Grasas y Aceites
ISSN / EISSN : 0017-3495 / 1988-4214
Current Publisher: Editorial CSIC (10.3989)
Total articles ≅ 1,444
Latest articles in this journal
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 72; doi:10.3989/gya.1031192
The aim of this study was to evaluate the organogelation potential of tallow fat (TF) and partially hydrolyzed tallow fat (HTF) against saturated monoglyceride (MG) and a saturated monoglyceride + diglyceride mixture (MDG) as the organogelators. TF itself created oleogel at a 30% addition level, while HTF, MG and MDG oleogels were prepared at 10% addition levels. Fatty acid composition data showed that the oleogel of HTF (HTFO) was quite similar to those of MG and MDG oleogels. Solid fat content, free fatty acidity and peroxide values were found to be in acceptable ranges for HTFO. Thermal properties, crystal morphology and X-ray diffraction patterns were also evaluated. Rheological analyses indicated that all oleogels had higher storage modulus (G´) than loss modulus (G´´). The time-sweep test showed that after applying higher shear rates, the gels re-formed at rest. Further, all oleogels maintained their gelled consistency until around 54 °C. The results suggest that HTF could be a cheap, efficient, fast melting, safe and readily available organogelator.
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 72; doi:10.3989/gya.1258192
The quality characteristics of green olives produced by the traditional spontaneous fermentation method in Jordan have never been studied. We investigated the nutritional, functional, and microbiological characteristics of Jordanian fermented green Nabali Baladi olives (GNBFO). Proximate composition, fatty acids, and total polyphenols were determined by standard protocols. Cultivable microflora was monitored over 3 months of fermentation. Isolated microorganisms were identified by molecular sequencing and in vitro probiotic traits were tested. GNBFO contained fiber (3g⁄100g), total polyphenols (306mg⁄100g), oil (19.3g ⁄100g), and oleic acid (70%). Yeast strains (Candida diddensiae and Candida naeodendra) were predominant and showed acid (pH=2.5) and bile salt (0.1% and 0.3%) resistant and high adhesion ability (ca∼107CFU/ml) to intestinal cell lines; they were positive to catalase and negative to lipase and none possessed antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens. Lactic acid bacteria were not detected. In conclusion, the GNBFO have promising functional characteristics as they contain valuable nutrients, antioxidants, and yeast strains with potential probiotic traits.
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 72; doi:10.3989/gya.1021192
In this preliminary study, two non-filtered virgin olive oils (one freshly produced VOO-N; one VOO-O stored for one year) were subjected to moisture removal with mineral clay (raw or activated) and analyses were performed to attest possible effects on the quality of the product. The results demonstrated that the treatment of oil with mineral clay at 36-38 °C had no negative effect on the basic quality parameters or on the volatile comound profile. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the water amount as well as in pigments was observed in the samples subjected to this kind of treatment, in particular with raw clay. Regarding the colour measurement, the lightness (L) as well as the consumers’ acceptability exhibited a marked increase when oils were treated with raw clay.
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 72; doi:10.3989/gya.1147192
Cactus seed oil is gaining considerable popularity in the cosmetic industry. To estimate cactus seed oil’ industrial as well as domestic ease of use, we investigated the oxidative stability of Moroccan cactus seed oil under accelerated aging conditions. In addition, we compared cactus seed oil stability to that of argan oil, a popular and well-established cosmetic oil, under the same conditions. Cactus seed oil is much more sensitive to oxidation than argan oil. Its shelf-life can be estimated to be no longer than 6 months at room temperature. Such instability means that the preparation process for cactus oil must be carried out with great care and cactus seed oil needs to be protected once extracted.
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 72; doi:10.3989/gya.0105201
Ankyropetalum extracts were obtained by using two different extractors (Soxhlet and ultrasonic bath). The phenol, flavonoid, DPPH, FRAP, and antimicrobial activity properties of the extracts were investigated. In addition, the fatty acid composition was determined in GC-MS. High values were found in A. reuteri and A. gypsophiloides for total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. DPPH and FRAP values were high in A. arsusianum and A. gypsophiloides, respectively. Better results were obtained by using methanol as the solvent and soxhlet as the extractor. The results showed that the extracts seem to be reasonably effective against test organisms including clinical isolates. The most promising results were obtained with all species USB extracts against Candida parapsilosis. It is notable that the levels of nervonic acid in A. arsusianum and A. reuteri reached 40%. Unlike other sources of nervonic acid in the world, the absence of erucic acid in plant oil increases the value of these plants.
