International Journal Bioautomation

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ISSN / EISSN : 1314-1902 / 1314-2321
Total articles ≅ 132
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Irina Angelova, Galina Yotova, Veronika Mihaylova, Tony Venelinov
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 241-254; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000833

Abstract:
Elevated concentrations of aluminium have been found at the outlets of the Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) of Sofia city, Bulgaria and in separate sampling points in the water supply network. Cluster analysis is performed for multivariate data interpretation of the distribution of aluminium (Al) concentrations during 2019 at 19 water sampling points (2 DWTPs outlets and 17 points within the city water supply system). Although the concentration of aluminium in the outlet of the treatment plants differ significantly, both of them fall into the same cluster, as the concentrations during the year change in the same manner. The formed cluster of both the treatment plants and most of the studied sampling points indicate the mixed origin of the purified water and proves that the concentration of Al in tap water is dominated by the qualities and quantities from the different sources of the supplied water, rather than by the secondary processes in the network for areas with predominant steel and polyethylene pipes. A distinct exception are the areas with old asbestos cement pipelines where potential release of the metal from the cement affects the Al distribution in the water supply system.
Paulchamy Chellapandi, Jayachandrabal Balachandramohan
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 297-310; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000553

Abstract:
The ability to design efficient enzymes for a broad class of different reactions would be of tremendous practical interest in both science and industry. Computer-assisted designing is a novel approach to generating industrial enzymes for biotechnological applications. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to design an enzyme construct with diverse substrate-binding specificity based on the evolutionary conservation of archaeal vanadium-dependent phosphatases. Materials and methods: A rational 3D structural model of enzyme construct was developed from conserved sequence scratch encompassing a vanadium-binding site and functional domain. Substrate-binding specificity of the designed enzyme was computed with different myo-inositol polyphosphate analogous by a molecular docking program. Results: A designed enzyme has shown more substrate-binding specificity with 1D-myo-inositol 3, 4, 5, 6-tetrakisphosphate. Its catalytic function closely resembled myo-inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase and multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatases. Moreover, the enzyme construct was energetically stable with a low degree of conformational changes upon substrate-binding. Conclusion: Substrate specificity and catalytic competence of designed enzymes were computationally evaluated for further biotechnological applications.
Svetozar Stoichev, Avgustina Danailova, Ivan Iliev, Inna Sulikovska, Velichka Strijkova, Kirilka Mladenova, Tonya Andreeva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 225-240; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000843

Abstract:
The present study is focused on the construction and characterization of the morphology and biocompatibility of polysaccharide multilayered microcapsules (PMC) composed of natural polyelectrolytes (chitosan/alginate/hyaluronic acid), and on the effect of graphene oxide (GO) incorporation in the polymer matrix. The insertion of GO in the polymer matrix is an innovative and still evolving strategy used to modify the properties of the polyelectrolyte microcapsules. We have fabricated a number of hybrid GO-polysaccharide multilayered capsules by layer-by-layer assembling technique onto a CaCO3 core, followed by core decomposition in mild conditions. Hybrid microcapsules with different composition were constructed by varying the number or localization of the incorporated GO-layers. It was found that the thickness of the hybrid microcapsules, evaluated by atomic force microscopy, decreases after incorporation of GO nanosheets in the polymer matrix. Analysis of the viability and proliferation of fibroblasts after incubation with hybrid PMC revealed pronounced concentration-dependent cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect. Based on the results, we can conclude that the hybrid multilayered microcapsules made of natural polysaccharides and graphene oxide could be used for biomedical applications.
Muhamad H. N. Aziz, Radostin D. Simitev
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 255-272; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000832

