International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology

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EISSN : 2091-2609
Total articles ≅ 621
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Dipendra Regmi, Mukti Ram Poudel, Bishwas K.C., Padam Bahadur Poudel
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 98-106;

Wheat is the principal winter crop in Nepal. Drought affects 44% of the lands of the total wheat area in the country with a yield loss of 15–20%. This research focuses to minimize this loss through the identification of high-yielding lines stable across the drought stress and irrigated environments. The experiment was conducted in Alpha Lattice Design with 20 genotypes replicated twice with five blocks per replication from November 2019 to April 2020. The findings showed that genotypes, environments, and genotype-environment interaction have a highly significant effect on grain yield and explained 28.95%, 52.57%, and 18.47% of variation on yield, respectively. The which-won-where model revealed elite line NL 1420 is the most responsive line in the drought environment, followed by BL 4407, while elite line NL 1179 is the most stable line in irrigated environment. The mean vs stability model with principal component 1 and 2 explaining 65.76% and 34.24% respectively, showed that elite line NL 1420, BL 4407, BL 4919, Bhrikuti are both high yielding and stable lines while line NL 1179, Gautam, and NL 1384 are less stable in both test environments. Similarly, the ranking genotypes model indicated lines close to the ideal line are NL 1420, BL 4407, BL 4919, Bhrikuti as the most representative line for genotype evaluation. Thus, elite wheat line NL 1420 and NL 1179 are recommended as specifically adapted to drought and irrigated environments, respectively, and elite line NL 1420, BL 4407, BL 4919, Bhrikuti are recommended for further evaluation for stability. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(2): 98-106
Sujata Khanal
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 122-127;

Azadirachta indica which is commonly known as neem plant has one of the most promising medicinal properties having a wide spectrum of biological activity. Fresh matured leaves, stem-bark and seeds of A. indica (neem) were collected, air dried and aqueous-extract was used to screen for some active chemical constituents. Phytochemicals of neem plant parts were extracted and screened both qualitatively and quantitatively. The screening of A. indica was carried out at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Paklihawa Campus, Rupandehi in a quest to evaluate the phytochemicals. Among the qualitative tests done for the presence of secondary metabolites; alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids were found to present in all of the tested parts whereas steroids, polyphenols and tannins were present only in leaves and stem-bark. Glycosides and coumarins are absent in all of the tested parts. Quantitative screening was also done by using gravimetric method. Alkaloids were found in all the parts of A. indica with the highest amount of alkaloids were obtained in stem-bark (12.8%) and lowest in leaves (10.67%). Highest flavonoids percentage was revealed in leaves (13.8%) and lowest flavonoids in stem-bark (12.8%). Similarly, seeds (2.53%) contained saponins % while it was lowest in stem-bark (2.50 %). Terpenoids % were similar in both i.e. leaves and stem-bark (13.13%), whereas lowest in seeds (12.77%). More research on secondary metabolites will be helpful to the chemical industries to produce plant-based chemicals and minimize the environment degradation from different synthetic chemicals. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(2): 122-127.
B.P. Mishra, S. Bhatta
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 94-97;

Agricultural information is very essential for smallholder farmers to increase farm production and productivity. However, there is no proper access to accurate and adequate agricultural information to smallholder farmers. This paper attempts to identify the existing agricultural information source and the agricultural information need of the smallholder farmers along with usefulness of the provided agricultural information. Household level data were obtained from four wards of Bharatpur metropolitan of Chitwan district during 2019. The result showed agrovet shops as most common source of agricultural information for smallholder farmers. The most needed agricultural information was about input market and prices followed by disease and pest control. Moderately useful agricultural information was provided to smallholder farmers. Findings of this research suggest that context specific agricultural information should be provided through the existing channels to the smallholder farmers. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(2): 94-97.
Surendra K. Gautam, Yasha Baid, Pabita Thapa Magar, Tirtha Raj Binadi, Bishow Regmi
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 128-132;

Green chemistry refers to the design of chemical product and processes that reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous substances. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized successfully from AgNO3 through a simple green synthetic route using Ageratina adenophora leaf extract which acts as both reducing and capping agents. As synthesized AgNPs were characterized with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD study shows crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles and average particle size was calculated as 24 nm using Debye Scherrer equation. Functional group responsible for the reduction of silver ion was investigated using FTIR spectroscopy. Hydroxyl group, amine group, aliphatic amine group were detected from FTIR analysis. Further, the green synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against bacteria: Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli showing zone of inhibition of 11 mm and 9 mm, respectively. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(2): 128-132.
Anita Mishra, Aparna Alia
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 107-112;

The tea powder produced from plant Camellia sinensis (L), is popular as a daily beverage drink among the Indian population. The tea plant produces large number of metabolites which are of medicinal value. In the present study, the activity of tea leaf extract was studied by disk diffusion method against the bacterial strains, Streptococcus mutans, Enterobacter fecalis, Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Psudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the oral swab. From the disk diffusion assay, the tea extract has shown better activity against S. mutans and P. aeruginosa at the concentration, 25 mg/ml. It is effective agaisnt E. fecalis and S. aureus at higher concentration, 75 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml. Thus, the tea leaf can be considered as effective antibacterial agent against the oral pathogens. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(2): 107-112. .
Susmita Adhikari, Binod Thapa, Laxmi Poudel, Prativa Paudel, Ujjwal Acharya, Bibek Acharya, Sidda Lal Bohora
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 113-121;

