#### Earth, Planets and Space

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ISSN / EISSN : 1880-5981 / 1880-5981
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#### Latest articles in this journal

Published: 16 July 2021
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 73, pp 1-14; doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01470-9

Abstract:
The split-spectrum method (SSM) can largely isolate and correct for the ionospheric contribution in the L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). The standard SSM is performed on the assumption of only the first-order ionospheric dispersive effect, which is proportional to the total electron content (TEC). It is also known that during extreme atmospheric events, either originated from the ionosphere or in the troposphere, other dispersive effects do exist and potentially provide new insights into the dynamics of the atmosphere, but there have been few detection reports of such signals by InSAR. We apply L-band InSAR into heavy rain cases and examine the applicability and limitation of the standard SSM. Since no events such as earthquakes to cause surface deformation took place, the non-dispersive component is apparently attributable to the large amount of water vapor associated with heavy rain, whereas there are spotty anomalies in the dispersive component that are closely correlated with the heavy rain area. The ionosonde and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) rate of total electron content index (ROTI) map both show little anomalies during the heavy rain, which suggests few ionospheric disturbances. Therefore, we interpret that the spotty anomalies in the dispersive component of the standard SSM during heavy rain are originated in the troposphere. While we can consider two physical mechanisms, one is runaway electron avalanche and the other is the dispersive effect due to rain, comparison with the observations from the ground-based lightning detection network and rain gauge data, we conclude that the rain dispersive effect is spatiotemporally favorable. We further propose a formulation to examine if another dispersive phase than the first-order TEC effect is present and apply it to the heavy rain cases as well as two extreme ionospheric sporadic-E events. Our formulation successfully isolates the presence of another dispersive phase during heavy rain that is in positive correlation with the local rain rate. In comparison with other dispersive phases during Sporadic-E episodes, the dispersive heavy rain phases seem to have the same order of magnitude with the ionospheric higher order effects.
Doohee Jeong, Qingsong Liu, Yuhji Yamamoto, Yongjae Yu, Xiang Zhao, Huafeng Qin
Published: 16 July 2021
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 73, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01473-6

Abstract:
Thellier-type paleointensity experiments associated with partial thermal remanent magnetization checks have been widely used to determine paleointensity values from volcanic and archaeological media. However, previous studies have revealed that a substantial portion of paleointensity results with positive checks for historical lava samples largely fails to predict known Earth magnetic field intensity values. To determine the fidelity of paleointensity values, conventional Thellier-type paleointensity experiments were performed on Kilauea lava flows that erupted in 1960. The positive partial thermal remanent magnetization checks for our results range from 30.28 ± 1.38 µT to 52.94 ± 1.89 µT. This strongly indicates that conventional paleointensity checks cannot guarantee the fidelity of paleointensity results, especially when the unblocking temperatures for the newly formed magnetic particles are higher than the treatment temperature. Therefore, in this study, to check for thermal alteration during heating, the temperature dependence of the hysteresis parameter measured at room temperature for the thermally treated samples was also measured. Our new results show that nearly all biased paleointensity values correspond to a ratio of the coercivity of remanence to the magnetic coercivity of > 3 and a chemical alteration index > ~ 10%, which indicates the strong effect of the domain state and thermal alteration on the fidelity of the paleointensity results. Our study provides feasible criteria to further improve the fidelity of paleointensity estimations.
Kana Hashimoto,
Published: 13 July 2021
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 73, pp 1-25; doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01472-7

Abstract:
Basaltic magma becomes more viscous, solid-like (elastic), and non-Newtonian (shear-thinning, non-zero yield stress) as its crystal content increases. However, the rheological effects on bubble bursting and airwave excitation are poorly understood. Here we conduct laboratory experiments to investigate these effects by injecting a bubble of volume V into a refractive index-matched suspension consisting of non-Brownian particles (volumetric fraction $$\phi$$ ϕ ) and a Newtonian liquid. We show that depending on $$\phi$$ ϕ and V, airwaves with diverse waveforms are excited, covering a frequency band of $$f = {\mathcal {O}}(10-10^4)$$ f = O ( 10 - 10 4 ) Hz. In a suspension of $$\phi \le 0.3$$ ϕ ≤ 0.3 or in a suspension of $$\phi = 0.4$$ ϕ = 0.4 with a V smaller than critical, the bubble bursts after it forms a hemispherical cap at the surface and excites a high-frequency (HF) wave ( $$f \sim 1-2 \times 10^4$$ f ∼ 1 - 2 × 10 4 Hz) with an irregular waveform, which likely originates from film vibration. However, in a suspension of $$\phi = 0.4$$ ϕ = 0.4 and with a V larger than critical, the bubble bursts as soon as it protrudes above the surface, and its aperture opens slowly, exciting Helmholtz resonance with $$f = {\mathcal {O}}(10^3)$$ f = O ( 10 3 ) Hz. Superimposed on the waveform are an HF wave component excited upon bursting and a low-frequency ( $$f = {\mathcal {O}}(10)$$ f = O ( 10 ) Hz) air flow vented from the deflating bubble, which becomes dominant at a large V. We interpret this transition as a result of the bubble film of a solid-like $$\phi = 0.4$$ ϕ = 0.4 suspension, being stretched faster than the critical strain rate such that it bursts by brittle failure. When the Helmholtz resonance is excited by a bursting bubble in a suspension whose surface level is further below the conduit rim, an air column (length L) resonance is triggered. For L larger than critical, the air column resonance continues longer than the Helmholtz resonance because the decay rate of the former becomes less than that of the latter. The experiments suggest that a bubble bursting at basaltic volcanoes commonly excites HF wave by film vibration. The Helmholtz resonance is likely to be excited under a limited condition, but if detected, it may be used to track the change of magma rheology or bubble V, where the V can be estimated from its frequency and decay rate.
, R. Mora-Amador, C. Ramírez, G. González, E. Baldoni, G. Pecoraino, S. Inguaggiato, B. Capaccioni, F. Lucchi, C. A. Tranne
Published: 12 July 2021
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 73, pp 1-26; doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01471-8

