International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology

Journal Information
EISSN : 2091-2609
Current Publisher: Nepal Journals Online (JOL) (10.3126)
Total articles ≅ 612
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Latest articles in this journal

Ramesh Bhandari, , Sachin Timilsina
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 38-44; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v9i1.35084

Among the Ramsar sites of Nepal, Ghodaghodi Lake Complex (GLC) is a biodiversity hot spot. This study was carried out to assess the status and diversity of terrestrial plants in GLC. Employing purposive sampling, altogether 38 plots were taken along the right hand side of the foot trails around the GLC. Collected data were analyzed using formulas and Important Value Index (IVI) was calculated. A total of 50 terrestrial species from 27 families were recorded, among which 35 were trees, 8 shrubs, and 7 herbs. Terminalia tomentosa (Saj) has highest IVI (46.53) among tree species. Similarly, Aerva lanata (Khari) has highest IVI (54.13) among herb species and Calotropis gigantea (Aank) has highest IVI (68.56) among the shrub species. The family Fabaceae family (n=7) represented the maximum numbers of plants species followed by Moraceae family. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 38-44
Anil Gautam, Pramod Upadhayay, Devendra Ghimre, Ashwani Khanal, Asmita Gaire, Krishna Kaphle
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 1-15; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v9i1.34967

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) has estimated that 60% of infectious diseases and 75% of emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans have an animal origin. In Nepal there six zoonoses; Taeniasis/cysticercosis /Neurocysticercosis, Leptospirosis, Hydatidosis, Brucellosis; Toxoplasmosis and Avian Influenza are identified as priorities zoonotic diseases as they are found to have epidemic potential. Although they are prioritised, there is high prevalence of these diseases in both humans and animals with insufficient research and data. Coordination of multiple stakeholders of public and animal health and One Health collaboration are crucial to control and elimination zoonotic diseases in Nepal. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 1-15
Farhana Shikder Lamia, Roushney Fatima Mukti
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 32-37; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v9i1.36110

Many natural products such as fruits and vegetables are promising amends as safe, effective and affordable approaches to control cancer development and progression, since they are inexpensive and available without any hazards. For instance, the aqueous extract of Ajwa dates (Phoenix dactilyfera) has been found to improve liver function through the restoration of anti-oxidant enzymes, liver enzymes, and cytokines balance and gene expression to normal levels. As the treatment and prognosis of Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the leading causes of cancer associated deaths globally, has been found to be better if the liver function of the patient can be preserved, Ajwa date extract has been used together with the conventional therapeutics for the treatment of this disease. However, no study has been conducted so far on the anticancer activity of Bangladeshi wild date palm fruits (Phoenix sylvestris) despite the fact that it contains apigenin, quercetin, glucans, luteolin, and iron and vitamin complex. Therefore, in this review we discussed an idea that potential anticancer agents can be isolated from the extract of these fruits, which can eventually be used as an indigenous substance for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma in our country and also the liver cancer inhibitory effects of the aqueous extract of these dates can be evaluated in rat model. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 32-37
Shuma Rani Ray, , M. G. Rasul, M. M. Hasan Aminul Saikat, J. U. Ahmed
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 45-53; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v9i1.34038

Rice is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population and to increase the yield potential of rice would be a key factor for mitigating global demands of about 810 million tons of rice by 2025. To exploit the economic importance of heterosis, quantitative valuation was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications for 16 agronomic traits of 5x5 half diallel populations during boro season of 2017-2018. Diallel populations were generated by using five selected parents (P1: BRRI dhan28, P2: BRRI dhan74, P3: BINA dhan10, P4: IR59418-7B-21-3 and P5: BRRI dhan67) where, P1 was considered as standard check to estimate the economic heterosis. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant variability among the genotypes for most of the traits except grain length and length-breadth ratio. The results showed that none of the hybrid combination performed better for all the traits over the three types of heterosis. The highest relative heterosis was recorded in P3×P4 followed by P4×P5 for grain yield plant-1, filled grains panicle-1, effective tillers plant-1. Majority of the cross combinations (>60%) revealed highly significant positive heterosis for grain yield plant-1 over mid parent. Heterobeltiosis for grain yield plant-1 was observed significant for 50% cross combinations and could be utilized in hybrid breeding. Whereas, more than 70% crosses exhibited undesirable negative standard heterosis for grain yield plant-1. Only two cross combinations (P3×P5 and P3×P4) among ten revealed significant positive economic heterosis for grain yield plant-1 and those could be exploited in rice breeding. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 45-53
Pushpa Karna Mallick
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 75-79; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v9i1.36011

