International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2348-8093 / 2348-8093
Current Publisher: EManuscript Technologies (10.5530)
Former Publisher: Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 298
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Gopal Krushna Pal, Nivedita Nanda
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 89-90; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.22

Abstract:
Worldwide more than 31 million have been reported till date to suffer from corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and daily about ninety thousand positive cases are reported from India alone. About 10% of all symptomatic COVID-19 patients present with dyspnoea, interstitial pneumonia and few may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan dysfunction.[1] It has been reported that most common cause of mortality in COVID-19 is the acute respiratory failure. Though antiviral drugs, chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine and respiratory therapies are being used, there are several ongoing clinical trials on traditional medicines for development of new therapies and vaccines, till date there is no evidence of any effective treatment for COVID-19. Prone positioning has been used as an effective therapy in ARDS, particularly when initiated in the early stage of it.[2] Recent reports have suggested improvement in respiratory functions of COVID-19 patients with prone positioning.[3] Based on postures in which asanas are practiced, they are divided into standing asanas, sitting asanas, supine asanas and prone asanas.[4] As prone positioning facilitates pulmonary functions, it is expected that prone asanas will promote respiratory functions. The practice of chandranadi pranayama (left-nostril breathing) and anulom-vilom pranayama (alternatenostril breathing) has been demonstrated to have maximum beneficial effects on autonomic and cardiorespiratory functions.[5,6] Pal’s slow pranayama schedule that comprises of both chandranadi and anulom-vilom pranayama’s has been documented to be effective in preventing ventricular tachycardia by improving vagal tone by modulating the process of respiratory sinus arrythmia.[7] Therefore, we assume that practice of asanas in prone posture and slow pranayama will improve cardio-respiratory functions in COVID-19, especially if practiced in the early phase of the disease.The asana-pranayama schedule could be as given below. Following eight asanas in prone posture as described in yoga book,[4] can be practiced:
Mahantayya Veerabhadrayya Math, Yashoda Ravindra Kattimani, Rohit B Gadda
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 127-127; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.32

Abstract:
Dear Sir, We have read your nice editorial which shows that yoga can be of a great help to combat COVID problems and to prevent spread of COVID infection.[1] Yoga helps to improve respiratory health and immunity, both of which are involved in the prevention and healing from COVID-19.[1] The guidelines for healthcare workers for prevention of COVID-19 show how infection can be prevented with use of mask, goggle, hand hygiene, etc.[2] Read more.....
Osama Sharafeldin Abbadi
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 91-95; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.23

Abstract:
Pressure is considered negative if it is below the standard atmospheric pressure, i.e. one atmosphere (1 atm). Negative pressure could occur naturally in few occasions such as out space, but it also could be deliberately inducted for the use of human. One of these uses is for medical purposes. The history of negative pressure use in health and disease management draws back to the establishment of the Chinese traditional medicine and continued to develop till the contemporary medical advances. In this review, the author aimed to elaborate the history and advancement in the usage of negative pressure in health aspects and classify the different modalities of negative pressure incorporated in treatment management and clinical trials.
Manisha Mandal, Shyamapada Mandal
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 100-106; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.25

Abstract:
Background and Aim: The potential biomarkers of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) were analyzed from GSE53867 dataset. The current study aimed to identify miRNAs as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to delineate the IBD subtypes. Methods: Differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs)-genes and protein-protein interaction networks were constructed and hub genes were selected using Cytoscape. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed for GO (Gene Ontology) and Reactome-pathway. Results: Seven DEMs were upregulated in Crohn’s disease (CD), 4 downregulated in ulcerative colitis (UC), 8 upregulated and 2 downregulated in IBD. A 620, 2377 and 1821 target-genes were in CD, UC and IBD, respectively. SOCS3, upregulated by miR-650, was hub gene in CD, induced by cytokines, through NFKB-signalling pathway to mediate ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. CIRH1A, downregulated by miR-16, was hub gene of UC, acted by impairing ribosomebiogenesis. SKP2 and ASB1, up- and downregulated, by miR-142 and miR-665, respectively, were hub genes of IBD, induced cytokines through activation of TLR- and TNF-signalling pathways to mediate ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Conclusion: The SOCS3, CIRH1A, SKP2 and ASB1 genes might serve as valuable biomarkers to differentiate CD, UC and IBD.
Aswathy Viswanathan, , Gopal Krushna Pal, Keni Gowsi
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 112-118; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.27

Abstract:
Background and Aim: Prehypertensive subjects pose significant future cardiovascular (CV) risk and lifestyle modification is considered as the first line of intervention for them. Few scientific trials revealed that regular composite yoga practices restore hemodynamic stability and reduces the CV risk in various diseases. However, there is a dearth of data on single yoga practice on cardiovascular health. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the impact of single slow pranayama (Chandranadi pranayama) practice for 12 weeks on cardiac autonomic functions, perceived stress score (PSS) and serum nitric oxide. Methods: The outcome parameters were recorded in thirty male prehypertensive subjects in the age group of 18 to 40 years at baseline and after intervention. They were divided into two groups, designated as control and pranayama group with fifteen subjects in each group. Pranayama group was given 27 rounds of chandranadi pranayama practice, an exclusive left nostril breathing followed by relaxation in shavasana for 10 min. The intervention was given for a period of twelve weeks. The parameters recorded were HR, BP, short-term heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), PSS and the cardiac autonomic reactivity tests which included heart rate response to standing (30:15 ratio), heart rate response to deep breathing (E:I ratio) and isometric handgrip test (ΔDBDisg). Further, 3ml of venous blood was collected for serum nitric oxide and uric acid assay. Results: A significant decrease in PSS, HR, SBP, DBP and LF/HF ratio of frequency domain indices of HRV and a significant increase in BRS, 30:15 ratio, E:I ratio and serum nitric oxide was noted in pranayama group at 12 weeks, when compared with their baseline data. No significant changes were observed in control group at 0 and 12 weeks. Conclusion: In our study, 12 weeks of exclusive left nostril breathing practice found to normalize BP and HR, improved BRS, restored sympathovagal balance and reduced perceived stress in prehypertensive subjects, which signifies decreased CV risk in them.
, Alia Shahmohamadi
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 96-99; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.24

