#### Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica

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ISSN / EISSN : 0044-605X / 1751-0147
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Published: 13 October 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00605-y

Abstract:
Background To prevent re-emergence of wildlife-mediated rabies in Finland, oral rabies vaccine baits are distributed every year during autumn in southern Finland in a vaccination zone bordering Russia. Recently, Finland introduced a 3rd generation oral rabies virus vaccine bait. By analysing bait uptake and seroconversion in red foxes and raccoon dogs, the field efficacy of this new vaccine strain, SPBN GASGAS, was compared with the originally used highly efficacious 1st generation vaccine SAD B19. Results Overall, 74.6% and 53.9% of the animals submitted from the vaccination area after the campaigns (2017–2019) tested positive for the presence of the bait marker and anti-rabiesvirus antibodies, respectively. No significant difference was observed between years, species and vaccine. Conclusions The field performance of the highly attenuated 3rd generation oral rabies vaccine, SPBN GASGAS, in terms of bait uptake and seroconversion was similar to the 1st generation vaccine, SAD B19, and therefore offers a suitable alternative.
Seppo Saari, Kirsti Schildt, , Ulla Andersin, Antti Sukura
Published: 10 October 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00604-z

Abstract:
Background Caryospora bigenetica is an intracellular protozoan parasite, which in its primary hosts, typically snakes, is found it the intestine. Extraintestinal multiplication with the development of tissue cysts takes place in secondary hosts, which are normally prey for snakes. Natural infection in domestic animals has been reported only in dogs; this is the first report of C. bigenetica infection in a cat. Case presentation A stray kitten developed nodular dermatitis after being adopted by a shelter. Firm swelling, nodules, and crusts were present mainly on the nasal bridge, eyelids, and pinnae. Histopathology and cytology revealed severe pyogranulomatous inflammation with abundant intracellular organisms suggestive of apicomplexan protozoa. Treatment with clindamycin 13 mg/kg twice daily was initiated, but the cat was euthanized because of the worsening condition. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed parasite’s apicomplexan origin postmortem, and the causative agent was identified as C. bigenetica by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Conclusions We present the first case of a naturally occurring infection with C. bigenetica in a cat. Although the definitive etiological diagnosis relied on molecular identification, the abundance of unsporulated oocysts and caryocysts and the parasite's effective reproduction within macrophages and in several other cell types might have enabled differentiation from other protozoal infections and allowed a presumptive diagnosis through cytology and histopathology.
, Christina Widmer, Karl Nuss, Monika Hilbe, Christian Gerspach
Published: 25 September 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00601-2

Abstract:
Background Type-4 abomasal ulcers (U4) are perforated ulcers causing diffuse peritonitis. This retrospective study describes the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in 38 calves with U4. The medical records of 38 calves aged three days to 20 weeks with U4 were scrutinised. Results The most common clinical findings were poor general health (95%), reduced skin elasticity (95%), rumen atony (91%), abdominal guarding (76%) and positive percussion auscultation and/or swinging auscultation on the right side of the abdomen (75%). The most frequent laboratory findings were increased numbers of segmented neutrophils (87%), eosinopenia (87%), acidosis (84%), azotaemia (79%) and hyponatraemia (79%). The most frequent abdominal ultrasonographic findings were intestinal atony (68%), fluid (67%) and fibrin deposits (58%) in the abdomen. Thirty-five calves were euthanased and three calves died spontaneously. All calves underwent pathological examination. Diffuse peritonitis caused by a transmural abomasal ulcer was the principal diagnosis in all calves. Conclusions Perforated abomasal ulcers cause severe illness, and a thorough clinical examination combined with ultrasonographic abdominal examination should lead to a tentative diagnosis.
Published: 23 September 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00603-0

