Open Journal of Ophthalmology
ISSN / EISSN : 2165-7408 / 2165-7416
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 297
Latest articles in this journal
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 12, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2022.121001
Optic neuritis is the most common cause of unilateral visual loss associated with orbital pain on ocular movements and impaired colour vision. It can present with anterior optic neuritis, papillitis, a swollen optic disc, retrobulbar neuritis with a normal optic disc, neuritis with oedema of the optic disc and the macular star or anterior ischemic neuropathy. It may be the only manifestation of a disease such as demyelination or associated with systemic diseases such as systemic lupus, giant cell arteritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, Lyme disease, CMV, EBV, HIV, toxoplasmosis, West Nile virus, Chikungunya, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, mumps, rubella, measles, cat scratch disease, tuberculosis, syphilis, rickettsia illnesses, Q fever, Whipple disease, brucellosis, leptospirosis, leprosy, toxocariasis, malaria, Cryptococcus, candidiasis, histoplasmosis, Aspergillosis, mucormycosis, Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, ethanol and methanol toxicity, sarcoidosis, neuromyelitis optica and Liber’s hereditary optic neuropathy. A systemic approach to the diagnosis is of paramount importance in confirming, diagnosing and treating optic neuritis and underlying systemic diseases to provide definitive cures. Failure to diagnose optic neuritis and treat the cause may result in optic atrophy and permanent blindness. In this paper, we reviewed the diagnosis and differential diagnoses of optic neuritis, including arteritis, ischemic, neuroretina, and vasculitic causes.
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 11, pp 214-228; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2021.113017
Purpose: To clinically evaluate a new extended depth of focus intraocular lens (ISOPURE, PhysIOL) with optic design modification based on a unique polynomial concept to improve intermediate vision while keeping the quality of distance vision equal to a monofocal lens. Methods: 18 patients (11 female, 7 male, mean age of 69.4 years) with bilateral cataract and regular corneal astigmatism ≤ 1.0 D underwent bilateral cataract surgery with ISOPURE implantation. Patients were followed for up to 6 months. Measured parameters were uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected (UIVA) and distance-corrected intermediate visual acuity at 80 cm and 66 cm (DCI80VA, DCI66VA) subjective refraction, defocus curve, tolerance of cylinder induction, and contrast sensitivity. The data from all implanted eyes (all-eyes) and a subset only including the first eye implanted for each patient were analysed. Results: The mean manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) decreased from 1.05 D pre-operatively to ?0.15 D at the 4 - 6 month assessment, with 80.6% of eyes within ±0.50 D of emmetropia. At the final follow-up, mean (SD) monocular CDVA was ?0.06 (0.04) logMAR, DCI80VA was 0.18 (0.08) logMAR and DCI66VA was 0.27 (0.13) logMAR. Despite a cylinder induction of ?0.50 D, uncorrected distance visual acuity of 0.02 logMAR was still achieved. Conclusion: The ISOPURE intraocular lens provides excellent distance corrected visual acuity for far and intermediate distances along with high contrast sensitivity and good tolerance of residual refractive cylinder.
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 11, pp 229-239; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2021.113018
Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder which involves orbital and periorbital tissue. The immune-mediated inflammation of the orbital tissues can involve extraocular muscles, orbital connective tissue or orbital fat and periocular soft tissues. Bilateral involvement of thyroid associated orbitopathy is usually asymmetric, but unilateral thyroid associated orbitopathy has been less reported. Periorbital oedema as the only sign with hypothyroidism is uncommon and if present, it is more frequent bilaterally present and no cases are evidenced as unilateral. Pitting oedema in hypothyroidism is rare and can be due to increased capillary permeability, decreased adrenergic tone and increase in serotonin metabolism. Unilateral periorbital and eyelid oedema can associate with various clinical entities, multidisciplinary team is necessary to exclude the concomitant disease, so the patient can immediately be treated with proper therapy. We represent the case of unusually unilateral recurrent periorbital oedema in the period of time for 3 years with stabilized primary hypothyroidism and multinodular goitre.
