Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting

Journal Information
EISSN : 1946-052X
Published by: Macrothink Institute, Inc. (10.5296)
Total articles ≅ 368
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May Elewa
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 13, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v13i2.18846

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of market capital MC and net profit NP on stock price SP and trade volume (TV) in the developing Egyptian business context. This study collects data from 29 non-financial organizations registered on the EGX 30 during the 6 month, 1/1/2020 to 30/6/2020, lockdown in Egypt due to the first wave of COVID-19. Data for the monthly confirmed cases and death cases of COVID-19 are collected for the 6 months of the study and compared to the monthly records of closing prices and trade volume in Egyptian poundsEGP. The study population represents 174 firm year observations. The firms studied operate in cash, have annual financial reports during the period 1/1 to 31/12, obtain complete financial data, and have not been eliminated all throughout the study. In this work the pooled model, the fixed effects model, and the random effects model are used.SPSSis applied to achieve the required statistical analysis. The study is a panel data analysis. Outcomes demonstrate existing substantial effects between market capital MC and stock price SP during the first wave of COVID-19. However, no significant effect is evident of the market capital MC and net profit NP with the trade volume TV during the first wave of this pandemic. This literature is advantageous for external and internal stakeholders and regulatory bodies. The study is a modest contribution that may help boost the business processes to reach better financial performance in times of unexpected catastrophes.
Venus Khim-Sen Liew, Chin-Hong Puah
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 13, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v13i1.18704

Abstract:
This paper aims to quantify the effect of the deadly novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak on Chinese stock market performance. Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index and its component sector indices are examined in this study. The pandemic is represented by a lockdown dummy, new COVID-19 cases and a dummy for 3 February 2020. First, descriptive analysis is performed on these indices to compare their performances before and during the lockdown period. Next, regression analysis with Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity specification is estimated to quantify the pandemic effect on the Chinese stock market. This paper finds that health care, information technology and telecommunication services sectors were relatively more pandemic-resistant, while other sectors were more severely hurt by the pandemic outbreak. The extent to which each sector was affected by pandemic and sentiments in other financial and commodity markets were reported in details in this paper. The findings of this paper are resourceful for investors to avoid huge loss amid pandemic outburst and the China Securities Regulatory Commission in handling future pandemic occurrence to cool down excessive market sentiments.
Mihir Dash, Rita S.
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 13, pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v13i1.18589

Abstract:
This study proposes a vector autoregressive form for the market model and tests its significance against the market model for information technology (IT) sector stocks in the Indian stock market. The analysis was performed for a sample of nineteen IT sector stocks listed on the National Stock Exchange of India, of which nine stocks were large-cap, six were mid-cap, and four were small-cap. The study period considered was Jan. 1, 2018 – Dec. 31, 2018. The key contribution of the study was the finding that the vector autoregressive model is a better model of stock returns than the market model for IT sector stocks. Thus, IT sector stocks seem to react more to market movements from the previous day than on the day itself. The implication for asset pricing modelling is that systematic risk may be further decomposed into a component corresponding to sensitivity to market movements on the day and a component corresponding to sensitivity to market movements on the previous day. The asset pricing model would be extended to include market risk premia for both of these components of systemic risk. Keywords: market model, vector autoregressive model, IT sector, asset pricing modelling, systematic risk.
Kavita Panjwani, Mohammad Arif Riaz
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 13, pp 22-34; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v13i1.18664

Abstract:
The objective of the study to investigates the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on Saudi stock market performance by using regression model and pairwise granger causality tests. The time series data has been taken for this study from 01 March 2020 to 6 Dec 2020. Coronavirus has been measured in terms of cumulative new corona cases per million, new corona deaths per million, total corona cases per million and total corona deaths per million, whereas stock market return is evaluated in terms of stock market index. The study’s finding reveal that Saudi stock market significance affected by COVID-19. The study also depicts that unidirectional and bidirectional relationship between corona-virus cases and Saudi stock market with the help of granger causality test. We also highlight the main the preventive policies taken by governments related to COVID-19 have affected the stock market.
Issam Tlemsani, Maram Alghamdi, Munira Alomair, Fatimah Alsaleh, Samar Balhareth, Munirah Alqutaim
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 12, pp 28-38; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v12i2.17685

