International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology

Journal Information
EISSN : 2091-2609
Current Publisher: Nepal Journals Online (JOL) (10.3126)
Total articles ≅ 603
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Latest articles in this journal

Srinivasa Murthy Kotilingam
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 410-416; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.32445

Identification of termites is a challenging task due to variable morphological differences among species and their eusocial behaviour with different caste system. A method for easy and accurate species-level identification at any life stage is required. In this study, a 658-base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was used to explore its utility in the identification of important subterranean termites. Termite specimens collected from 25 locations from various states, were characterized using specific primers for their identification. Sequence analysis and divergence among the species was assessed. The composition of the mitochondrial sequence of the COI gene in the present study was expectedly AT biased. GenBank accession numbers were obtained for the species. Sequence analysis and divergence among the species was assessed, which revealed significantly high percentage of A+T base composition. Molecular sequence information from NCBI revealed relatedness in all the collected termites, accurately as revealed by their morphological characters. The studies indicate the relevance of DNA sequencing to match different forms of termites and address ambiguities in morphological identification. The information on species diversity would help plan strategies for management of termites. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 8(4): 410-416
Seunghye Park, Se-Hwan Joo, A-Leum Kim, Ji-Hwan Shin
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 417-421; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.31258

Strategic utilization of organic material for agriculture is important for improve efficiency in organic agriculture. Waste from food processing is a good candidate for compost material, and the first critical step is to choose proper raw material. In this study, we tried to establish a reliable screening method by comparing growth of different plant parts in different crops in combination with serial dilution of raw material extracts. The raw materials compared here are tangerine pomace, herbal medicinal plant waste, bread, spent coffee ground (SCG). We also compared effect of organic fertilizer made of SCG, natural pesticides made of pyrethrum extract and neem oil. The results obtained from different kind of crops and plant parts give insight into growth enhancing or inhibitory effect of tested material which will be useful screening raw material to make organic fertilizer and crop protective materials. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 8(4): 417-421
Hom Nath Giri
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 427-431; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.33673

An experiment was carried out to assess the nutritional value along with quality of curds in late season cauliflower varieties at Rampur, Chitwan during November 2017 to March, 2018. The eleven late season cauliflower varieties were Freedom, Titan, Ravella, Amazing, Artica, Bishop, Casper, Indam 9803, NS 106, Snow Mystique and Snowball 16 which were introduced from USA, Europe, India and Nepal. The experiment was prepared in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The main objective of this study was to check the nutritional content, taste, compactness, appearance and freshness of the curds in eleven late season cauliflower varieties at Rampur, Chitwan. Nutritional value along with taste quality, compactness, appearance and freshness of the curds were measured after harvest. Maximum moisture and carbohydrate content was found in Freedom while higher crude fat was obtained in Titan and Bishop. Similarly, higher crude protein and crude fiber was found in NS 106. Significantly better taste score (8.8) was found in Snowball 16 than other varieties. Better compactness score of curd was found in Artica and Titan than other varieties. Significantly better appearance score (8.0) was found in Artica but poor appearance score was found in Casper than other varieties. At different intervals after harvesting of curds, significantly fresher curds were found in Artica than other varieties. In conclusion, NS 106 performed higher content of crude protein and crude fiber while Snowball 16 executed better tasty curds than other varieties. Artica also showed better performance on freshness of curds than other varieties. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 8(4): 427-431
Bijay Kumar Shrestha, Jenish Shakya
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 394-399; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.32971

Candida albicans is a member of the healthy human microflora, colonizing several niches in the body and can cause opportunistic infection under host debilitated and immunocompromised condition. The present study aimed to investigate the in-vitro hemolytic activity of C. albicans isolated from oral cavity and screen biofilm through three different methods. During the study, 200 oral rinse samples from general human population were analyzed in microbiology laboratory of Central Campus of Technology, Tribhuvan University, Hattisar, Dharan. Nepal. Candida albicans were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological procedures. The hemolytic activity was evaluated through two different Sabouraud dextrose broth media (SDB) containing 7% defibrinated human blood, one supplemented with 3% glucose (SDBwG) and the other without glucose (SDBwoG). The biofilm formation was screened through congo red agar, tube method and tissue culture plate method. In this present study, 42 (21%) isolates of Candida albicans were isolated from 200 oral rinse samples. Isolated Candida albicans exhibited mean hemolysis activity of 28.66% on human blood SDB without glucose and 43.55% on human blood SDB with 3% glucose. Tissue culture plate method was considered sensitive, specific and accurate method for quantitative screening of biofilm in comparison to tube method and congo red agar method. This research concluded that Candida albicans exhibited greater hemolytic activity in human blood with glucose (SDBwG) than in human blood without glucose (SDBwoG). This finding explains that an increased blood glucose concentration may contribute to increased hemolysis activity of Candida albicans that could play pathogenic role for inducing infection like oral candidiasis in debilitated host like diabetic patients. Tissue culture plate method can accurately screen biofilms than tube and congo red agar method. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 8(4): 394-399
A. K. M. Aminul Islam, F. M. Era, N. K. Aminul Chowdhury
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 400-409; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.31352