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 11, pp 134-142; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2021.112010
To determine the amount of Vitamin C in the lenses of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients with Operable Cataract and ascertain association between Vitamin C levels and Blood Glucose, Glycated Haemoglobin and Intraocular pressure. Thirty Diabetic and Thirty Non-Diabetic Patients cataract surgical patients were matched for age and sex and selected for the study. Plasma fasting blood glucose and whole blood glycated Haemoglobin levels were determined by glucose oxidase enzymatic assay and immunodetection methods respectively. Cataractous lens samples obtained during surgery were weighed and homogenized in 10 volumes of phosphate buffer pH 7 and the resulting homogenate centrifuged at 18,000 g for 5 minutes at 4˚C, separated and supernatant stored at -80˚C. Vitamin C assay was carried out using commercial assay kits. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23. Age range of participants was 55 - 83 years, with a mean of 66.7 ± 1.8 years. Mean Vitamin C levels in the Diabetic and Non-Diabetic groups were 49.5 μg/g ± 6.47 and 57.02 μg/g ± 8.0 respectively. Although the Non-diabetic group had higher levels of Vitamin C, the difference was not significant. Levels of Vitamin C found in both groups are much lower than what has previously been reported in Literature for clear lenses. There was negative association between Vitamin C and Glucose, Glycated Haemoglobin and Intraocular Pressure. Vitamin C supplementation may be useful in prolonging incidence of cataract in both aging and diabetic Nigerian populations. Larger study involving estimation of Vitamin C in both lens and Plasma samples is desirable.
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 11, pp 163-175; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2021.112013
Introduction: Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Early detection and awareness are essential to reduce the impact on eye health. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care staff about glaucoma in Lomé. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional and descriptive study including health care staff in Lomé, from October 1st to December 31st, 2020, for a period of 3 months. After their agreement, the officers responded to questions based on a survey sheet. Results: A total of 169 agents from 3 centers in Lomé, i.e. the Sylvanus Olympio University Teaching Hospital, the Campus University teaching Hospital and the Bè Hospital were involved. 50.9% of the agents were male versus 49.1% female, i.e. a ratio of 1.04. The average age was 33.66 ± 10.45 years. 46.10% were doctors versus 53.90% paramedics. 58.60% had at most 5 years of experience against 41.40% who had more than 5 years of experience. 53.80% defined glaucoma as ocular hypertension while 17.20% defined it as optic nerve disease. 46.20% did not know that there were many types of glaucomas compared to 53.20% who knew that there are many types of glaucomas. 92.30% knew that glaucoma can lead to cause visual loss. Regarding attitudes and practices about glaucoma, 91.70% declared that the follow-up should be done by the ophthalmologist, 81.10% thought that it would be necessary to be checked by the doctor only every 6 months. Finally, 65.08% declared that they had to use eye drops for life for the treatment. Conclusion: Steps should be taken to educate staff more about glaucoma attitudes and practices and also plan for action in the population.
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 11, pp 60-90; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2021.111006
Confocal microscopy is a method which has been increasingly used over the last decade in the study of the anterior ocular surface. The method allows testing and in vivo high resolution imaging of the structures of the anterior eye segment, at a cellular level, which is close to the histological examination of tissues. The data provided by this method allow for a better understanding of both the functional and pathological processes occurring in the anterior ocular surface not only for scientific purposes but also in clinical practice. The aim of the present work is to summarize the current knowledge and applications of confocal microscopy of the anterior ocular surface.
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 11, pp 332-338; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2021.114027
Purpose: To understand the awareness and knowledge about eye donation in the employees of a tertiary hospital. Methods: A structured Google form based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 678 employees comprising of medical, nursing, students and paramedical staff. The responses were evaluated in an Excel spreadsheet and tabulated. Results: 86% of the employees had awareness about eye donation, however, their knowledge regarding the same was either inadequate or incorrect. Only 63% had pledged their eyes and of the remaining, about 63.5% were willing to pledge. Conclusion: Awareness levels are high among the hospital workers but the lack of basic information is alarming. These need to be improved so that common people can be motivated to pledge and donate their eyes and correct the disparity between the need and availability of donor eyes for transplants.