The present study includes chromosome number, karyomorphology, meiotic behaviors and pollen fertility of the species Calendula officinalis L.collected from central Nepal was cytologically carried out using two percent aceto-orcein for somatic chromosome determination and one percent aceto-carmine for meiotic study. Pollen fertility was based on stainability test using Muntzing solution. Somatic chromosome number determined for this taxon were 2n=28, haploid chromosome number n=14 and pollen fertility found to be 84.4 percent in the present study. In karyotype analysis chromosome length ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 µm and mean length was 1.5 µm. Likewise, absolute length found to be 21.9 µm and karyotype formula obtained was M16+m4+ sm8. Three types of chromosomes centromere at middle point, at median region and at sub –median region were observed. Meiosis with regular and irregular behaviors was observed in this study. The variations in chromosome numbers, irregularities in meiotic behaviors, variations in karyomorphological structure and high fertility rate shows evolve nature of this species which play a great role in evolution. Pollen fertility was also affected by meiotic abnormalities. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 75-79
Mukti Ram Poudel, Padam Bahadur Poudel, Ramesh Raj Puri, Hema Kumari Paudel
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 65-74; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v9i1.35985

Assessment of variability and traits association in crop help to enhance selection efficiency. Therefore, the present investigation entitled “Variability, Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Agro-morphological Traits in Wheat Genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions” was carried out during winterseason of 2019/2020 at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Bhairahawa, Nepal to identify traits that highly contribute to grain yield and suitable for its further improvement. The experiment was laid out following alpha lattice design with two replications. The twentygenotypes of wheat was sown in two different environments viz., irrigated and heat stress in November 29, 2019 and December 25, 2019 respectively. It was found that under normal condition, moderate GCV and PCV were recorded in SW, TGW, NGPS, and WGPS. Under heat stress condition, high GCV and PCV were observed in GY. High heritability and high GAM was observed in TGW & GY, NGPS, WGPS, TGW under normal and heat stress condition respectively. Under normal condition SW exhibited positive correlation and high positive direct effect on GY at genetic level and WGPS at phenotypic level. And under heat stress condition SW exhibited positive correlation and high positive direct effect on GY. Whereas, at phenotypic level, WGPS and PH exhibited high positive direct effect on grain yield. Hence it is clear that spike weight and weight of grains per spike are important traits for grain yield improvement. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 65-74
Suraj Raj Adhikari, Kusum Pokhrel, Sunil Dutta Baral
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 23-31; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v9i1.35984

Aquilaria are genera of tropical trees that produces a valuable resinous wood called agarwood. Agarwood plant have been widely used as traditional medicines and Ayurvedic medicine. They are used for the treatment of arthritis, asthma, diarrhoea etc effects. It contains bioactive phytochemical sesquiterpenoids, 2 (-2-phenylethyl)-4H-chromen-4-one derivatives, genkwanins, mangiferins, cucurbitacins, other terpenoids and phenolic acids. Many pharmacological studies have been performed on anti-allergic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, etc. The aromatic properties of agarwood when burned or distilled are extraordinary and there is high demand for the resinous wood to make incense, perfume and as traditional medicine. Aquilaria are native to northern India but over harvesting of this tree as well as other forest trees in the past has ravaged the hill country. With new technology that has been developed to induce agarwood in trees, it is now possible to produce a sustainable high valued agarwood in young plantation trees. The growing of Aquilaria in the hill agro-ecosystems of Nepal and cultivation of agarwood as a crop using new technology could provide a new economy for the region. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 23-31
Emebet Mohammed Abdu,
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 16-22; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v9i1.33333