Abstract:
Background and Aim: Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in men and the incidence is also on the rise in the entire world. The present study was aimed to investigate the chemical composition of essential oil of the seed of Ferula assafoetida (EOSF) and anticancer activity of the oil on adenocarcinoma gastric (AGS) cell line. Methods: For evaluation of the cytotoxicity effect of EOSF, AGS cells were exposed to EOSF at different concentration and for different time durations. The 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were carried out to characterize the cytotoxicity of the EOSF on AGS cells. In this study, the EOSF was obtained and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Our MTT assay showed that EOSF has a significant cytotoxicity activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. The main constituents of EOSF were alpha-D-Xylofuranoside, methyl 2, 5-di-O-methyl- (30.2%), E-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (13.13%) Z-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (11.34%). Conclusion: We conclude that the studied oil have a strong anticancer effect against AGS cell line. Based on the overall strong inhibition effects of the oil, isolation and studying of its compounds is suggested.
Natesan VasanthaKumar
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 125-125; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.30

Abstract:
Sir, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cell by binding its spike protein with the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) also known as Basigin or extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), has been proposed as another host cell receptor that might be involved in SARSCoV- 2 cellular entry.[1] Any other host cell receptors that exist for SARS-CoV-2 is not known at present. SARS-CoV-2 shares high similarity with SARS-CoV is well known. For SARS-CoV, it has been already shown that along with the ACE2 receptor in the host cell, surface vimentin by its association with ACE2 acts as a co-receptor for SARS-CoV cellular entry.[2] For SARS-CoV-2 also surface vimentin might act as co-receptor. Drugs targeting vimentin has been proposed as a treatment for COVID-19. [3] It is interesting to note that vimentin is involved in beta adrenergic receptor activation and regulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.[4] Beta adrenergic receptor via vimentin may be associated with the ACE2 receptor and involved in SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry. Read more...
, Mya Pwint Phyu, Sanda Kyaw
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 107-111; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.26

Abstract:
Background and Aim: Myanmar is one of the countries in production of agricultural plant commodities. Nowadays, pesticides are commonly used to increase agricultural production and productivity. Organophosphate pesticides exposure can cause many physiological changes within the body including impaired respiratory function. Therefore, the present study aimed to find out the relationship between the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity, serum interleukin-6 level and respiratory functions such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), ratio of forced expiratory volume in first second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and average forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75%) among agricultural workers who exposed to organophosphate pesticides and non-exposed control subjects. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional, comparative study was done in agricultural workers (n = 40) who live in A-lal-chaung village, Magway Township and age/BMI matched non-exposed subjects (n = 40) who live in Yan-Way Quarter, Magway Township. All the participants were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria by simple random sampling method. Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AchE) enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometric method and serum interleukin-6 levels were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Respiratory function parameters were measured by Spirobank II spirometer. Results: The mean erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was significantly lower in exposed group than that of non-exposed group (3354.43±589.81 U/L vs 4515.83±759.33 U/L; p<0.001). The percentage of predicted value of respiratory function parameters of exposed group were significantly lower than that of non-exposed group (FEV1: 72.13±4.40 vs 75.95±4.05; FVC: 66.90±4.40 vs 70.60±4.20; FEV1/FVC: 110.35±2.69 vs 111.32±1.33; PEF: 5.52±8.66 vs 79.40±5.09) (p<0.05). There were significant positive correlation between erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity and respiratory function parameters in all groups (n=80) (FEV1: r=0.425, p<0.001; FVC: r=0.301, p<0.05 and PEF: r=0.316, p<0.05). There were significant negative correlation between erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity and serum IL-6 level (r= -0.374, n= 80, p<0.05). Serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in exposed group than non-exposed group (34.77±3.3 pg/mL vs 28.75±2.0 pg/mL; p <0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 level and respiratory function parameters in all group (n=80) such as FEV1 (r= 0.300, p<0.05) and FVC (r= 0.331, p<0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that agricultural workers who exposed to organophosphate pesticides have higher serum IL-6 level and lower respiratory functions than that of non-exposed subjects. The present findings highlighted that there has an impact of chronic low dose OP exposure on respiratory health and there has a role of IL-6 in respiratory function decline.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 126-126; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.31

Abstract:
Dear Sir, The central body temperature has been detected in the hypothalamus because it receives its blood from the internal carotid artery; these areas are near to some major arteries like internal carotid, pulmonary artery. Tympanic membrane and esophagus can show central temperature better than other sites (rectum and colon) that are far from carotid. It has been shown that rectal temperature cannot be a reliable site for central temperature detection.[1,2] Read more.....
Rajani Bala Jasrotia, , Arvind Kanchan, Nitin Ashok John
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, Volume 7, pp 122-124; doi:10.5530/ijcep.2020.7.3.29

Abstract:
Heart rate variability (HRV) is sensitive to the changes of the autonomic activity and decreases in looming morbidity of cardiovascular system due to autonomic dysfunction. In heart block or atrial flutter or atrial tachycardia, HRV with high power reported with cluster pattern on Poincaré plot which could be due to low voltage QRS complex beats which were not picked by software for HRV analysis. Picking those beats using custom settings included the beats and reported true HRV of the patient reflecting autonomic activity.
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