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 11, pp 91-98; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2021.112007
Background: To determine the induced refractive error among the readymade garment workers. Those who are working in the knitting section and those who are working other than the knitting and computer section. Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional analytic study among 600 workers in 2 factories at Joydevpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh on January 2020. Group: A comprises 300 workers who were working at knitting section for a minimum of six hours a day and 5 days a week. Group: B comprises another 300 workers who were appointed for loading-unloading, care-taker, driver and security guard also. Prevalence of refractive error in two groups was compared. Results: The mean age of participants in group: A was 26.61 ± 4.99 (CI 95%, 26.04 ± 27.18) and in group: B was 28.51 ± 5.69 (95% CI 27.86 ± 29.15). Prevalence of refractive error between two groups was 52 and 28.3 respectively. The chi-square statistic is 44.9775. The p-value is <0.00001. Significant at p < 0.05. Strong positive correlation shows in Pearson’s correlation between time duration of knitting and refractive error (R is: 0.7619). Visual acuity between two groups chi-square statistic is 33.1866. The p-value is <0.00001. Significant at p < 0.05. Conclusion: Knitting workers at readymade garment (RGM) are more prone to develop late onset myopia than other workers in the same premises.
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 11, pp 152-162; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2021.112012
Background: Childhood cataract causing visual impairment can compound developmental delay (DD) if left untreated. Current literature in children with DD is limited; thus, we evaluated cataract etiology, challenges, and treatment compliance in this group. Purpose: To report the presentation and challenges associated with cataract management in children with developmental delay (DD) at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Methods: Retrospective review of 100 patients (173 eyes) presenting with cataracts and DD from February 2014 to December 2017. Results: 100 patients (173 eyes) were included. 27 patients had unilateral cataracts and 73 bilateral. The average age was 120.55 months (SD 63.77, range 5.87 - 243.16); the average follow-up period was 57.7 months (SD 139.14, range 1.03 - 1412.30). 61% of patients (55% eyes) underwent medical management for cataracts due to: cataract was not visually significant (66% eyes), parent deferred surgery (11% eyes), self-abusive behavior (14% eyes), and medical conditions that limited visual recovery (9% eyes). 32% of patients were unable to perform objective visual acuity by age 5. Patients with self-abusive behavior were more likely to present with or develop retinal detachment (RD) (35%) compared to those without self-abusive behavior (6%) (p = 0.0028). A statistically significant difference in the difficulty of examination (p < 0.0001) and poor compliance of glasses wear (p < 0.0001) was found in nonverbal patients. Surgical complications occurred in 39% of eyes. Those with intraocular lens placement after cataract extraction were more likely to develop visual axis opacification (27% eyes) than those who remained aphakic (9% eyes) (p = 0.0313). Conclusion: Cataract extraction in pediatric patients with DD can be associated with success, however, providers should prepare for limitations in managing these patients.
Open Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 11, pp 143-151; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojoph.2021.112011
Background: Large papillary excavations constitute a true differential diagnosis of glaucoma in our environments. Aim: To present a clinical case of large papillary excavation simulating glaucomatous optic neuropathy in a young subject. Case Presentation: The ophthalmologic examination made it possible to note a visual acuity of LogMar 0.00, ocular hypertonia and a large papillary excavation in both eyes. The visual field noted bilateral perimetric involvement suggesting optic neuropathy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the ganglion complex revealed an absence of involvement of the ganglion complex and the ganglion ridge essential to evoke optic neuropathy. An ocular hypotonizing treatment made it possible to normalize the intraocular pressure. Conclusion: The particularity of this observation lies in the fact that the perimeter involvement that preceded any involvement can simulate a glaucomatous involvement. Functional damage to the visual field must be correlated with structural damage to suggest glaucomatous damage in our ophthalmic patients.