Abstract:
Background Cardiac auscultation is an important screening test at the first health examination of puppies because most clinically relevant congenital cardiac anomalies cause a loud murmur from birth. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the age at which dogs with suspected congenital cardiac anomalies were referred to a veterinary cardiology specialist for murmur investigation. A secondary aim was to establish the time interval between the visit to the cardiologist and the first available murmur documentation. The digital archive of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched for dogs with congenital cardiac anomalies and puppies with innocent murmurs during a 5-year period. Dogs had to be referred because of a murmur, and they had to undergo physical examination and echocardiography by a veterinary cardiology specialist. The health certificate section of the pet passport, and the medical records from the referring veterinarian, were reviewed to identify the date when the murmur was first documented. Results Of the 271 included dogs, 94% had a congenital cardiac anomaly and 6% had an innocent murmur. The dogs’ median age was 190 days when they were examined by the cardiologist. Only 10% of the dogs were referred by the breeder’s veterinarian, while 90% of the dogs were referred by the new owner’s veterinarian. The median age of the first available murmur documentation by a first opinion veterinary practitioner was 95 days. Conclusions Only 10% of the puppies in the present study were referred to a veterinary cardiology specialist for murmur investigation before they were sold to a new owner. Referral prior to re-homing would have been feasible if the murmur had been detected and documented by the breeder’s veterinarian, if referral was offered by the breeder’s veterinarian and the referral was accepted by the breeder.
Correction
, Christian Lydersen, Kit Maureen Kovacs, Espen Rafter, Stein Istre Thoresen
Published: 8 September 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00602-1

Alexandra Vilén, Bo Nilson, Ann-Cathrine Petersson, Mariana Cigut, Christel Nielsen, Henriette Ström
Published: 30 August 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00599-7

Abstract:
Background Septic arthritis (SA) is a serious condition in dogs that requires a prompt diagnosis and treatment to minimize long-term joint pathology. Although bacterial detection in synovial fluid (SF) through culture or cytology is often performed to confirm diagnosis, the sensitivity of these tests is low. The need for a reliable diagnostic tool to confirm the presence of bacteria in SF in humans has led to the increased use of 16S rRNA (i.e., ribosomal RNA) gene sequencing by polymerase chain reaction (16S rRNA PCR). The aim of this prospective clinical study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of 16S rRNA PCR with bacterial culture on blood agar plates after pre-incubation of SF in paediatric blood bacterial culture bottles to identify bacteria in dogs with clinical signs of SA and to investigate the usefulness of these methods as diagnostic tools. Results Ten dogs with clinical signs of SA, nine with osteoarthritis (OA, control group) and nine with clinical signs of immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA, second control group) were examined. Bacterial culture was positive in seven of 10 dogs with clinical SA, of which only two were positive by 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of 16S rRNA PCR and bacterial culture analysis for dogs with clinical SA were 20% and 70%, respectively. All SF samples collected from control group (n = 9) and second control group (n = 14) animals were negative on culture, and 16S rRNA PCR rendered a specificity of 100%. Conclusions Our study showed a lower sensitivity of 16S rRNA PCR than bacterial culture for dogs with clinical SA. Our findings suggest that there is currently no advantage in using 16S rRNA PCR as a diagnostic tool for dogs with clinical SA. Furthermore, our study indicates that pre-incubation in paediatric blood bacterial culture bottles before bacterial cultivation on blood agar plates might enhance bacterial culture sensitivity compared to other culture methods.
Philip Spåre, Ingrid Ljungvall, Karl Ljungvall,
Published: 30 August 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00600-3

Abstract:
Background Mastectomy is the most common procedure for treatment of mammary tumours. Dogs undergoing mastectomy have a risk of developing surgical site infections (SSI) and other postoperative complications. However, potential risk factors associated with such complications have been sparsely investigated. Thus, the objective of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of, and identify risk factors for, SSI and non-SSI postoperative complications after mastectomy performed without perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in privately owned otherwise clinically healthy dogs. Results Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for 135 client-owned female dogs, 10–35 kg in weight and three to 10 years of age, which had undergone mastectomy due to mammary tumours at three referral animal hospitals in Sweden over a 3-year period. Twelve (8.9%) dogs developed SSI, and 21 dogs (17.1%) dogs suffered a non-SSI postoperative complication. The incidence of SSI and all complications (SSI and non-SSI) were higher in dogs that had two to three (SSI: P = 0.036 and all complications: P = 0.0039) and four to five (SSI and all complications: P = 0.038) mammary glands excised, compared to dogs that had one mammary gland excised. The incidence of SSI was 1.7% (n = 1/60) in dogs that had one gland removed. The incidence of non-SSI postoperative complications was higher in dogs with a higher body weight (P = 0.02). Conclusions The incidence of SSI was lower than or similar to previously reported incidences of SSI in dog populations that have undergone tumour excisional surgery, despite the fact that dogs in the present study had not received perioperative antibiotics. Dogs that had two or more glands excised had an increased risk of developing SSI and non-SSI complications compared to dogs that had one gland excised. Furthermore, higher BW was associated with an increased risk of non-SSI complications. Results from the study indicate that routine use of perioperative antibiotics in tumour excisional surgery can be questioned, at least in single gland mastectomy in otherwise clinically healthy dogs.
Yvonne Alnefelt, Sofie Van Meervenne, Katarina Varjonen, Anna Tidholm, Cecilia Rohdin
Published: 26 August 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00597-9

