Journal of Modern Physics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2153-1196 / 2153-120X
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 2,161
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

Mingxiang Gui, Jing Huang
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 509-517; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.134033

Abstract:
Based on the Harmonitor theory of field in PCFs in which the second order differential to the transmission distance is included, and by the Darboux solution, the dispersion effect on the field is re-discussed. The results can be used in the dispersion parameter design of photonics crystal fibers. The field will expand and split faster than that in common fibers so that (as the description of Harmonitor theory) the higher-order dispersion should be taken into account. The high-order dispersion can also induce pulse compression while its pre-order dispersion values are zeroes. The dispersion coefficient changes with distance.
M. Bashahu, D. Ngendabanyikwa, P. Nyandwi
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 285-300; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.133020

Abstract:
Several parameters of a commercial Si-based Schottky barrier diode (SBD) with unknown metal material and semiconductor-type have been investigated in this work from dark forward and reverse I-V characteristics in the temperature (T) range of [274.5 K - 366.5 K]. Those parameters include the reverse saturation current (Is), the ideality factor (n), the series and the shunt resistances (Rs and Rsh), the effective and the zero bias barrier heights (ΦB and ΦB0), the product of the electrical active area (A) and the effective Richardson constant (A**), the built-in potential (Vbi), together with the semiconductor doping concentration (NA or ND). Some of them have been extracted by using two or three different methods. The main features of each approach have been clearly stated. From one parameter to another, results have been discussed in terms of structure performance, comparison on one another when extracted from different methods, accordance or discordance with data from other works, and parameter’s temperature or voltage dependence. A comparison of results on ΦB, ΦB0, n and NA or ND parameters with some available data in literature for the same parameters, has especially led to clear propositions on the identity of the analyzed SBD’s metal and semiconductor-type.
Hamidreza Simchi
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 166-178; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.132013

Abstract:
In causal set theory, there are three ambiguous concepts that this article tries to provide a solution to resolve these ambiguities. These three ambiguities in Planck’s scale are: the causal relationship between events, the position of the uncertainty principle, and the kinematic. Assuming the interaction between events, a new definition of the causal relationship is presented. Using the principle of superposition, more than one world line is attributed to two events that are interacting with each other to cover the uncertainty principle. Using these achievements, it is shown that kinematics has no place in the Planck dimension and that quantum spacetime manifold should be used instead.
Robert Bruce Hayes
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 113-121; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.132009

Abstract:
By assuming the cosmological principle includes the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) and that the initial singularity existed within Planck time and length scales, a model for inflationary expansion is argued using only standard model physics without any changes to general relativity. All Fermionic matter is forced by the PEP to make a quantum transition to minimally orthogonal states in sequential Planck time intervals. This results in an initial inflation effect due to nearest neighbor quantum transitions which is then exacerbated by matter and antimatter creation effects due to collisions giving rise to the observational effects of universal inflation. The model provides a mechanistic explanation for primordial expansion using only physics from the standard model, specifically utilizing the PEP as a repulsion force between indistinguishable fermions. The present theory offers the benefit of not requiring any particles or fields outside of the standard model nor utilizing changes to general relativity. More succinctly, this theory goes beyond simply offering a mathematical representation (or fit) of the functional dependence but rather offers a mechanistic model to drive inflation using only standard model physics.
Gustavo V. López, Erick S. Madrigal
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 127-137; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.132011

Abstract:
Forl a 1-D conservative system with a position depending mass within a dissipative medium, its effect on the body is to exert a force depending on the squared of its velocity, a constant of motion, Lagrangian, generalized linear momentum, and Hamiltonian are obtained. We apply these new results to the harmonic oscillator and pendulum under the characteristics mentioned about, obtaining their constant of motion, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for the case when the body is increasing its mass.
J.-F. Pommaret
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 442-494; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.134031

Abstract:
In 1909 the brothers E. and F. Cosserat discovered a new nonlinear group theoretical approach to elasticity (EL), with the only experimental need to measure the EL constants. In a modern language, their idea has been to use the nonlinear Spencer sequence instead of the nonlinear Janet sequence for the Lie groupoid defining the group of rigid motions of space. Following H. Weyl, our purpose is to compute for the first time the nonlinear Spencer sequence for the Lie groupoid defining the conformal group of space-time in order to provide the mathematical foundations of electromagnetism (EM), with the only experimental need to measure the EM constant in vacuum. With a manifold of dimension n, the difficulty is to deal with the n nonlinear transformations that have been called “elations” by E. Cartan in 1922. Using the fact that dimension n=4 has very specific properties for the computation of the Spencer cohomology, we prove that there is thus no conceptual difference between the Cosserat EL field or induction equations and the Maxwell EM field or induction equations. As a byproduct, the well known field/matter couplings (piezzoelectricity, photoelasticity, streaming birefringence, …) can be described abstractly, with the only experimental need to measure the corresponding coupling constants. The main consequence of this paper is the need to revisit the mathematical foundations of gauge theory (GT) because we have proved that EM was depending on the conformal group and not on U(1), with a shift by one step to the left in the physical interpretation of the differential sequence involved.
Yacouba Issa Diakite, Yuriy Malozovsky, Cheick Oumar Bamba, Lashounda Franklin, Diola Bagayoko
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 414-431; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.134029