Abstract:
Contemporary realistic mathematical models of single-cell cardiac electrical excitation are immensely detailed. Model complexity leads to parameter uncertainty, high computational cost and barriers to mechanistic understanding. There is a need for reduced models that are conceptually and mathematically simple but physiologically accurate. To this end, we consider an archetypal model of single-cell cardiac excitation that replicates the phase-space geometry of detailed cardiac models, but at the same time has a simple piecewise-linear form and a relatively low-dimensional configuration space. In order to make this archetypal model practically applicable, we develop and report a robust method for estimation of its parameter values from the morphology of single-stimulus action potentials derived from detailed ionic current models and from experimental myocyte measurements. The procedure is applied to five significant test cases and an excellent agreement with target biomarkers is achieved. Action potential duration restitution curves are also computed and compared to those of the target test models and data, demonstrating conservation of dynamical pacing behaviour by the fine-tuned archetypal model. An archetypal model that accurately reproduces a variety of wet-lab and synthetic electrophysiology data offers a number of specific advantages such as computational efficiency, as also demonstrated in the study. Open-source numerical code of the models and methods used is provided.
Ram Sewak Singh, Demissie Jobir Gelmecha, Satyasis Mishra, Gemechu Dengia, Devendra Kumar Sinha
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 273-296; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000786

Abstract:
In this research paper, authors present an automated system in this paper that integrates a ranking technique with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) and a 1-Norm Bidirectional Extreme Learning Machine (1-NBELM) to reliably classify normal and coronary artery disease groups. Twenty chaotic and non-linear attributes were hauling out from the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) signal to detect coronary artery disease groups. The HRV data for this study derived from a typical database of Normal Old (ELY), Young (YNG), and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) people. Fisher, Wilcoxon and Bhattacharya were used to compute the rankings of attributes. GDA then turned the ranking features into a new feature. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel was used to transfer original features to a high-dimensional feature space in GDA and PCA, and then it was deployed to 1-NBELM, which utilized the sigmoidal or multiquadric non-linear activation. Numerical experiments were performed on the combination of database sets as Young-ELY, Healthy-CAD, and Healthy ELY-CAD subjects. The numerical results show that ROC with GDA and 1-NBELM approach achieved an accuracy of 98.12±0.14, 96.21±0.12 and 99.87±0.28 for Young-CAD, Young-ELY and Healthy ELY-CAD groups with the use of sigmoidal and multiquadric activation function. The Fisher with GDA and 1-NBELM and Bhattacharya with GDA and 1-Norm Extreme Learning Machine (1-NELM) approach achieved an accuracy of 99.98±0.21 for all databases.
Liyuan Huang, Jie Liu
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 213-224; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000885

Abstract:
Targeting 16 varieties of Camellia oleifera planted in different regions, this paper explores the influence of aluminum (Al) stress over several physiological indices, namely, root activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, proline content, and soluble sugar content and evaluates the overall Al tolerance of each variety. The purpose is to identify the difference between different C. oleifera varieties in physiological indices under Al stress, and to screen the varieties with relatively strong Al tolerance. The results show that: Al stress lowered the root activity and SOD activity, while enhancing MDA content, H2O2 content, proline content, soluble sugar content, and Al content. But the physiological indices of different C. oleifera varieties changed by vastly different amplitudes under Al stress. The variation amplitudes of root activity, MDA content, SOD activity, H2O2 content, proline content, soluble sugar content, and Al content were -47.06%-42.86%, 12.50%-133.33%,-8.33%%-26.28%, 11.11%-71.88%, 76.47%-420.00%, 4.97%-56.41%, and 23.43%-101.12%, respectively. Furthermore, the Al tolerance coefficients of the 16 C. oleifera varieties were analyzed comprehensively by membership functions. The results show that C. oleifera ‘Huajin’, C. oleifera ‘Huashuo’, and C. oleifera ‘Huaxin’ have relatively strong Al tolerance, while C. oleifera ‘Ganyou No.2’, C. oleifera ‘Ganxing No.48’, and C. oleifera ‘Ganzhou No.70’ have relatively weak Al tolerance.
Naoual Tchich, Abdel-Ilah Aziane, Souad Hammoutou, Mohamed Ouhssine, Mohamed El Yachioui, Abdelaziz Chaouch
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 93-108; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000727