Forty four testcross progenies obtained from crossing between five CMS and forty one candidate lines were evaluated both in field and laboratory condition to identify candidate restorer line(s). Nineteen testcross progenies were recorded as fully fertile with 100% plant fertility by counting the number of fertile plants from the total number of plants per lines. On the other hand from pollen fertility test, 11 testcross progenies [206A × 001(6), 9905A × 030(2), 9905A × 027(6) (0.57), 206A × 37(1) (0.68), 9904A × 027(4) (0.83), 248A × 020(6) (1.08), 248A × 018 (1.12), 248A × 022 (1.13), 248A × 017 (1.58), 248A × 038(2) (1.96) and 248A × 001(6) (2.02)] were found with 0-2.02% pollen sterility that could be mentioned as fertile or restorer lines for making hybrids. Agronomic performances were also satisfactory for these selected test cross progenies. The genotype 248A × 017 took the shortest time (30.00) for first flowering as well as ripening followed by 248A × 007(1). The highest number of pods per plant was observed in the testcross progeny 248A × 022 (649.59) and the highest number of seeds per pod (30.33) in 248A × 020(6). For seed weight per plant, 206A × 001(6) was recorded with maximum value (0.08g) while the lowest (23.33) number of seeds per plant was found in this progeny. In case of seed yield per plant, 248A × 022 gave the highest yield (30.30). The seed yield of the progenies 248A × 017 (23.49), 9905A × 027(6) (20.39), 248A × 001(6) (17.26), 9904A × 027(4) (17.02) and 248A × 038(2) (16.53) were also in the highest level.
Pushpa Karna Mallick
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 422-426; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.33666

In present investigation karyotype of mitotic chromosomes were determined, two species of the genus Spilanthes, namely Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murray and Spilanthes calva DC. from plants transplanted in earthen pots collected from different localities from Central Nepal in my home garden. The somatic chromosome number determined in present study were 2n=36 for both species, Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murray and Spilanthes calva DC. The chromosomes total length ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 µm in Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murray and 0.4 to 2.1µm in Spilanthes calva DC. The relative length ranged from 2.3 to 12.1 µm in the species Spilanthes calva and 2.0 to 8.5 µm in the species Spilanthes acmella. The Karyotype formula were M16+m2+sm16+st2 in Spilanthes calva DC. and M22 +sm14 in Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murray cytologically obtained by using 2% aceto-orcein. The karyotype of the two species shows considerable variation exists in morphology of chromosome and structure. The variation in karyomorphology shows evolved nature of this species which play a great role in evolution. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 8(4): 422-426
Prakash Acharya, Punya Prasad Regmi, Devendra Gauchan, Dilli Bahadur Kc, Gopal Bahadur Kc
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 448-453; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.31928

A study was conducted in Jhapa, Sunsari and Bardiya district of Nepal to assess the benefit cost (BCA) analysis of small farm machineries (transplanter, reaper and power tiller) used for rice cultivation. Out of total respondents of 274 under mechanized farm category selected using Raosoft Software of sample size determination, 74% reaper owner (20), 67% power tiller owner (20) and 100% transplanter owner (09) were selected for analyzing benefit cost analysis using simple random sampling. BCA analysis showed that the NPV, B/C ratio, IRR and Payback Period of investing in transplanter were NRs 452743.62, 1.61, 24% and 2.75 years at 12% discount rate respectively. Similarly, NPV, B/C ratio, IRR and Payback period for reaper and power tiller were NRs 422541.93, 2.89, 123% and 1.14 years and NRs 619,719.34, 2.32, 65% and 1.46 years at 12% of discount rate respectively. The investment on reaper and power tiller would be profitable for their higher Benefit Cost ratio and IRR, and lower payback period. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that investments in reaper and power tiller would be profitable even if decrease in benefit or increase in cost or decrease in benefit and increase in cost by 20% is considered. However, in case of transplanter, the IRR would be less than the discount rate when benefit decreases by 20% and cost increases by 20%. Due to high investment at the initial stage, the payback period was longer and IRR was also less than 30% per annum in transplanter which indicated that investment would not be made for transplanter unless price of transplanter is lowered through regulation of price and provision of subsidy. It is suggested to motivate farmers for adoption of small farm machineries in rice cultivation through provision of differentiated rates of subsidy and technical capacity build up.
Bisheswar Prasad Yadav, Santosh Rasaily, Pramod Wagle, Razan Malla, Manoj Kandel, Nabina B.K., Sheetal Aryal
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 454-456; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.33825

