Journal of Modern Physics
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 700-729; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.125045
In this study, we show that it is possible to explain the quantum measurement process within the framework of quantum mechanics without any additional postulates. We do not delve into a deep discussion regarding what the measurement problem actually is, and only examine the problems that seem to exist between classical and quantum physics. Relations between quantum and classical equations of motion are briefly reviewed to show that the transition from a superposition of quantum states to an eigenstate, namely, decoherence, is necessary to ensure that the expectation values in quantum mechanics obey the classical equations of motion. Several Bell-type inequalities and the Kochen-Specker theorem are also reviewed to clarify the concepts of nonseparability and counterfactual definiteness in quantum mechanics. The main objective of this study is to show that decoherence is an inherent characteristic of quantum states caused by the quantum uncertainty relation. We conclude that the quantum measurement process can indeed be explained within the framework of pure quantum mechanics. We also show that our conclusion is consistent with the counterfactual indefiniteness of quantum mechanics.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 1-9; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.121001
In the solution of the Klein-Gordon equation for the shutter problem, we prove that, at internuclear distances, a relativistic beam of Pi-mesons has a probability density which oscillates in time in a similar way to the spatial dependence in optical Fresnel diffraction from a straight edge. However, for an extreme-relativistic beam, the Fresnel oscillations turn into quantum damped beat oscillations. We prove that quantum beat oscillations are the consequence, at extreme-relativistic velocities, of the interference between the initial incident wave function, and the Green’s function in the relativistic shutter problem. This is a pure quantum relativistic phenomenon.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 59-64; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.122006
We suggest that the unusual events observed by the ANITA experiment originate from axion particles traversing the Earth. Under the influence of the geomagnetic field, the axion may oscillate into a photon and vice-versa. To amplify the axion transition into photon, we consider that the phenomenon takes place at resonance, where the effective photon mass is equal to the axion mass. This requirement fixes the axion mass at 44 eV. An axion at this mass scale reproduces the cold dark matter scenario. If our interpretation prevails, with the help of axions we can establish an axion tomography of the Earth.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 65-81; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.122007
The Standard Model of Particle Physics treats four fields—the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong fields. These fields are assumed to converge to a single field at the big bang, but the theory has failed to produce this convergence. Our theory proposes one primordial field and analyzes the evolution of this field. The key assumption is that only the primordial field exists—if any change is to occur, it must be based upon self-interaction, as there is nothing other than the field itself to interact with. This can be formalized as the Principle of Self-interaction and the consequences explored. I show that this leads to the linearized Einstein field equations and discuss the key ontological implications of the theory.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 353-360; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.123025
Interpretation of wave function for free particle is suggested as a description of microscopic distortion of the space-time geometry, namely, as some closed topological 4-manifold. Such geometrical object looks in three-dimensional Euclidean space as its topological defect having stochastic and wave-corpuscular properties of quantum particle. All possible deformations (homeomorphisms) of closed topological manifold play the role of “hidden variables”, responsible for statistical character of the theory.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 295-299; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.123022
Explaining baryon asymmetry (i.e., matter dominance) in the universe has been a vexing problem in physics. This analysis, based on the holographic principle, identifies fractional electric charge with the state of bits of information on the event horizon. Thermodynamics on the event horizon at the time of baryogenesis then estimates observed baryon asymmetry.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 328-352; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.123024
In this paper, resonance energies and excitation energies of doubly 2sns 1,3Se, 2snp 1,3P0, 2pnp 1,3De, 2pnd 1,3F0 and 2pnf 1,3Ge excited states of the helium isoelectronic sequence with Z ≤ 10 are calculated. Calculations are carried out in the framework of the variational procedure of the formalism of the Screening Constant per Unit Nuclear Charge (SCUNC). New correlated wave function of Hylleraas type is used. Precise resonance and excitation energies are tabulated and good agreement is obtained when a comparison is made with available literature values.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 361-379; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.123026
An exhaustive study has been conducted on face videos from YouTube video dataset for real time face recognition using the features from deep learning architectures and also the information set features. Our objective is to cash in on a plethora of deep learning architectures and information set features. The deep learning architectures dig in features from several layers of convolution and max-pooling layers though a placement of these layers is architecture dependent. On the other hand, the information set features depend on the entropy function for the generation of features. A comparative study of deep learning and information set features is made using the well-known classifiers in addition to developing Constrained Hanman Transform (CHT) and Weighted Hanman Transform (WHT) classifiers. It is demonstrated that information set features and deep learning features have comparable performance. However, sigmoid-based information set features using the new classifiers are found to outperform MobileNet features.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 391-407; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.124028
In safety dominant industries, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is crucial in quality assurance and assessment. Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) as one of the NDE methods is more promising compared with conventional ultrasonic testing (UT) method in terms of inspection speed and flexibility. To incorporate PAUT, the techniques should be qualified, which traditionally is performed by extensive physical experiments. However, with the development of numerical models simulating UT method, it is expected to complement or partly replace the experiments with the intention to reduce costs and operational uncertainties. The models should be validated to ensure its consistency to reality. This validation work can be done by comparing the model with other validated models or corresponding experiments. The purpose of current work focuses on the experimental validation of a numerical model, simSUNDT, developed by the Chalmers University of Technology. Validation is conducted by comparing different data presentations (A-, B- and C-scan) from experimental and simulated results with some well-defined artificial defects. Satisfactory correlations can be observed from the comparisons. After the validation, sound field optimization work aiming at retrieving maximized echo amplitude on a certain defect can be started using the model. This also reveals the flexibility of parametric studies using simulation models.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 433-439; doi:10.4236/jmp.2021.124030
The existence of several TeV superheavy particles (SHPs) is predicted by theories beyond the Standard Model. Particles with a mass exceeding the energy in the center of mass in the collision of protons with protons can be produced in subthreshold heavy ion collisions at the LHC. The purpose of the performed research was to estimate the rate of a rare process of SHPs production. It was shown that the data on the subthreshold production of antiprotons can be explained by the phenomenological parton model. The obtained parton distribution function was used to determine the number of SHPs produced in subthreshold heavy ion collisions at the LHC. In one month of collision of lead with lead, the yield of 16 TeVparticles is about 70 per year. To study the kinematically forbidden phenomena in proton-proton interactions in collisions of heavy nuclei at the LHC, an experiment on the production of antiprotons is proposed in the ALICE fixed target project.