Abstract:
This study presents the first hydrogeochemical model of the hydrothermal systems of Turrialba and Irazú volcanoes in central Costa Rica, manifested as thermal springs, summit crater lakes, and fumarolic degassing at both volcanoes. Our period of observations (2007–2012) coincides with the pre- and early syn-phreatic eruption stages of Turrialba volcano that resumed volcanic unrest since 2004, after almost 140 years of quiescence. Peculiarly, the generally stable Irazú crater lake dropped its level during this reawakening of Turrialba. The isotopic composition of all the discharged fluids reveals their Caribbean meteoric origin. Four groups of thermal springs drain the northern flanks of Turrialba and Irazú volcanoes into two main rivers. Río Sucio (i.e. “dirty river”) is a major rock remover on the North flank of Irazú, mainly fed by the San Cayetano spring group. Instead, one group of thermal springs discharges towards the south of Irazú. All thermal spring waters are of SO4-type (i.e. steam-heated waters), none of the springs has, however, a common hydrothermal end-member. A water mass budget for thermal springs results in an estimated total output flux of 187 ± 37 L/s, with 100 ± 20 L/s accounted for by the San Cayetano springs. Thermal energy release is estimated at 110 ± 22 MW (83.9 ± 16.8 MW by San Cayetano), whereas the total rock mass removal rate by chemical leaching is ~ 3000 m3/year (~ 2400 m3/year by San Cayetano-Río Sucio). Despite Irazú being the currently less active volcano, it is a highly efficient rock remover, which, on the long term can have effects on the stability of the volcanic edifice with potentially hazardous consequences (e.g. flank collapse, landslides, phreatic eruptions). Moreover, the vapor output flux from the Turrialba fumaroles after the onset of phreatic eruptions on 5 January 2010 showed an increase of at least ~ 260 L/s above pre-eruptive background fumarolic vapor fluxes. This extra vapor loss implies that the drying of the summit hydrothermal system of Turrialba could tap deeper than previously thought, and could explain the coincidental disappearance of Irazú’s crater lake in April 2010.
Nobuko Kametani, Yasuo Ishizaki, Mitsuhiro Yoshimoto, Fukashi Maeno, Akihiko Terada, Ryuta Furukawa, Ryo Honda, Yoshihiro Ishizuka, Jiro Komori, Masashi Nagai, et al.
Published: 8 July 2021
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 73, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01468-3

Abstract:
On January 23, 2018, a small phreatic eruption (VEI = 1) occurred at the Motoshirane Pyroclastic Cone Group in the southern part of Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano in central Japan. The eruption ejected ash, lapillus, and volcanic blocks from three newly opened craters: the main crater (MC), west crater (WC), and south crater (SC). Volcanic blocks were deposited up to 0.5 km from each crater. In contrast, the ash released during this eruption fell up to 25 km ENE of the volcano. The total mass of the fall deposit generated by the eruption was estimated using two methods, yielding total masses of 3.4 × 104 t (segment integration method) and 2.4 × 104 t (Weibull fitting method). The calculations indicate that approximately 70% of the fall deposit was located within 0.5 km of the craters, which was mainly attributed to the low height of the eruption plume.
, Philip J. Erickson, Yoshiharu Omura
Published: 7 July 2021
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 73, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01467-4

Abstract:
Van Allen Probes in situ observations are used to examine detailed subpacket structure observed in strong VLF (very low frequency) rising-tone chorus elements observed at the time of a rapid MeV electron energization in the inner magnetosphere. Analysis of the frequency gap between lower and upper chorus-band waves identifies f ceEQ, the electron gyrofrequency in the equatorial wave generation region. Initial subpackets in these strong chorus rising-tone elements begin at a frequency near 1/4 f ceEQ and exhibit smooth gradual frequency increase across their > 10 ms temporal duration. A second much stronger subpacket is seen at frequencies around the local value of 1/4 f ce with small wave normal angle (< 10°) and steeply rising df/dt. Smooth frequency and phase variation across and between the initial subpackets support continuous phase trapping of resonant electrons and increased potential for MeV electron acceleration. The total energy gain for individual seed electrons with energies between 100 keV and 3 MeV ranges between 2 and 15%, in their nonlinear interaction with a single chorus element.
Takao Koyama, Wataru Kanda, Mitsuru Utsugi, Takayuki Kaneko, Takao Ohminato, Atsushi Watanabe, Hiroshi Tsuji, Taro Nishimoto, Alexey Kuvshinov, Yoshiaki Honda
Published: 6 July 2021
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 73; doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01466-5