Abstract:
The value of any stock market could change for several diverse reasons such as financial, economic and health. The value of the New York Stock Exchange market has reduced drastically in the first quarter of 2020 and expected to reduce further in the upcoming months, according to many economists (Ayittey et al., 2020; White, 2017). It will face a huge blow this year due to the appearance of the unexpected new virus (COVID-19). The New York Stock Exchange has fallen sharply for the first time in 23 years, causing a significant crash in consumer sentiment indexes, thereafter, decreasing the overall global stock market value (Financial Buzz, 2020). Such instances are rarely encountered, making investors to feel insecure and unsafe to make significant decisions about their investments. Together with these uncertainties and fears, many industries were badly affected and many other industries benefited from this global health crisis (Ayittey et al., 2020). Through this research paper, an exploration of the effects of COVID-19 on New York Stock Exchange market are done with support from expert opinions.
Neelangie Sulochana Nanayakkara, P. D. Nimal, Y. K. Weerakoon
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 12, pp 39-56; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v12i2.16782

Abstract:
Neoclassical asset pricing models try to explain cross sectional variation in stock returns. This study critically reviews the findings of empirical investigations on neoclassical asset pricing models in the Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE), Sri Lanka. The study uses the structural empirical review (SER) methodology to capture a holistic view of empirical investigations carried out in the CSE from the year 1997 to 2017.The pioneering Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) (Sharpe, 1964; Lintner, 1965: Black, 1972) (SLB) states that market betas of stocks are sufficient to explain the cross sectional variation of stock returns. Alternatively there are multifactor models (Ross, 1976; Chen, 1986; Fama and French, 1993, 2015; Cahart, 1997) that state stock returns are driven by multiple risk factors. Similar to other markets the findings on the SLB model are not consistent in the CSE. The Fama and French (1993) and the Cahart (1997) models are supported in the CSE which is consistent with other markets, but the explanatory powers of them are substantially low in the Sri Lankan context. Contrasting the findings of a significant impact of macroeconomic factors on stock returns in developed markets, the impact of them in the CSE are temporary.The overall findings of the applicability of neoclassical asset pricing models in the CSE are inconsistent and inconclusive and the study identifies two reasons that may have contributed to such results. Firstly, it recognises that the inherent limitations of neoclassical asset pricing models may have affected the findings in the CSE. Secondly, it supports the argument that neoclassical models, as they are may not be applicable in emerging or frontier markets, thus they may need to be augmented with characteristics of such markets to make them more applicable.
Theophilus Anaekenwa Aguguom
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 12, pp 58-78; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v12i2.17362

Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of operational risk on equity returns of Deposit Money Banks (DMBs), using a population consisted of 19 listed deposit money banks in the Nigeria Stock Exchange. 15 DMBs were purposively selected for a period of 15 years 2005 to 2019. Descriptive and inferential statistics were explored for the data analysis which was sourced from the published financial statements of the banks, using dynamic and static panel data. Diagnostics tests were carried out since the application of the Hausman test provided the criteria for choosing between Random Effect Models and Fixed Effect Models. Breusch and Pagan Lagrangian multiplier test was employed to confirm the Hausman test results in order to decide between Random Effects and Pooled OLS. Correlation Matrix for multicollinearity test and cross-sectional dependent test were equally carried out for the study. Three models were estimated, based on the three proxies of the dependent variable. The study found that operational risk had a statistically positive significant effect on return on equity (ROE), while operational risk equally exhibited statistically positive significant effect on ROA. When the controlling variable of FSIZE was introduced, the study exhibited stronger effects which demonstrates that operational risk had a statistically positive effect on ROE, while operational risk with FSIZE had a statistically positive effect on ROA. The study recommends that DMBs managers should carefully carry out due diligence on loan applicants, to ascertain performance trend and creditworthiness of potential and prospective borrowers before advancing loans in order to reduce huge profiles of credit risk exposures.
Faris Alqadi
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 12, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v12i2.17310