Abstract:
Due to the composition and their impact on the environment, landfill leachate is a serious environmental and public health problem. Our physicochemical and microbiological study has shown that leachate is highly loaded with minerals including iron, Mg, Cd, etc.) and pathogenic microorganisms hence the need for effective and sustainable treatment. Our present study enters this preoccupation we have highlighted a biological process allowing the transformation of leachate by way of fermentation, being based on leaven having fermenting, acidifying and antimicrobial power. Microbiological analysis showed that almost all the pathogenic flora was removed showing the biological treatment efficacy. In addition, the stable product obtained after 15 days of fermentation was used as a base in a formula of a bio-fertilizer. Application trials in different crops (wheat, peas, corn, etc.) have shown satisfactory results.
Hamdia Murad Adem, Abel Worku Tessema, Gizeaddis Lamesgin Simegn
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 109-125; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000849

Abstract:
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease that affects a wide range of productive individuals worldwide. The common approach to diagnose PD is through clinical assessment of the patient, which is highly subjective and time consuming. Electromyography (EMG) can be taken as a cheap way of PD diagnosis. However, highly experienced experts are required to interpret the signals. The manual procedures are complex, time-consuming, and prone to error resulting in misdiagnosis. In this research, an automatic system for detection and classification of PD stages using EMG signals acquired from different upper limb movements is proposed. In addition, effective upper limb movement for the identification of PD has been investigated. The data required for training and testing the system was collected from flexor carpi radialis and biceps brachii muscles of 15 PD patients and 10 healthy control subjects at Jimma University Medical Center. The raw EMG signal was preprocessed and frequency and time-domain features were extracted. A multiclass support vector machine model was then trained for four-class classification (normal, early, moderate, and advanced PD levels). The performance of the system was evaluated using different performance evaluators and a promising result has been obtained. 90%, 91.7%, 95%, and 96.6% overall classification accuracies were obtained for elbow flexion by 90-degrees without load, elbow flexion by 90-degrees with load, touching the shoulder, and wrist pronation, respectively. A user-friendly interface has been also developed for ease of use of the automatic PD classification system.
Deyan G. Mavrov, Veselina Bureva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 5-18; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000880

Abstract:
The paper presents FireGrid, an application software program for performing two-dimensional fire spread simulation using Atanassov's Game Method for Modelling (GMM). The software implements a model of fire spread with one or more starting points of ignition onto a planar grid of square cells that represent an idealized terrain of flammable areas of vegetation, and inflammable areas of rocks and water basins. The applications allows also locating a fire's starting point(s) by subtracting the initial configuration from the final one and decrementing all affected and adjacent cells by one. In addition to the preliminary defining the pattern of fire spread, manual control of the spread is allowed during simulation by selecting the cells that are to burn on the next iteration.
Ivan Dotsinsky
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 83-92; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000848

Abstract:
The ECG signals acquisition is usually corrupted by presence of Power-Line Interference (PLI) induced by the electromagnetic field around us. Many methods for PLI suppression/elimination have been developed over the years. The easy to apply traditional notch filters suppress unacceptably the ECG spectrum around the rated PL frequencies of 50 or 60 Hz and their deviations, which are restricted by the standards within the range of ± 0.5 Hz. The changes are very slow but the current PL frequency has to be continuously checked to allow start and performance of adequate PLI suppression during any ECG recordings including the 24 hours Holter monitoring. According to the proposed approach, the corrupted ECG recording is bi-directional band-pass (BP) filtered. The resulting sinusoidal BP waves differ in amplitude from the PLI but their zero crossing points remain identical. The two out-sample distances located at both ends of each current sinusoidal curve are calculated and aided to the inter-sample distances. The obtained fractal wave period is converted into current PL frequency and used for bi-directional notch filtration with narrow stop-band. The results obtained demonstrate a very successful PLI suppression in ECG signals. The errors committed are within a few μV, except for the edges of the recordings due to the transition processes.
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