Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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EISSN : 2457-0745
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 175
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, S. I. Ghasi, E. C. Ogbuagu, M. N. Ezenwaeze, Akpotu E. Ajirioghene
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330168

Abstract:
This study was performed to investigate the effects of aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extract on hepatic enzyme levels of alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Forty (48) male wistar rats were divided into six groups consisting of eight animals each. Diabetes mellitus was induced using intraperitoneal administration 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and treatment was carried out for a period of 28 days. The first group served as the normal control and received only feed and water ad libitum. In Group 2 were diabetic rats without treatment with extracts. Group 3: diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extract. Group 4: diabetic rats treated with 400mg/kg aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extract. Group 5: diabetic rats treated with 600mg/kg ethanol extract of aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extract. While Group 6 was diabetic rats treated with 0.5mg/kg Glibenclamide. The liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly (p < 0.05) changed in rats treated with Alloxan (150mg/kg b.w.) while treatment with the respective dosages of extracts significantly changed the levels of these parameters to normal. The results obtained indicate that the different doses of aqueous Imperata cylindrica root extracts were beneficial in mending damages to the liver caused by Alloxan monohydrate in the male wistar rats.
, D. T. Oloruntoba, J. O. Borode
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 24-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330167

Abstract:
API5L Steel is known as one of the most useful materials on earth which is also subject to corrosion in certain environments. Many methods have been used to minimize its corrosion, but the use of inhibitors is widely accepted. The use of green inhibitors has gained wide usage because of their environmental friendliness. The theoretical investigations of isoniazid as corrosion inhibitor was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), whereas theoretically, quantum chemical parameters and molecular dynamic simulations of the inhibitor were studied. The analyses of the experimental results showed that the expired drug (isoniazid) decreased the corrosion rate of API5L steel in a 0.5M H2SO4 medium. The inhibition efficiency decreased with a decrease in inhibitor concentration. FTIR results showed that the inhibition mechanism is physical through the functional groups present in the expired drug. Relying on quantum chemical parameters and molecular dynamic simulations results, the adsorption/binding strength of the concerned inhibitor molecule on API5L steel surface follows a good order. The computed adsorption/binding energy values (Eads) for the various isolated concentrations from the inhibitor indicate the adsorption process to be non-covalent (physiosorption) which is in good agreement with the literature.
, Tochi I. Cookey, Nnenna Frank-Peterside
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330164

Abstract:
Background: Hepatitis C affects 5–15% of the 38 million people living with HIV globally. Africa which has the second highest prevalence of HIV/HCV co-infection following Asia. This alarming statistics has made it crucial that studies be done to also ascertain the HIV/HCV co-infection prevalence in the country and host factors which may influence the co-infection. Objective: Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of HCV infection amongst the HIV population of Rivers state, Nigeria. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), in Rivers State, Nigeria, from February 2017 to September 2019. Methods: In this study, 226 HIV-infected individuals were recruited comprising 105 males and 121 females. These subjects were screened for the presence of HIV and HCV using ELISA and was performed according to the kit manufacturer’s stipulations. The demographic characteristics of the participants were obtained using a questionnaire designed for the study. Results: The presence of antibodies to HIV-1 reconfirmed the HIV status in all the study subject. A seroprevalence rate of 0.0% was observed for HIV/HCV infection. The ratio of females to males was found to be 1.2:1. The ages of the study population ranged from 16 to 70 years with a median age of 42.5 years. A large number (30.5%, n = 69) of the participants were within the age group 40 – 49 years, followed by those within 30 – 39 years (26.1%, n= 59), 50 – 59 years (17.3%, n = 39) and >59 years (13.7%, n = 31). Participants that were within younger age groups had less population; 20 – 29 years (9.7%, n = 22), with those that are <20 years having the least population (2.7%, n = 6). Many (49.1%, n = 111) of the study participants were found to be married. About 46.5% (n = 105) of them were single, while a few (4%, n = 10) were widowed. Conclusion: No coinfection of HIV/HCV was found, in spite of Nigeria being endemic for HCV. However, despite this zero rate of HIV/HCV coinfection, routine screening for HCV markers should be carried out to reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals.
, Elejeje O. Okonta, Christopher O. Ezugwu, Uchenna E. Odoh
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 17-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330165