Abstract:
The main objective of this study was to examine whether operating cash flows have incremental information beyond operating net income in explaining dividend changes for a sample of Jordanian industrial firms listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) during the period 2010-2016 Arguments for operating cash flow information suggest that it is better than accrual net income in reflecting the firm performance and in measuring the firm liquidity. Both performance and liquidity are viewed as significant factors influencing a firm’s dividend policy. To examine this, operating cash flow, operating net income and lagged dividends were incorporated in a regression model. The results of this model indicated that the only significant variables explaining dividend changes were operating net income and lagged dividends with positive and negative coefficients, respectively. An attempt was also made to address the problem of nonlinearity in the relationship between cash flow and dividend changes. The sample of the industrial firms were divided into two groups (high growth and low growth firms) based on market to book value ratio. The results of the two regression models provided evidence consistent with the superiority of accrual operating net income over operating cash flow in explaining dividend changes. The results of this study suggest that Jordanian industrial firms base their dividend policies on accrual net income rather than on cash flows. One possible consequence of this suggestion is that cash dividends are not internally financed and as a result, this would deteriorate the liquidity and solvency position of a firm.
Munshi Samaduzzaman
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v12i2.17679

Abstract:
Blockchain will be the future of accounting education. Triple entry accounting system is here, and shared ledger has been considered. From the shared ledger different parties can access transactions. As our discussion reveals that distributed ledger, Smart contract and Blockchain are three important elements in the triple entry accounting system. As a result, blockchain technology is helping the upgrading the process of education system. Blockchain technology is a peer to peer communication that allows participants to secure the settlement of transactions, achieve the transactions and transfer of assets at low cost. With certain advantages there are disadvantages too. Based on performance and acceptance, it is clear that in future the implication of blockchain technology would be developed. The concept of triple accounting has introduced the new way of accounting work replacing accounting standard formula. The blockchain technology eliminates the involvement of third party, maintain transparency and charges low transaction cost. It will save money and time of people as it is secure and due to decentralization, it is not controlled by one single entity. Due to the decentralization, every user of the network can see the file. So, blockchain should the part the Accounting Education in future.
Suleiman El-Dalahmeh
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, Volume 12, pp 151-160; https://doi.org/10.5296/ajfa.v12i1.15958

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to assess the effect of adopting activity - based costing (ABC) On maximizing profitability in Jordanian private health care sector. Stating the role of (ABC) system in maximizing profitability in Jordanian private hospitals, showing the availability of infrastructure and capabilities of needed to adopt and apply the (ABC) in Jordanian private hospitals To achieve the Study objectives, the researcher distributed (110) of the employees in Jordanian private hospitals, to identifying the obstacles that facing Jordanian private hospitals in adopting and applying (ABC) system. to achieve the study objectives, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to survey sample of 110 respondents who worked in Jordanian private hospitals as accountants, financial managers and internal editors. (90) questionnaires were returned and the response rate of which was (81.8%). After using the statistical analysis program "Statistical package for social studies" (SPSS). The study concluded that adopting and applying (ABC) system in Jordanian private hospitals play very important role in reducing cost in a way that maximizing profitability the results also, reveal that the infrastructure and capabilities needed to apply the (ABC) system are available in the Jordanian private hospitals in a medium degree. In addition, the results of the study showed there are a set of obstacles that facing the adoption and application (ABC) system in Jordanian private hospitals related to management, salaries and difficulty in allocating treatment costs to direct and indirect costs. The study recommended attracted qualified and trained persons who can apply (ABC) system and connivance the management of Jordanian private hospitals of the visibility of apply (ABC) system.
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