Abstract:
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is caused by the neurotropic tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). In dogs, this virus may affect the central nervous system (CNS), causing meningoencephalitis, meningomyelitis, radiculitis or any combination of these. Diagnosis of TBE relies on a combination of clinical signs of CNS disease and laboratory findings, including CSF pleocytosis and serum TBEV antibody titers. Exposure to TBEV does not necessarily cause clinical disease, and seroprevalence has been reported as high as 40% in endemic areas. This causes concerns of over-diagnosing TBE in dogs with CNS disease. By examining TBEV antibodies in dogs with and without neurological disease in a TBEV endemic area, this study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of TBEV antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs. Eighty-nine dogs were included in the study, 56 with neurological disease and 33 neurologically normal control dogs. A positive TBEV CSF and serum IgG antibody titer (> 126 U/mL) was found in 3/89 dogs (3.4%). A positive serum TBEV antibody titer was found in 11 of the 89 dogs (12.4%). None of the control dogs showed a positive CSF antibody titer, whilst two showed positive serum concentrations. A positive CSF IgG antibody titer supports a clinical diagnosis of TBE in patients with acute onset of CNS disease and may help reduce the risk of over-diagnosis.
Correction
, Débora Gouveia, Ana Cardoso, Óscar Gamboa, Darryl Millis, António Ferreira
Published: 24 August 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00594-y

Almut Immekeppel, Stefan Rupp, Stanislas Demierre, Kai Rentmeister, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg, Julia Goessmann, Monty Siddartha Bali, Fenella Schmidli-Davies, Franck Forterre
Published: 23 August 2021
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Volume 63, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-021-00596-w

Abstract:
Background Intervertebral disc extrusions in the thoracolumbar region are a common spinal neurologic disorder in dogs and usually considered a neurological emergency. Several factors, like timing of surgery, have previously been analysed in order to determine the effect on outcome and time of recovery. Most studies have investigated one defined population of dogs and the influence of a single factor on the overall outcome. In this retrospective study, a large cohort of dogs and the influence of one or combinations of several factors on outcome and time of recovery were analysed. Results The bivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the following variables and the time of recovery: the time span between the onset of clinical signs and surgery (Cramers Phi $$\varphi^{\prime}$$ φ ′ = 0.14; P = 0.003), the grade of severity ( $$\varphi^{\prime}$$ φ ′ = 0.23; P < 0.001) and the implementation of physical rehabilitation ( $$\varphi^{\prime}$$ φ ′ = 0.2; P < 0.001). However, the analysis of a multivariable regression model demonstrated that a significant correlation only exists between the time span between the onset of clinical signs and surgery and the overall outcome (P = 0.007), as well as between the grade of severity and the time of recovery (P < 0.001). The percentage of dogs with lacking deep pain perception (DPP) that had to be euthanised due to their neurological condition, decreased from 20.0 to 2.9% when physical rehabilitation was implemented. Additionally, the proportion of dogs (same group) that improved to reach an ambulatory status increased from 80.0 to 91.4%. Conclusion The results of the bivariate analysis demonstrated several correlations between some variables and overall outcome or time of recovery, whereas the multivariable regression model demonstrated only two associations. The time span between the onset of clinical signs and surgery was significantly associated with the overall outcome. We therefore suggest that a surgical intervention should be performed without unreasonable delay. Due to the correlation between the grade of severity and time of recovery, owners of dogs with more severe neurological deficits prior to surgery should be informed about the presumably prolonged time of recovery.