International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology

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EISSN : 2091-2609
Total articles ≅ 637
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Sameer Pokhrel, Swikriti Pandey, Ashish Ghimire, Savyata Kandel
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 227-234; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i4.40805

Abstract:
Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is a devastating disease of citrus that has decimated several citrus orchards throughout the world. The disease is associated with three species of unculturable and phloem-limited bacteriae, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus. The most common species of bacteria found in Nepal is Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus which is transmitted by an insect vector, Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). This disease has been detected in several economically important citrus production areas of Nepal, which resulted in heavy yield loss. No cure for the disease has been discovered yet and it is essential to practice proper management strategies to maintain citrus health and sustain citrus production under HLB pressure. Several disease management approaches such as pathogen-free nursery establishment, use of disease tolerant rootstock cultivars, proper irrigation and nutrient supply, removal of HLB affected trees, and control of psyllid with frequent insecticide application are widely practiced throughout the world. This review article highlights the characteristics of the citrus greening disease and its insect vector and gives insights into their management techniques. Several technologically advanced options available to minimize the HLB infection might not be feasible currently in Nepal due to economic and topographic constraints. This article also aims to bring into focus the cost-effective methods that growers in Nepal can practice to mitigate the impact of HLB disease in their citrus orchards. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(4): 227-238.
Tirtha Narayan Shah, Amar Kumar Sinha, Krishna Kumar Jha, Ram Jiban Prasad
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 256-260; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i4.40425

Abstract:
Serum vitamin D is one of the fat-soluble vitamin which has the role in maintenance of calcium and phosphorus levels and ultimately proper bone health and various physiological processes. Although many studies prevail hypovitaminosis D, we focused to find out the pattern of elevated or decreased serum vitamin D level as its deficiency and surplus have adverse effects to our health.. For this, a retrospective study was done from the records present in a hospital laboratory of Devdaha Medical College and Research Institute (DMCRI), Rupandehi, Nepal from January 2018 to December 2020 where 201 participants with 70.1% male and 29.9% female with different age groups were present. From total participants, 14.9% had deficient, 42.8% had insufficient, 35.3% had sufficient and 7% had high level of serum vitamin D. Male had 2.9% deficient and 14,9% insufficient vitamin D whereas female had 11.9% deficient, 27.8% insufficient and 7.0% surplus vitamin D. The greater prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the females than the males could be overcome by the necessary strategies in the form of further studies and judicious supplementation vitamin D in the target population by monitoring the level of serum vitamin D. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(4): 256-260.
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 261-266; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i4.41893

Abstract:
The wheat bug, Nysius huttoni, is an endemic New Zealand insect pest. Its feeding can seriously reduce crop establishment in forage A cage study was conducted in Lincoln University, New Zealand to evaluate the pest’s host preferences on four plant species. Kale plants (Brassica oleracea) were used as a potentially susceptible control and other four trap plants were tested to evaluate as potential trap-plants. These were: Lobularia maritima (alyssum), Triticum aestivum (wheat), Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Trifolium repens (white clover). The alyssum plant was more attractive to the wheat bug. The survival rate and preferences of the wheat bug was significantly better than other four plants. The deployment of such flowering trap crops can potentially trap the wheat bug and also provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) in an agro-ecosystem. The findings can be used to develop the wheat bug management protocol and also potentially provide ecosystem services in brassica fields.
M.A.M.N. Kularathne, , S. Sutharsan
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 235-241; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i4.36010

Abstract:
The Seaweed (Padina antrillarum) abundantly found in the coastal region of Eastern Sri Lanka. Seaweed contains a wide range of nutrients and hormones for plant growth. An experiment was conducted at the Crop Farm, Eastern University, Sri Lanka to assess the effects of seaweed (Padina antrillarum) extract on the flowering of roses var. ‘Local’ from July to September 2020. Four treatments were used in this experiment viz. 10% (T1), 20% (T2), and 30% (T3) seaweed extracts with control treatment (T4). Treatments were applied at once-a-week interval. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three replications. All other management practices were followed uniformly. Measurements were done at once a month. Collected data were analyzed. The higher performances in measured parameters (plant height, leaf area, plant biomass, number of flowers per plant) were observed in T2. It showed that once a week application of 20% seaweed liquid extract had the potential to increase growth and flower production in roses. It might be due to the presence of nutrients and the growth hormones in seaweed extract and optimum concentration of seaweed extract received by plants at T2. In T1 and T3, plants received sub-optimum and higher concentration respectively. It could be the reason for the lowest performances in these treatments. From this experiment, it could be concluded that once a week application of 20% seaweed liquid extract of Padina antrillarum is suitable to increase flowering in roses of treatment tested.
Gapili Naoura, Doyam Nodjasse Amos, Djinodji Reoungal, Djenaissem Alfred
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 242-249; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i4.41889

Abstract:
The phytoparasite, Striga spp., is a major biotic constraint to cereals production in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was carried out at station of Bébédjia of Chadian Institute of Agronomic Research for the Development in Sudanian agricultural zone of Chad, on traditional methods of controlling Strigaspp. This study helped to find out several methods of controlling Striga among which the most important is the agronomic method including organic and or mineral fertilization, associated crops, crop rotation and the use of false hosts and trap crops. Some farmers cultivated resistant varieties and early maturing varieties to control pest attack and some others used shea flour and herbicide treatment to reduce the effect of Striga on the farm. Most of these methods were applied by farmers from generation to generation, without a thorough study to understand their mechanism. Thus, the listed methods will be analysed by research in station to find out scientific explanations for each applied method. Then experiments will be carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of some methods previously identified by extension rural services in farmers’ area after improvement.
Shraddha Dulal, Sujan Chaudhary, Chiranjibi Dangi, Shiv Nandan Sah
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 250-255; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i4.41890

