction of allylic moiety as the third component via allylic metal intermediate remains a formidable challenge in this area. Herein, an attractive three-component reaction of readily accessible amines, diazo compounds, and allylic compounds enabled by a novel dirhodium(II)/Xantphos catalysis is disclosed, affording various architecturally complex and functionally diverse α-quaternary α-amino acid derivatives in good yields with high atom and step economy. Mechanistic studies indicate that the transformation is achieved through a relay dirhodium(II)-catalyzed carbene insertion and allylic alkylation process, in which the catalytic properties of dirhodium are effectively modified by the coordination with Xantphos, leading to good activity in the catalytic allylic alkylation process.
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