Abstract:
Aim: Fadogia cienkowskii Scheinf has been used in ethno medicine for the treatment of pyrexia, convulsion in children, inflammation and malaria. The aim of this work is to ascertain the presence of some phytochemicals in the leaf of Fadogia cienkowskii Scheinf and to investigate the antioxidant property of the methanol leaf extract of the plant. Study Design: This work was designed to investigate the presence of some phytochemicals in the plant and to further evaluate the antioxidant property of the methanol leaf extract of the plant using three models. Methodology: The pulverized leaves (1 kg) was extracted with 5.0 L of 95% methanol employing cold maceration technique. The extract obtained was dried using rotatory evaporator. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical evaluations were carried out using standard methods. Antioxidant capacity was investigated using 2,2 diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power and total antioxidant capacity models. Results: The percentage yield of extract is 20%. Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, alkaloids and steroids were present in the extract. Total phenol concentration was 0.55+ 0.13 ug/ml. The amount of flavonoid was 3.28+0.01 g by gravimetry with sample weight of 5+0.02 gm. The antioxidant activity of the plant methanol leaf extract showed maximal effect as demonstrated by its EC 50 of 3.811+0.03 ug/ml compared with the ascorbic acid standard 4.989+0.02 ug/ml using DPPH method. This result was validated by the FRAP and TAC models. Conclusion: The presence of polyphenolic biomolecular compounds in the extract confirms the use of the plant in Ethnomedicine.
Pretty Tonubari Kpalap, Ebirien-Agana Samuel Bartimaeus,
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i330163

Abstract:
Background: Several dentifrices are marketed and used by individuals for the purposes of cleaning and maintaining the aesthetic and health of the teeth, promote oral hygiene and aid in removal of dental plaque and food materials from the teeth. This study was thus designed to assess the pH and fluoride concentrations in selected dentifrices and the possible health risks associated with daily fluoride intake of these selected dentifrices used in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This study estimated the pH and fluoride concentration of the different dentifrices by the pH meter and Ion Selective Electrode method. In addition, the Daily fluoride intake (DFI), Chronic daily intake (CDI) and Hazard quotient (HQ) for the different dentifrices to assess the risk of fluoride intake was calculated. Results: From the result of this study, it was noticed that only one dentifrice, chewing stick (Massularia acuminate) has a pH (6.8) that conform to the recommended pH range (6.0-7.5) by NAFDAC while the other dentifrices have a pH value (7.6-10.1) that was higher than the pH range recommended by NAFDAC. For the fluoride concentration, it was observed that some of the dentifrices like Dr. Agnes Nwanmma dental powder (440 ppm), Dr. White dental powder (480 ppm) and Eradental powder (760 ppm) have low fluoride concentration when compared with the fluoride standard concentration stipulated by SON/ NAFDAC (825-1250 ppm) while the other dentifrices showed fluoride concentration within the range stipulated by stipulated by SON/ NAFDAC but they were below the fluoride concentrations stated on their different labels. The DFI of the dentifrices was within the range (53.86-131.58 mg/day), CDI (0.744-1.8275 mg/kg/day and the HQ (12.27-30.46). Conclusion: Although the fluoride concentrations of the dentifrices were within the normal range as stipulated by NAFDAC and SON, the observation of HQ > 1 in all the dentifrices implied that dentifrices commonly used in Nigeria may pose health risk to the consumers.
, Isaac Joel Abasi
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 42-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i230162

Abstract:
Background:Perineal tear is a very common complication of vaginal delivery, and it is often mild. However, when severe, it could result in torrential life threatening hemorrhage and anal sphincter injury, with fecal incontinence. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the predictors of severe perineal tear (3rd and 4th degree tear), using mild perineal tear (1st and 2nd degree) as control. It would also determine the rate of perineal tear, and the maternal and fetal demographic risk factor associated with it. Materials and Methods: This was an analytic observational study of 186 women who had perineal tear during vaginal delivery. Out of these, 19 women had severe (3rd and 4th degree) perineal tear, also known as obstetrics anal sphincter injury (OASI). This was compared to 167 women who had mild perineal tear (1st and 2nd degree) during the study period. Maternal demographic information retrieved was maternal age, parity, educational level, and occupation. Obstetrics factors were booking status, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, rank of the accoucheur (nurse or doctor), and degree of perineal tear. Fetal demographic data was birth weight and fetal sex. Categorical variables were compared with odds ratio, difference in mean was compared with student’s t-test, and the degree of association for quantitative variables was determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Predictor variables were determined using simple logistic regression, and multivariate analysis. Confidence interval was set at 95%, and statistical significance was set at p value of < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of OASI (3rd and 4th degree perineal tear) in Yenagoa was 1.1%. The significant risk factors were women of younger age, odds ratio = 1.04(0.37, 2.87) with p = 0.04, low parity, odds ratio = 0.20(0.07, 0.55) with p = 0.008, low educational background, odd ratio = 18.9(5.92, 60.81), and birth weight ≥ 4kg, odds ratio = 0.30[0.09, 1.06] with p = 0.04. Using simple liner regression, the most significant predictors for severe perineal tear were mode delivery (r2 = 65.5%), and educational level (r2 = 30.0%). However, on stepwise multivariate analysis, these two factors accounted for 68.5%. Conclusion: The rate of severe perineal tear is relatively low in Yenagoa, Nigeria, and comparable to what obtains in many countries. The most significant predictors were mode of delivery and educational level. Careful selection of the mode of delivery, especially instrumental vaginal deliveries, and women empowerment could minimize the rate in our environment.
, Hicham Elhorr, Amine Ousaid, Ibrahim Sbai El Otmani, Youssef Khayati
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 36-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i230161

