Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2223-3806 / 1927-5951
Published by: Set Publishers (10.29169)
Total articles ≅ 345
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Barbara De Araujo Lima Dutra, Carolina Lyra Barreira Carneiro, Nayanna De Oliveira Ramos Melo, Gilson Brito de Oliveira, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine Jamacaru, , Conceição Aparecida Dornelas
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.29169/1927-5951.2022.12.02

Abstract:
This work aims to evaluate the effects of gum arabic and eugenol on inflammatory angiogenesis in a subcutaneous silica inoculum model. Ninety-six Wistar rats were distributed over 16 groups. The substances administered by gavage included distilled water, gum arabic (500 mg/100g weight), and eugenol (10mg/100g weight). Control groups received 0.2 mL of sterile distilled water subcutaneously. The experimental groups were subjected to an inoculum of 0.2 mL of silica solution (50 mg/mL) subcutaneously. For seven or 14 days, the groups received distilled water or gum arabic or eugenol or gum arabic plus eugenol. There was no difference between the histological analysis of slides stained with hematoxylin-eosin. There was a reduction in vascular density in animals that received only gum arabic for 7 (0.09 µm² ± 0.02) or 14 (0.08 µm² ± 0.03) days and only eugenol for seven days (0.08 µm² ± 0.03), but this was not statistically significant. The microvascular density significantly increased in the group treated with eugenol for 14 days (0.14 µm² ± 0.02). Eugenol reduced inflammatory angiogenesis when administered for seven days and stimulated it when administered for 14 days. Gum arabic had a potential inhibitory effect on this model. The study of inflammatory angiogenesis, induced by a silica inoculum in the subcutaneous tissue of rats, is a new and reproducible model for evaluating angiogenesis and inflammation.
Pravinkumar Vishwanath Ingle, , Wong Tse Yee, Wong Siaw Ying, Tee Kai Heng, Tang Hang Chong, Tan Zhi Xiang, Wendy Lean Tsu Ching, Toh Kit Mun
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.29169/1927-5951.2022.12.01

Abstract:
Despite rapid advances in the healthcare field, diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global burden that affects millions of people every year. The association between DM and TB has been known for an extended period. The last 15 years, however, have seen an increased number of studies showing that diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) increases the risk of tuberculosis because of impaired immune defences and likewise, TB may induce hyperglycemia and therefore increase the risk of DM. When DM and TB co-exist as dual diseases, it complicates management strategies as treatment outcomes are affected. In developing countries where the epidemic of DM and TB is rapidly growing, the presence of a concomitant disease becomes a challenge to the affected nation and could also impact DM and TB control on a global scale. This review brings together information on what is currently known about T2DM and TB as a double epidemic, the recommended treatment strategies, and the challenges involved in disease management. Furthermore, we address the future perspectives of the co-management of T2DM and TB and what can be done to overcome the shortcomings of currently available guidelines.
Zehrah Bibi, Shabana Saeed, Samina Bano
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 1, pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.10

Abstract:
Nicotine, in the form of tobacco smoking, is the most commonly abused drug throughout the world. It contributes to the harmful tobacco smoking habit leading to high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The drug has addictive properties and causes drug dependence. Apart from these effects, nicotine alters a number of metabolic pathways such as lipid profile and glucose homeostasis leading to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Present study investigated the metabolic and behavioral effects of nicotine in stressed mice. For this purpose adult male mice were subjected to chronic nicotine treatment(3.08 mg/100 ml in drinking water) for 3 weeks followed by forced swim test (FST) and serum glucose, lipid profile and tryptophan were investigated. When swim stressed mice were compared with chow control, it was found that serum glucose (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P<0.001), triglycerides (P<0.01), and LDL cholesterol (P<0.01) were increased. Similarly glucose concentration (P<0.05), total cholesterol (P<0.05), triglycerides (P<0.01) and LDL cholesterol (P<0.05) were increased in drug treated swim stressed mice. However HDL remained unaltered in both groups. Serum tryptophan was decreased (P<0.01) in swim stressed and nicotine treated swim stressed mice. During FST, swimming behavior was significantly increased at the cost of climbing with no change in immobility in nicotine treated mice as compared to controls. It is concluded that nicotine worsens lipid profile and glucose homeostasis in stressful situations thereby increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in chronic smokers and the drug induced behavioral alterations may be related to the serotonergic pathway.
Saida Haider, Saiqa Tabassum, Tahira Perveen, Sarmad Ali, Sadia Saleem, Aisha Karim Khan, Darakhshan J. Haleem
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 1, pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.05