Abstract:
This article reports the results of our investigations on electronic and transport properties of zinc blende gallium antimonide (zb-GaSb). Our ab-initio, self-consistent and non-relativistic calculations used a local density approximation potential (LDA) and the linear combination of atomic orbital formalism (LCAO). We have succeeded in performing a generalized minimization of the energy, using the Bagayoko, Zhao and Williams (BZW) method, to reach the ground state of the material while avoiding over-complete basis sets. Consequently, our results have the full physical content of density functional theory (DFT) and agree with available, corresponding experimental data. Using an experimental room temperature lattice constant of 6.09593?, we obtained a direct band gap of 0.751 eV, in good agreement with room temperature measurements. Our results reproduced the experimental locations of the peaks in the total density of valence states as well as the measured electron and hole effective masses. Hence, this work points to the capability of ab-initio DFT calculations to inform and to guide the design and the fabrication of semiconductor based devices—provided a generalized minimization of the energy is performed.
Marina V. Krasinkova
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 495-508; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.134032

Abstract:
It is shown that the approximation of a strong Coulomb interaction between electrons results in a new model of the atom with a spatial quantization of electrons accompanied by their quantization in energy. This model implies that electrons rotate in circular orbits centered outside the atomic nucleus and only orbit axes pass through it. The Coulomb interaction between electrons leads to a spherically symmetric distribution of their orbits on the surfaces of equipotential spheres of a spherically symmetric electrostatic field of the nucleus. The distribution is similar to “inscribing” electron orbits into faces of regular nucleus-centered polyhedra so each polyhedron corresponds to a certain electron state (s, p, d, f), and a certain set of polyhedra corresponds to a certain period of the Mendeleev Table. It is shown that a spherically symmetric distribution of electron orbits gives rise to the formation of electron pairs in which electron orbits with a common axis are located symmetrically with respect to the nucleus and the orbital magnetic moments of the electrons are oppositely directed. The physical meaning of the electron spin concept becomes clear. The spin turns out to be related to the orbital magnetic moment of an electron and reflects the fact that two electrons of a pair rotate in opposite directions relative to their common axis. So the spin is one of characteristics of the electron state in the atom associated with electron rotation in the orbit centered outside the nucleus. The atomic model gives an insight into the periodicity of changes in the atomic properties with increasing nuclear charge and the reasons for an electron double energy quantization associated with different states and periods. The model shows that the atomic structure and properties can be explained by using concepts of classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics which regard the electron as a particle.
Bohdan Lev
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 89-99; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.132007

Abstract:
An approach to the theory of geometrization of the Universe is proposed. The wave function of the Universe is represented by the Clifford number with the transfer rules that have the structure of the Dirac equation for any manifold. Solutions of this equation may be obtained in terms of the geometric interpretation. A new model is proposed that can explain the manifestation of the dark energy and dark matter in the Universe as a geometrical entity with a mechanism involving the spontaneous symmetry breaking.
Kaylyn Olshanoski, Chary Rangacharyulu
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 13, pp 66-80; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2022.131005

Abstract:
We present a non-destructive method (NDM) to identify minute quantities of high atomic number (Z) elements in containers such as passenger baggage, goods carrying transport trucks, and environmental samples. This method relies on the fact that photon attenuation varies with its energy and properties of the absorbing medium. Low-energy gamma-ray intensity loss is sensitive to the atomic number of the absorbing medium, while that of higher-energies vary with the density of the medium. To verify the usefulness of this feature for NDM, we carried out simultaneous measurements of intensities of multiple gamma rays of energies 81 to 1408 keV emitted by sources 133Ba (half-life = 10.55 y) and 152Eu (half-life = 13.52 y). By this arrangement, we could detect minute quantities of lead and copper in a bulk medium from energy dependent gamma-ray attenuations. It seems that this method will offer a reliable, low-cost, low-maintenance alternative to X-ray or accelerator-based techniques for the NDM of high-Z materials such as mercury, lead, uranium, and transuranic elements etc.
Back to Top Top