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a positive-sense RNA virus that possesses four genes that encode the spike (S), membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N), and envelope (E) proteins. The virus was originated in seafood market selling live animals and responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The initial case was traced to the city of Wuhan in the province of Hubei, China, reported as an emerging respiratory virus, the outbreak was reported to WHO on December 31, 2019, and soon after identified the causative pathogen as a beta coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); Furthermore, It is a highly contagious virus that spreads swiftly outside of China in March and the World Health Organization had to declare COVID-19 pandemic on March 11, 2020, and as of August 15, 2020, more than 21 million confirmed cases have been reported, with > 755 786 deaths worldwide. This day’s novel coronavirus-2019 is the most infectious virus with high infectivity and low mortality rate where a high mortality rate was observed among people above the age of sixteen (60) years and with the pre-existing health condition. To date, there is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the basic biological properties of novel coronavirus 2019. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 16-22
Babatunde Kazeem Adeoye, , Gbenga Alebiowu, Mary Adejumoke Bisi-Johnson, Felix Oluwasola Olorunmola, Oluwarinu Aduramigba Adepoju
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 54-64; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v9i1.32959

The study was carried out to isolate, characterize, and study antimicrobial sensitivity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Bambara groundnut. Dried Bambara groundnut was fermented by spontaneous method for seven days and its pH, TTA (Total Titratable acidity) and microbial load monitored for each of the fermentation days. Seven acid-producing cultures were isolated from the sample, and isolates were further classified first by phenotype. Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics led to identification of three bacterial groups. These were followed by in vitro assessment of antimicrobial activity against enteropathogenic bacteria. The most abundant type of LAB distributed in the isolates of fermented Bambara groundnut was Lactobacillus delbrueckii, followed by Lactobacillus casei in two of the isolates. Lactobacillus brevis was found in the remaining two isolates. The growth pattern at different salt concentrations revealed that the isolates were salt tolerant at 2% and 4% while at 6.5% there was no growth. At pH 4.5 and 6.0, there were also growth. The strain evaluated showed in vitro antibacterial activity against five pathogenic microorganisms namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Pseudomonas sp and Staphylococcus sp using agar well diffusion method. These results suggested that various LAB were present in Bambara groundnut. The microorganisms isolated were then freeze dried using a freeze drier and then kept at a low temperature in the refrigerator so as to preserve/store the organisms for further processes. This report thereby showed that Bambara groundnut, being an underutilized legume can serve as potential candidate for probiotic neutraceuticals. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 54-64
A. K. M. Aminul Islam, F. M. Era, N. K. Aminul Chowdhury
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 400-409; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.31352

Forty four testcross progenies obtained from crossing between five CMS and forty one candidate lines were evaluated both in field and laboratory condition to identify candidate restorer line(s). Nineteen testcross progenies were recorded as fully fertile with 100% plant fertility by counting the number of fertile plants from the total number of plants per lines. On the other hand from pollen fertility test, 11 testcross progenies [206A × 001(6), 9905A × 030(2), 9905A × 027(6) (0.57), 206A × 37(1) (0.68), 9904A × 027(4) (0.83), 248A × 020(6) (1.08), 248A × 018 (1.12), 248A × 022 (1.13), 248A × 017 (1.58), 248A × 038(2) (1.96) and 248A × 001(6) (2.02)] were found with 0-2.02% pollen sterility that could be mentioned as fertile or restorer lines for making hybrids. Agronomic performances were also satisfactory for these selected test cross progenies. The genotype 248A × 017 took the shortest time (30.00) for first flowering as well as ripening followed by 248A × 007(1). The highest number of pods per plant was observed in the testcross progeny 248A × 022 (649.59) and the highest number of seeds per pod (30.33) in 248A × 020(6). For seed weight per plant, 206A × 001(6) was recorded with maximum value (0.08g) while the lowest (23.33) number of seeds per plant was found in this progeny. In case of seed yield per plant, 248A × 022 gave the highest yield (30.30). The seed yield of the progenies 248A × 017 (23.49), 9905A × 027(6) (20.39), 248A × 001(6) (17.26), 9904A × 027(4) (17.02) and 248A × 038(2) (16.53) were also in the highest level.
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