Abstract:
Aging is a process that presents various alterations in physiological, behavioral and neurochemical processes. It causes impairment of CNS functions which lead to changes in memory, cognition and other behavioral performances. Reports have shown that aging causes neurochemical alterations in various physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive changes in relation to process of aging. For this 20 male rats were taken, 10 young (4-6 months) and 10 old (18-22 months). Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was performed to monitor changes in learning and memory while Object-Recognition Task (ORT) was performed to evaluate changes in cognitive function. After behavioral assessment decapitation was done and rat brain was dissected to isolate striatum. Then neurochemical analysis was performed by HPLC-EC to monitor changes in striatal DA and DOPAC levels. Results of behavioral tests showed that aged rats exhibited a significant impairment of long-term memory. While cognitive ability assessed by ORT was also impaired in aged rats. Neurochemical results showed that there was a significant decline in striatal dopamine (DA) concentration while its metabolite DOPAC was significantly increased in aged rats. Hence aging has a significant negative influence on cognitive functions. Age-related behavioral deficits may occur as a result of decline in DA levels in striatum leading to changes in memory and cognitive performance.
A. Rasheed, S. Junaid, T. Ahmad
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 1, pp 61-67; https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.11

Abstract:
Background: Drug Regulatory agencies all over the world generally discourage exclusion of outliers in a BE (BE) study; on the other hand in routine bio-statistical work we take these into the account. If the decision rules for identifying the outliers are clearly mentioned before the start of the study and laid down in protocol by the responsible biostatistician in collaboration with clinicians, the problem of outliers can be dealt smartly without jeopardizing the whole study for redoing. The purpose of this article is to introduce procedure for reliably detecting outlier subject(s) with Williams design. Experimental: Literature review reveals many different methods for the detection of outlier values in BE studies; most of them are for BE of two treatments. For BE studies with more than two treatments use of Williams design seems imperative; but inclusion and deletion of outlying subjects may lead to profound effect on conclusion of BE which in turn may be dangerous for the health. The suggested method is an adjustment to a previously introduced method using exploratory data analysis technique such as principle component analysis and Andrews curves.
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 1, pp 68-81; https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.12

Abstract:
Various cationic nanobiomaterials have been widely used as gene delivery nanosystems (GDNSs) in vitro and in vivo. Various cellular machineries are involved in trafficking of GDNSs, whose surface functional moieties and architectural properties confer great potential to interact with cell membranes and subcellular biomolecules. It appears such intrinsic inadvertent biological functionalities may impact the outcome of the biomedical applications of these nanobiomaterials. Various advanced materials used as GDNSs may display selective phenotypic effects in target cells/tissues as a result of initiation of various signaling pathways perhaps due to its cellular interactions with plasma cell membranes and/or intracellular compartments including genetic materials. Thus, better understanding about cellular/molecular impacts of GDNSs may maximize their clinical outcomes and accordingly minimize their inevitable undesired consequences. The main focus of this review is based on the cellular trafficking and interactions of cationic gene delivery nanobiomaterials with target cells or subcellular compartments.
S.A. Sheikh, S.M. Nizamani, A.A. Jamali, M.I. Kumbhar
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 1, pp 82-86; https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.13