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 72; doi:10.3989/gya.0801192
The nicotine, reducing sugar and ion contents from the threshing of tobacco can re-used from the industry. The crude oil and fatty oil compositions of tobacco seeds can be considered as an alternative source of raw material for biodiesel. In this study, the nicotine, reducing sugar content, crude oil, fatty acid composition and ion content were determined in 29 genotypes and 1 cultivar of tobacco. The genetic diversity was determined among the tobacco cultivar and genotypes base on examined properties. The nicotine content varied between 0.10-0.87%, reducing sugar ranged from 9.70-21.30%, crude oil varied between 24.33-47.00% and fatty acid compositions was found in the range of 77.94-100%. Linoleic (13.92-75.04%) and butyric (0.33-64.98%) acids were the major components. Overall, the BSR-5 (52.56 mg/g) and ESR-5 (44.58 mg/g) genotypes exhibited the highest potassium contents and ESR-7 (6.54 mg/g) and ESR-8 (1.28 mg/g) genotypes had the lowest chlorine contents. As a result of this study, the highest nicotine content, reducing sugar and crude oil of tobacco were found in ESR-4, ESR-11 and BSR-5 genotypes, respectively. The dendrogram analysis divided the tobacco into two main groups and most of the same origin genotypes fell into the same group. The results indicated that the different tobacco leaves and seeds can be evaluated as an alternative source in the industry as cigarettes, biodiesel and different industrial applications such as cosmetic, oil paints and varnishes based on their chemical properties.
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 71; doi:10.3989/gya.0920192
For the increase in oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of walnut oil (WO), 5, 10, 20 and 30% blends with almond oil (AO) were prepared. The fatty acid compositions and the micronutrients of the oil samples such as tocopherol, phytosterol and squalene were measured by GC-MS and HPLC. It was found that the proportions of PUFAs/SFAs in blended oils with high AO contents were lowered, and the blends contained higher levels of tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene than those of pure WO. The 60 °C oven accelerated oxidation test was used to determine the oxidative stability of the blended oil. The fatty acid composition, micronutrients and oxidation products were determined. The results showed that the oxidation stability of the blended oil increased with an increasing proportion of AO. In addition, a significant negative correlation between micronutrient and oxidation products was observed as the number of days of oxidation increased.
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 71; doi:10.3989/gya.0803192
The wild passion fruit species Passiflora setacea, Passiflora alata, and Passiflora tenuifila are native to the Brazilian biomass. The seed waste generated from the extraction of passion fruit juice contains functional polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. The aims of this study were to obtain lipids and natural antioxidants from passion fruit seeds. Passion seed oils were extracted using a lab-scale continuous press and their oxidative stability was evaluated using the Rancimat® method. Higher antioxidant extract capacity was observed when using an ethanol-water solution (70:30) at 45 ºC. In these cases, the total phenolic contents expressed as gallic acid equivalents from P. setacea, P. alata, and P. tenuifila cakes were approximately 1800, 600 and 900 mg·100g−1 of extract. Induction periods increased up to two-fold when adding these extracts to their respective seed oil. Therefore, passion fruit seed extract can contribute to increasing the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated oils.
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 71; doi:10.3989/gya.0794191
In this paper we present the valorization of cocoa olein obtained from the acid fat-splitting of soapstocks. The aim is to develop a solvent free process (enzymatically catalyzed) to maximize the production of a final product with high content of monoglycerides (MAG) and diglycerides (DAG). The effect of the enzyme dose, glycerol content, reaction times as well as the modification of the raw material and pressure were studied. The yield of the reaction increased up to 90-95% when using a vacuum of 2-3 mbar at 65 °C, enough to evaporate the water which is generated as a by-product, an enzyme dose of 1% and molar ratio oil:glycerol of 1:2. The highest yield in terms of MAG and DAG production was obtained by starting from a raw material which was rich in free acidity (FFA), rendering oil with 33.4 and 44.2% MAG and DAG, respectively. Short reaction times (6-8 h) were observed compared to previously reported results (24 h).
Grasas y Aceites, Volume 71; doi:10.3989/gya.1028192
The aim of this work was to obtain sacha inchi oil (SIO) microcapsules from two different species, Plukenetia volubilis L. (SIVO) and Plukenetia huayllabambana L. (SIHO), using different biopolymers as wall materials and spray drying technology. The physicochemical characteristics such as encapsulation efficiency, particle size, morphology and oxidative stability were analyzed in order to select the best formulation that could potentially be used as an ingredient in the development of functional food. Bulk SIO and four formulations were tested for each oil ecotype, using different encapsulating agents: maltodextrin (MD), Arabic gum (AG), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and modified starch HI-CAP®-100 (H). Microcapsules made of H presented the highest oxidative stability and encapsulation efficiency compared to AG, AG:MD or AG:MD:WPC formulations.