Abstract:
Despite the fact that the tablets are the most widely used dosage form, they are not suitable for young children and patients with swallowing difficulties, especially the elderly. Orodispersible films (ODFs) dissolve rapidly in the mouth and deliver an accurate amount of the active ingredient, which makes them an easy-to-use dosage form that can improve drug acceptability and, therefore, treatment adherence. The findings of the 4 studies that we discussed in this review prove that ODFs have experimentally-proven good acceptability in all age groups and that they are clinically superior to tablets and syrups in terms of acceptability. Therefore, despite some limitations, ODFs are still an innovative and patient-centered dosage form that can contribute to improving drug acceptability and treatment adherence particularly in children and elderly patients. Pharmaceutical companies should focus on developing more ODF-based drugs and also other innovative dosage forms that can make the drug-taking experience even-easier.
, Ummul Baneen, Nivedita
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 32-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i230160

Abstract:
The pandemic of COVID -19 is a healthcare emergency of International concern. It originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and was declared as pandemic by WHO on 12 March 2020. Since then it is raging relentlessly across the world with staggering more than 60 lakh cases in India currently. This has put a tremendous strain on already frail and overburdened Indian healthcare system and aggravated concern in the accessibility to healthcare by common mass due to prevailing lockdown conditions. This has sparkled to re-think and renew the policy on healthcare and focus on relevance, reach and utilize the potential of telemedicine services for the delivery of healthcare to community. This term telemedicine has been in use since 1970s but became fully operational globally in early 2000. Now about 20 years later we find a revolutionary change in the focus of health services delivery towards community healthcare and wellbeing In this article we aim to analyze the difficulties and hurdles faced by non COVID patients and challenges in front of the government to dispense basic healthcare to those in need. We need to tap all our resources particularly ICT for healthcare delivery and use this adversity of COVID 19 pandemic as an opportunity to build on our capacity and expertise in the area of Telemedicine for the betterment of community healthcare.
Nkemakolam Nwachukwu, , Azuka Ijoma Alumona
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 13-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i230159

Abstract:
Aim: The binding properties of a polymer obtained from modification of Triticum aestivum (TA) starch in metronidazole tablets formulation were evaluated. Study Design: Experimental design. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria from January to July, 2018. Methods: TA seeds were steeped for 72 h, wet milled and the native Triticum aestivum starch (NTS) extracted. NTS (1kg) was oxidized by slurring in 4 L of 3.50% w/v sodium hypochlorite, washed to neutral pH with 95% v/v ethanol (MTS). MTS was dried at 60°C for 3 h, milled and classified (250 μm). The starches were characterized using standard methods and applied as binders at 1, 2 and 3% w/w in formulating metronidazole tablets using wet granulation. Methylcellulose and gelatin at similar concentrations were used as standards. Results: The granules and tablets were evaluated using standard methods. NTS and MTS had similar properties with starch. The modification improved the densities, hydration capacity and flow properties of MTS. The granules flowed and compressed well. The tablets had minimal weight variation, hardness (≥ 4 kgF), friability (<1%) and disintegration (<15 min). Metronidazole release (≥ 85%) within 60 min existed in all the batches except batches containing 1% methylcellulose and 3% gelatine. Conclusion: The results met with United States Pharmacopoeia specifications for oral uncoated metronidazole tablets. MTS performed better than NTS and compared well with methylcellulose and gelatin as binder in metronidazole tablet formulation.
, Mohanad Saleh, Deema Sider, Reem Al Natsheh, Raghad Dweik
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2021/v10i230158

Abstract:
Background: At the junction between obesity, metabolic syndrome and liver failure, lies Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recent studies elaborated on role of metformin in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This observation has not been studied at a global scale, neither it was investigated in different ethnical groups. Objectives: We aim at determining the risk factors associated with prognosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among a cohort of patients in Southern West Bank, Palestine. Methods: A retrospective cohort study involving 300 NAFLD patients who visited the internal medicine department at Hebron Governmental Hospital from October 2017 till September 2018. Two hundred and three patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, were included in this study. Lab test results within the past 6 months, comorbidity and medication history were collected from patients` profiles. Data was analyzed using SPSS V20. Liver Fibrosis score was determined by using non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score calculator. Results: Two hundred and three non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients (58.6% females), 54.78 (±12.27) years old were included in the study. Almost 65.5% of these patients have BMI >30 Kg/m2. It was found that, 62.25% of the 58 diabetic patients in this study had liver fibrosis score > 0.676 comparing to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients who are non-diabetic. There was a significant relationship between diabetes and fibrosis score, α=0.000. There was also a significant relationship between hyperlipidemia and fibrosis score of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients, α=0.023. We found a significant relationship between fibrosis score and hypertension, α=0.000. In the same context, there was a significant relationship between NAFLD patients who were on statin therapy and those who were not using statin therapy, α= 0.015. Metformin was not associated with significant relationship between users and non-users non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and statin use were associated with NAFLD prognosis.
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