Abstract:
The unbridled use of pesticides in agriculture sector poses a serious environmental degradation problem besides, being intimately associated with public and workers health hazard. Although the use of pesticides help to considerably control diseases, hence reduce crop losses and result in better yield of the crops. Pesticides are particularly under use to improve production of crops like corn, vegetables, potatoes and cotton, although their unfavourable effects on environmental quality and human health have frequently been reported and well documented. Pesticides mismanagement starts at the local area but always exhibits local and global impacts with universal dimensions. The study aimed at determining the extent of pesticide use and farmers’ knowledge of the pesticides and their use on the field. One hundred farmers were interviewed concerning pesticides usage patterns from amongst farmers in vegetable production area in Lower Sindh, Pakistan. Information was obtained through structured Questionnaire coupled with personal interviews. The results revealed that 27 different pesticides were used by farmers and majority of pesticides were insecticides. All pesticides used were registered by Government of Pakistan. Toxicity class of majority pesticides belonged to Class-II, which WHO classifies as moderately hazardous and one highly hazardous pesticide with the class- Ib was also being used. Okra and tomato were more affected by the insect pests. Majority of farmers relied on nicotinoid and organophosphate groups of pesticides. A considerable number of farmers had received education at middle school level only. The source of farmers knowledge of pesticide use was the pesticides dealer who advised them when to spray the crops (s). Half of farmers had no safety protection gears/tools during pesticide application and vegetable harvesting. The survey has shown some overuse, misuse and abuse of pesticides. Farmers were not aware of pesticide hazards and they lacked appropriate knowledge on safe handling and use of pesticides, which can be attributed to inadequate agriculture extension services and state of art trainings to the farmers at their door steps along with lack of education. Since these pesticides were being traditionally used by the farmers in the near by fields and on the same fields with out their deleterious effect knowledge to the farmers, soil and environment combined together as most of the farmers were not educated but also ill equipped about the knowledge of the kind/type of pesticide being used/sprayed what to talk of its chemical nature leading to harmful effects.
Mohammad A. Kaisar, Mohammad S. Rahman, Mohammed Z. Rahman, Choudhury M. Hasan, Mohammad A. Rashid
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 1, pp 87-95; https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.14

Abstract:
Natural products, especially those derived from higher plants, have attracted scientists from ancient time because of their potential therapeutic values. Drug development from natural sources showed that natural products or natural product-derived drugs comprised about 28% of all new chemical entities launched to the market. These are originated from terrestrial plants, microbes, marine organisms, etc. However, until recently an insignificant part of the plants has been scientifically evaluated for their medicinal properties. Bangladesh is a rich repository of medicinal plants, many of which are widely used in the Ayurvedic, Unani, herbal and other traditional systems of medicines. In our laboratory, we have extensively investigated over 48 medicinal plants and several microbial strains that have resulted in the isolation and characterization of 133 compounds, including 33 new molecules. Terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides were the major classes of constituents. The crude extractives and several purified molecules demonstrated statistically significant inhibition of growth of microorganisms. On the other hand, usnic acid obtained from the lichen, Parmelia kamtschandalis, demonstrated even better of inhibition of microbial growth as compared to the standard antimicrobial agents, whereas dehydroaltenusin extracted from a Streptomyces sp. exhibited significant HIV-inhibitory activity.
A.K. Mobeen, A. Aftab, A. Asif, A.S. Zuzzer
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 1, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.01

Abstract:
The effectiveness of microwave heating has been evaluated for the detoxification of aflatoxins contaminated peanut and peanut products. The products comprise of various confectionery such as peanut brittle toffee, peanut brittle slabs of sugar and jaggery, roasted and salted peanut and peanut butter which were highly contaminated with aflatoxins B1 ranging from 5 to 183µg/kg and aflatoxin B2 ranging from 7 to 46.7µg/kg. The level of aflatoxins was determined and subsequently products were treated to microwave heating, which resulted in the reduction of aflatoxins content. The microwave cooking resulted in 50 to 60 % reduction in the levels of aflatoxins B1, while B2 was reduced to non-detectable limits.
M. Mathrusri Annapurna, Bidyut Nanda
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 1, pp 9-14; https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-5951.2011.01.01.03

Abstract:
A simple precise, accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for analysis of Zolmitriptan (ZLM). The separation and quantization were achieved on a 250 mm reversed phase column with a hydrophilic linkage between silica particles and hydrophobic alkyl chains. The mobile phase was constituted (flow rate 0.8 ml min-1) of eluant A (CH3OH) and eluant B (aqueous tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate) (pH 3.4; 10 mM) using isocratic elution with UV detection at 224 nm. The method showed good linearity for ZMT in the 1–100 μg mL-1 range with regression equation 15576x ± 99401 and correlation coefficient 0.999 respectively. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) were found to be 0.8134 and 0.2687 μg mL-1 respectively. Finally the applicability of the method was validated according to ICH guidelines and can be applicable for the analysis of commercial dosage forms.
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