Abstract:
Kusatsu-Shirane volcano is one of the active volcanoes in Japan. Phreatic explosions occurred in Mt. Shirane in 1983 and most recently, in 2018, in Mt. Motoshirane. Information on the subsurface structure is crucial for understanding the activity of volcanoes with well-developed hydrothermal systems where phreatic eruptions occur. Here, we report aeromagnetic surveys conducted at low altitudes using an unmanned helicopter. The survey aimed to obtain magnetic data at a high spatial resolution to map the magnetic anomaly and infer the magnetization intensity distribution in the region immediately after the 2018 Mt. Motoshirane eruption. The helicopter used in the survey was YAMAHA FAZER R G2, an autonomously driven model which can fly along a precisely programmed course. The flight height above the ground and a measurement line spacing were set to ~ 150 m and ~ 100 m, respectively, and the total flight distance was 191 km. The measured geomagnetic total intensity was found to vary by ~ 1000 nT peak-to-peak. The estimated magnetization intensity derived from measured data showed a 100 m thick magnetized surface layer with normal polarity, composed of volcanic deposits of recent activities. Underneath, a reverse-polarity magnetization was found, probably corresponding to the Takai lava flow in the Early Quaternary period (~ 1 Ma) mapped in the region. Our results demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and accuracy of using drone magnetometers for mapping the rugged terrain of volcanoes.
Published: 5 July 2021
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 73; doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01465-6

Abstract:
Dynamic earthquake sequence simulation is an important tool for investigating the behavior of a fault that hosts a series of earthquakes because it solves all interrelated stages in the earthquake cycle consistently, including nucleation, propagation and arrest of dynamic rupture, afterslip, locking, and interseismic stress accumulation. Numerically simulating and resolving these phenomena, which have different time and length scales, in a single framework is challenging. A spectral boundary integral equation method (SBIEM) that makes use of a fast Fourier transform is widely used because it reduces required computational costs, even though it can only be used for a planar fault. The conventional SBIEM has a periodic boundary condition as a result of the discretization of the wavenumber domain with a regular mesh; thus, to obtain an approximate solution for a fault in an infinite medium, it has been necessary to simulate a region much longer than the source distribution. Here, I propose a new SBIEM that is free from this artificial periodic boundary condition. In the proposed method, the periodic boundaries are removed by using a previously proposed method for the simulation of dynamic rupture. The integration kernel for the elastostatic effect, which reaches infinitely far from the source, is expressed analytically and replaces the one in the conventional SBIEM. The new method requires simulation of a region only twice as long as the source distribution, so the computational costs are significantly less than those required by the conventional SBIEM to simulate a fault in an infinite medium. The effect of the distance λ between the artificial periodic boundaries was investigated by comparing solutions for a typical problem setting between the conventional and proposed SBIEM. The result showed that the artificial periodic boundaries cause overestimation of the recurrence interval that is proportional to λ −2. If λ is four times the fault length, the interval is overestimated by less than 1%. Thus, the artificial periodic boundaries have only a modest effect on the conclusions of previous studies.
, Yu Lin, Xueyi Wang, Boyi Wang, Yukitoshi Nishimura
Published: 5 July 2021
by 10.1186
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 73, pp 1-17; doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01469-2

Abstract:
It has been suggested that ion foreshock waves originating in the solar wind upstream of the quasi-parallel (Q-||) shock can impact the planetary magnetosphere leading to standing shear Alfvén waves, i.e., the field line resonances (FLRs). In this paper, we carry out simulations of interaction between the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosphere under radial interplanetary magnetic field conditions by using a 3-D global hybrid model, and show the properties of self-consistently generated field line resonances through direct mode conversion in magnetospheric response to the foreshock disturbances for the first time. The simulation results show that the foreshock disturbances from the Q-|| shock can excite magnetospheric ultralow-frequency waves, among which the toroidal Alfvén waves are examined. It is found that the foreshock wave spectrum covers a wide frequency range and matches the band of FLR harmonics after excluding the Doppler shift effects. The fundamental harmonic of field line resonances dominates and has the strongest wave power, and the higher the harmonic order, the weaker the corresponding wave power. The nodes and anti-nodes of the odd and even harmonics in the equatorial plane are also presented. In addition, as the local Alfvén speed increases earthward, the corresponding frequency of each harmonic increases. The field-aligned current in the cusp region indicative of the possibly observable aurora is found to be a result of magnetopause perturbation which is caused by the foreshock disturbances, and a global view substantiating this scenario is given. Finally, it is found that when the solar wind Mach number decreases, the strength of both field line resonance and field-aligned current decreases accordingly.
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