Abstract:
Essential oils are volatile, natural, complex compounds which are produced as secondary metabolites by plants for their protection against various microorganisms as well as pests. A wide range of plants have been explored for their essential oils in the past few decades. The study was conducted to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria which were gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcuspyogenes) as well as gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella sonnei). Five ml of three different oils, i.e. clove oil, castor oil, and ginger oil, were taken in a test tube so that each oil had four different concentrations. Four concentrations of (0, 25, 50 and 75) μL of oils were mixed with 1000, 975, 950 and 925 μL of DMSO respectively to make it a volume of 1ml. It was observed that clove oil was effective against the entire gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria that were used. The inhibition zone was greatest in the case of clove oil at 75 μL against P.aeruginosa (23 mm) and the smallest zone of inhibition was shown by castor oil against K. pneumoniae (12 mm). Other oils were sensitive as well as resistant to the bacteria. Hence, it is found that different oils have shown inhibitory activity towards different pathogens to a variable extent. However, clove oil was inhibitory to all the bacteria in all concentrations. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(4): 250-255
Salina Aryal, Narayan Bashyal, Surendra Kumar Gautam, Megh Raj Pokhrel, Bhoj Raj Poudel
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 213-219; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i3.38834

Abstract:
The study aimed to assess the levels of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in lipsticks and theirs associated health hazards to consumers. 13 lipsticks and 7 lipglosses were selected randomly from various shopping centers in Kathmandu, Nepal. The lipstick sample was chemically digested and analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The concentration range of Pb and Cd in lipsticks was from 0.020.009 to 30.970.014 mg kg-1 and 0.010.014 to 0.920.009 mg kg-1 respectively. The hazard quotient for Pb was found greater than 1 in 15 samples showing detrimental carcinogenic health risk through lipstick consumption. So, these lipstick brands are prone to hamper human health. Accordingly, regular monitoring of the lipsticks before importing them is highly recommended. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(3): 213-219.
Pushpa Karna Mallick
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 166-168; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i3.39789

Abstract:
Lycopersicon esculentum is a flowering plant of the family Solanaceae. The common name for this plant is tomato. Tomatoes are a good source of lycopene which is a main pigment found in it and responsible for red colour. The lycopene provides antioxidant properties and helps to prevent cell damage. Tomatoes also prevent the adverse effects of lead in the blood constituents. Tomatoes are used in different ways such as raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces, salads, pickles, puree, paste, juice, sun- dried and drink. Tomato fruits content ninety four percent water, citric acid, malic acid, soluble sugars, vitamin, vitamin B1, B2, vitamin A, and many mineral salts etc. High levels of lycopene which contain in tomatoes are used in facial cleanser. Flavonoids like flavonols which is present in tomatoes are rich in antioxidant activity and can help our body ward off every day toxins. Flavonoides such as flavonols present in tomatoes are rich in antioxidant activity and can help our body ward off every day toxins Flavonoides directly associated with human dietary ingredients, play a great role in diseases prevention and shows versatile health benefits. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(3): 166-168.
Bishow Regmi, Tirtha Raj Binadi, Sarb Narayan Jha, Rajib Kumar Chaudhary, , Surendra Kumar Gautam
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 220-226; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i3.39069

Abstract:
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by green synthesis using Azadirachta indica leaf extract as both reducing and stabilizing agent. Synthesis of colloidal AgNPs was monitored by UV- visible spectroscopy. The UV- visible spectrum showed a peak at 455 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of the silver nanoparticles. Crystallite structure of silver nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis which revealed the face-centered cubic structure (FCC) with average particle size of 8.9 nm, calculated using Debye-Scherrer’s equation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image revealed the agglomeration of small grain with particle size ranging from 2 to 14 nm. FCC crystalline nature was also evident from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. High purity of as-synthesized AgNPs was analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Band gap energy was calculated to be 2.7 eV from UV- Visible spectra. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was stabilized by AgNPs which reveals its antioxidant efficacy. Well diffusion method showed 7 mm to 12 mm zone of inhibition (ZOI) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively confirming the antibacterial potential of AgNPs. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(3): 220-226.
Krishna Raj Pant, Biplov Oli
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 203-212; https://doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v9i3.39120

Abstract:
For the quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of Nitrogen through different plant nutrient sources in the growth and yield of radish, the field experiment was conducted from March 2020 to June 2020 in an Inceptisol with sandy loam soil of the research field of G. P. Koirala College of Agriculture and Research Centre, Gothgaun, Morang, Nepal. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with eight treatments (Biogas Byproduct, Poultry Manure, Goat Manure, Farmyard Manure, Vermicompost, Packaged Organic Manure, Recommended Dose of Chemical Fertilizer, and Control) and four replications. Forty Day (released in 1994 AD) variety of radish was used as a test crop. The recommended 100 kg N per hectare was supplied from each treatment, calculated based on the nitrogen content of each nutrient source. Results showed that there was a significant difference in almost all studied parameters from all treatments over control (P≤ 0.05). The highest total fresh biomass yield (123.415 Mt/ha) and highest delta fresh shoot yield (22.806 Mt/ha) were recorded from the application of a recommended dose of fertilizer, and the highest delta fresh root yield (30.127 Mt/ha) was obtained from the application of FYM. The experiment suggests that the application of FYM significantly increased root yield and was positively correlated with other parameters, which might be a good alternative for chemical fertilizers. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(3): 203-212.
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