In Recent years, cultivation of Mustard (Brassica juncea) is growing popularity but there is lack of suitable high yielding and oil contenting variety in Nepal. With Objective of identifying and releasing of high yielding variety, evaluation of exotic genotypes were done in the research field and farmers field. Coordinated Varietal Trial (CVT) was conducted for three years in three different location (Nawalpur, parwanipur and Khajura) in RCBD design. 4 Elite genotypes were selected and further evaluate under Coordinated Farmer Field Trial (CFFT) for 5 years where each farmer was considered as Replication. Nutrients Analysis was done to find out the moisture, oil and protein content of selected elite genotypes. In combined ANNOVA of CVT, ICJ 9704 was found to be high yielding genotypes. Similarly, In CFFT, genotypes was significantly for yield where ICJ 9704 produced highest yield (906.75 kg/ha) where as Divya, Pusa Jagarnath and Krishna produced yield of 798.12 kg/ha, 790 kg/ha and 767.392 kg/ha. ICJ 9704 has high oil content 37.3 % with 36.3 % protein content. In 2017, ICJ 9704 was release as Morang rayo and was recommended to grow in the terai and inner terai. Hope this variety will be popular among mustard growing farmer and will help to meet the national demand of the Nation. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 8(4): 454-456
Prashant Bhatt, Pratibha Bist, Laxmi Narayan Ojha
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 432-436; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.33671

Kailali is the second highest district regarding wheat production and area coverage. A study was carried out in the Kailali district for preference of farmers on different wheat varieties that were being cultivated in the district. The objective of the study was to assess farmers’ preference and perception on the different improved wheat varieties in the area. Five commonly grown wheat varieties and seventeen important wheat varietal traits were selected through focus group discussion, key informant interview and preliminary survey. Sixty households were selected for face-to-face personal interview, twelve for each selected variety, at random from Ghodaghodi Municipality, Gauriganga Municipality and Kailari Rural Municipality of Kailali. The weightage of the seventeen selected traits were determined using an online survey conducted among individuals from different designation with the agricultural background who were well known about wheat cultivation practices in Kailali district. Yield, flour quality and tillering were found to be the trait of higher weightage and stem thickness was the trait of lowest weightage. The preferences of the farmers were measured using wheat preference index (WPI). The varieties Vijay, NL-971, HD-2967, Gautam and Aditya were ranked as I, II, III, IV and V respectively. The incorporation of farmers' preferred traits in future wheat varieties would increase the likelihood of adoption of the varieties. Similarly, proper participatory field trial of new improved wheat varieties would also help in the selection of the suitable varieties in the area concerning the farmers’ criteria of selection. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 8(4): 432-436
R.A.I.S. Ariyarathna, S. L. Weerasena, C. K. Beneragama
International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 437-447; doi:10.3126/ijasbt.v8i4.33670

Tomato is one of the most commonly growing vegetable crops among the farmers in Sri Lanka. Standard laboratory germination of tomato seeds fulfills the regulatory requirements of seed marketing. However, poor field performance is an overwhelming problem to farmers. Present study was focused on the longevity of two varieties of tomato seeds as affected by their quality characters (percentage germination, moisture, field emergence and vigour index, seed protein and carbohydrate contents) including seed health (exposure of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis (CMMV), Spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Leaf curly top virus (LCTV)) under four different storage environmental conditions during a one-year long storage study. Seeds were packed in triple-laminated aluminum packets (TLA) and stored in low temperature storage conditions (17±1 °C and 65% RH) and in ambient conditions in Gannoruwa, Kundasale, and MahaIlluppallama that represent the three agro-ecologically zones; Mid Country Wet Zone (MCWZ), Mid Country Intermediate Zone (MCIZ) and Low Country Dry Zone (LCDZ) respectively. Seed quality parameters displayed varied responses depending on the variety. Physiological changes that occur in seeds due to temperature, RH, changes in proteins and carbohydrate content, CMMV and TSWV during storage were manifested as reduction in seed germination, field emergence and vigour index. However, none of the seedling carried LCTV and therefore its effect on seed quality parameters could not be assessed. The seeds could be stored for ca. 29 months at low and constant temperatures and RH conditions without compromising local seed germination standards compared to ambient storage in the three environments. CMMV and TSWV detected in all seed samples indicated potential threats to tomato farmers in Sri Lanka.
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