The field experiment was carried out during winter of 2018/19 with two varieties (Unnati and Surkhet-Local) and three plant geometry (15cm × 10 cm, 30cm × 10 cm, 45cm × 10cm) in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Statistically there was no difference between two varieties while differences were found on different spacing and interaction between variety and spacing on final seed yield. High significant differences on seed yield was due to spacing and yield of rapeseed were higher at the 30 cm inter row spacing as compared to the 15 cm and 45 cm inter row spacing. Statistically significant effect was found on mean values of seed yield for interaction which showed that Unnati cultivar in 30 cm x 10 cm plant geometry had the highest seed yield (969.86 kg/ha) followed by Surkhet-local with spacing of 15 cm × 10 cm (843.75 kg/ha) and 30 cm × 10 cm (823.76 kg/ha). Yield of these varieties decreased as spacing is increased, thus sowing of Unnati should be done at cropping geometry of 30 cm × 10 cm and for Surkhet-local it should not be done beyond 30 cm inter row spacing to get the maximum potential yield. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(2): 113-121.
Ashish Ghimire, Krishna Raj Pandey, Yagya Raj Joshi, Sobita Subedi
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 80-93;

Mushrooms are known for several nutritional and medicinal benefits and are cultivated worldwide. Several fungal contaminants of mushrooms have been serving as the major restraining factor in the growing mushroom industry for a long time. Fungal contaminants like Trichoderma spp., Mycogone spp., Lecanicillium spp., Cladobotryum spp., Coprinus spp., Sependonium spp., Sclerotium rolfsii, and Cephalothecum roseum among many, are found to infect mushroom crops at different stages from spawn run period to maturation of fruiting bodies. These contaminants may reduce yield and/or degrade the quality of fruiting bodies of the mushroom causing economic losses. These contaminants are usually peculiar in terms of their symptomatology on the substrates, disease cycle, epidemiological requirements, and yield losses. Most of these contaminants come from poorly sterilized substrates. Several sterilization techniques like steam sterilization, hot water sterilization, alkalinization, bleaching, and chemical sterilization can be employed to eliminate pre-existing contaminants and each technique has its own relative advantage over others. Besides, biological control involving botanicals and live antagonists can also be used as prophylactic sterilant or as therapeutic sprays. Biological control measures are friendly to the environment and human health. Unlike chemical fungicides (used as sterilant or spray), biological control measures don’t inhibit mushroom mycelial growth and even don’t raise the problem of pesticide resistance in pathogens. Roguing out of infected mushroom fruiting bodies or beds, mushroom house sanitation, and management of vector population are also equally important in preventing the spread of the fungal diseases of mushrooms. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(2): 80-93
Pramod Gyawali, , Jhalak Raj Joshi
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 138-151;

A field survey was conducted in two districts­­ of western hills of Nepal during July-August, 2020 to study about the practices of traditional methods of horticultural crop disease management. A total of 125 farmers, 10 traders, 5 agro-vets, and 3 plant clinical doctors from four local bodies of two districts; Palpa and Gulmi, were selected for the interviews which employed a pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Almost half of the farmers interviewed (48%) were found to have an average level of knowledge regarding the application of indigenous methods. Mixture of kerosene and ash, mugwort solution, plant residues, bovine dung and urine, chilli powder, papaya leaves, onion mixed with garlic, etc. were popular as traditional techniques to effective control of disease and pest. Scaling technique used in this study showed the lack of indigenous information as the most serious constraint in adoption of traditional means, followed by lack of advertisement, poor social perception of farmers, and weak cooperation among social and agricultural scientists. The study recommended that documentation and scientific validation of indigenous means and support from government and extension agents are necessary to encourage farmers using traditional means. This study examines traditional diseases/pests control strategies implemented by the ancients and presently adopted in ongoing practices. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(2): 138-151.
Anita Pathania, , Sadhana Tandon
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 133-137;

Emergence and spread of COVID-19 pandemic which is caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is threatening the whole world. The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through unknown intermediate animal host in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak needed to be put to an end and we can do this by understanding the situation better. It was of prime importance that masses particularly youngsters should have maximum knowledge of this disease in detail to check its rapid spread. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of students about COVID-19. With this kind of awareness, each respondent updating one’s scientific realization about this deadly virus and how to cope with this. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire using a multiple-choice questions method. A total of 1,111 responses were received. total 840 (75.60%) students from different colleges/universities and 271 (24.39%) school students have participated in this survey. The responders had a moderate level of knowledge about the COVID-19 infection and adequate knowledge about its preventive aspects. The attitude towards COVID-19 showed students' willingness to follow government guidelines on quarantine and social distancing. There is a need to intensify the awareness and address the issues of safety of students about this COVID-19 pandemic as this is still spreading at an alarming rate in India. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(2): 133-137.
Pushpa Karna Mallick
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 75-79;

The present study includes chromosome number, karyomorphology, meiotic behaviors and pollen fertility of the species Calendula officinalis L.collected from central Nepal was cytologically carried out using two percent aceto-orcein for somatic chromosome determination and one percent aceto-carmine for meiotic study. Pollen fertility was based on stainability test using Muntzing solution. Somatic chromosome number determined for this taxon were 2n=28, haploid chromosome number n=14 and pollen fertility found to be 84.4 percent in the present study. In karyotype analysis chromosome length ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 µm and mean length was 1.5 µm. Likewise, absolute length found to be 21.9 µm and karyotype formula obtained was M16+m4+ sm8. Three types of chromosomes centromere at middle point, at median region and at sub –median region were observed. Meiosis with regular and irregular behaviors was observed in this study. The variations in chromosome numbers, irregularities in meiotic behaviors, variations in karyomorphological structure and high fertility rate shows evolve nature of this species which play a great role in evolution. Pollen fertility was also affected by meiotic abnormalities. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(1): 75-79
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