Journal of Modern Physics
ISSN / EISSN : 2153-1196 / 2153-120X
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 2,110
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 1545-1572; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.1211093
We investigate light meson mass spectra with massive u, d, and s quarks and with a spin effect under a bound system in 3 + 1 dimensional QCD by using the first order perturbation correction. In the process of determining charged kaon and neutral kaonmasses, we obtain masses of u, d, and s quarks that are slightly smaller than the currently accepted values. Using these masses, we obtain light meson mass spectra that includes mass splitting of charged and neutral kaons and ρ mesons. The most interesting of our results is that the pion mass remains unchanged even though u, d, and s quarks become massive.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 513-535; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.124034
We conjecture the existence of massless neutrinos that are in the line of Standard Model (unable to account for the neutrino mass) but have characteristics that are not accounted for the Standard Model: they use a shorter radial path than the photon and possess bosonic flavors, considered like bosons instead of fermions. We call this theory “neutrino temporal oscillation”. Faced with some experimental comparisons solar neutrinos, neutrinos from SN 1987A, cosmological neutrinos, the theory gives better results, explanations and sense than the complicated theory of neutrino oscillations (transformism). The deficit of detection of solar neutrinos would have been blindly attributed to the “neutrino oscillation” by physicists who quickly concluded that the neutrino and the photon follow the same transverse path. The “OPERA” experiment which measured the speed of neutrinos in 2011 resulted, after a “superluminal” saga, in neutrino speeds consistent with the speed of light, in data that the three existing types of neutrinos cannot explain, with the final outcome of a fourth “sterile” neutrino with non-standard interaction. OPERA findings aren’t just in conflict with existing theory, but other measurements as well. For example, a study from the Kamiokande II experiment in Japan of the supernova SN1987A found that light and neutrinos that departed this exploded star arrived at Earth within hours of each other. Even though measurements of the neutrinos emitted by this supernova strongly suggest that their speeds differ from light by less than one part in a billion, the fact remains that two types of data were collected, and that only one was retained to be consistent with the existing theory. Thus, the OPERA observation is in conflicts with the result of SN1987A, which itself is highly doubtful. And what about the neutrinos and antineutrinos born during the big bang, except that they were never detected and there is nothing to indicate that their speed could be other than that of light. Neutrino physics seems sick, belief is transformed into evidence. The theory of “Neutrino temporal oscillation” shows hint that massless neutrinos can take a shortcut through the three spatial dimensions of the space-time that we know. It represents within the Standard Model an open window on a “new physics” that has a connection with physical reality.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 536-539; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.124035
The feasibility of a Lunar LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) was introduced in 1986 as part of NASA’s planned return to the Moon by the end of the last century. That return to the Moon mission was cancelled, but is once again planned as Artemis in 2024. In this paper, the feasibility of such a Lunar LIGO as part of NASA’s return there will be discussed for that program. Details of the physics of the original Lunar LIGO proposal as a potential portion of future lunar base astronomy and astrophysics designs are presented. Results from NASA’s original planned return to the Moon to establish a gravitational wave observatory there are presented and discussed.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 433-439; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.124030
The existence of several TeV superheavy particles (SHPs) is predicted by theories beyond the Standard Model. Particles with a mass exceeding the energy in the center of mass in the collision of protons with protons can be produced in subthreshold heavy ion collisions at the LHC. The purpose of the performed research was to estimate the rate of a rare process of SHPs production. It was shown that the data on the subthreshold production of antiprotons can be explained by the phenomenological parton model. The obtained parton distribution function was used to determine the number of SHPs produced in subthreshold heavy ion collisions at the LHC. In one month of collision of lead with lead, the yield of 16 TeVparticles is about 70 per year. To study the kinematically forbidden phenomena in proton-proton interactions in collisions of heavy nuclei at the LHC, an experiment on the production of antiprotons is proposed in the ALICE fixed target project.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 353-360; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.123025
Interpretation of wave function for free particle is suggested as a description of microscopic distortion of the space-time geometry, namely, as some closed topological 4-manifold. Such geometrical object looks in three-dimensional Euclidean space as its topological defect having stochastic and wave-corpuscular properties of quantum particle. All possible deformations (homeomorphisms) of closed topological manifold play the role of “hidden variables”, responsible for statistical character of the theory.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 295-299; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.123022
Explaining baryon asymmetry (i.e., matter dominance) in the universe has been a vexing problem in physics. This analysis, based on the holographic principle, identifies fractional electric charge with the state of bits of information on the event horizon. Thermodynamics on the event horizon at the time of baryogenesis then estimates observed baryon asymmetry.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 328-352; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.123024
In this paper, resonance energies and excitation energies of doubly 2sns 1,3Se, 2snp 1,3P0, 2pnp 1,3De, 2pnd 1,3F0 and 2pnf 1,3Ge excited states of the helium isoelectronic sequence with Z ≤ 10 are calculated. Calculations are carried out in the framework of the variational procedure of the formalism of the Screening Constant per Unit Nuclear Charge (SCUNC). New correlated wave function of Hylleraas type is used. Precise resonance and excitation energies are tabulated and good agreement is obtained when a comparison is made with available literature values.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 361-379; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.123026
An exhaustive study has been conducted on face videos from YouTube video dataset for real time face recognition using the features from deep learning architectures and also the information set features. Our objective is to cash in on a plethora of deep learning architectures and information set features. The deep learning architectures dig in features from several layers of convolution and max-pooling layers though a placement of these layers is architecture dependent. On the other hand, the information set features depend on the entropy function for the generation of features. A comparative study of deep learning and information set features is made using the well-known classifiers in addition to developing Constrained Hanman Transform (CHT) and Weighted Hanman Transform (WHT) classifiers. It is demonstrated that information set features and deep learning features have comparable performance. However, sigmoid-based information set features using the new classifiers are found to outperform MobileNet features.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 391-407; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.124028
In safety dominant industries, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is crucial in quality assurance and assessment. Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) as one of the NDE methods is more promising compared with conventional ultrasonic testing (UT) method in terms of inspection speed and flexibility. To incorporate PAUT, the techniques should be qualified, which traditionally is performed by extensive physical experiments. However, with the development of numerical models simulating UT method, it is expected to complement or partly replace the experiments with the intention to reduce costs and operational uncertainties. The models should be validated to ensure its consistency to reality. This validation work can be done by comparing the model with other validated models or corresponding experiments. The purpose of current work focuses on the experimental validation of a numerical model, simSUNDT, developed by the Chalmers University of Technology. Validation is conducted by comparing different data presentations (A-, B- and C-scan) from experimental and simulated results with some well-defined artificial defects. Satisfactory correlations can be observed from the comparisons. After the validation, sound field optimization work aiming at retrieving maximized echo amplitude on a certain defect can be started using the model. This also reveals the flexibility of parametric studies using simulation models.
Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 12, pp 260-283; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.123020
Since a material is composed of micro particles, investigating behavior of those particles is essentially dominant for materials science. The diffusivity of diffusion equation is relevant to not only a collective motion of micro particles but also a motion of single particle. An elementary process of diffusion was thus theoretically investigated in a local space and time. As a result, the investigation concluded that the wave nature of micro particle results from denying the mathematical density theorem of a real time in the Newton mechanics. In other words, the basic theory of quantum mechanics is established in accordance with the cause-and-effect relationship in the Newton mechanics, for the first time, regardless of the de Broglie hypothesis. In relation to the collective motion of micro particles, the new diffusion theory was also reasonably established using the universal expression of diffusivity obtained here. In the present paper, the new findings indispensable for the fundamental knowledge in physics are thus systematically discussed in accordance with the theoretical frame in physics.