Current Opinion in Cell Biology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0955-0674 / 1879-0410
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 4,144
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Published: 20 January 2022
Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Volume 74, pp 37-46; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2021.12.004

Abstract:
The genome of an early embryo undergoes significant remodelling at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and structural levels. New technological developments have made it possible to study 3D genome organisation in the zygote and early embryo of many different species. Recent studies in human embryos, zebrafish, medaka, and Xenopus have revealed that, similar to previous results in mouse and Drosophila, the zygotic genome is unstructured prior to zygotic genome activation. While these studies show that topologically associating domains are established coincident with zygotic genome activation across species, other 3D genome structures have more varied timing. Here, we review recent studies examining the timing and mechanisms of establishment of 3D genome organisation in the early embryo, and discuss similarities and differences between species. Investigating the establishment of 3D chromatin conformation in early embryos has the potential to reveal novel mechanisms of 3D genome organisation.
Published: 19 January 2022
Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Volume 74, pp 29-36; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2021.12.006

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Torahiko L. Higashi,
Published: 8 January 2022
Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Volume 74, pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2021.12.003

Abstract:
Loop extrusion has emerged as a prominent hypothesis for how SMC complexes shape chromosomes – single molecule in vitro observations have yielded fascinating images of this process. When not extruding loops, SMC complexes are known to topologically entrap one or more DNAs. Here, we review how structural insight into the SMC complex cohesin has led to a molecular framework for both activities: a Brownian ratchet motion, associated with topological DNA entry, might repeat itself to elicit loop extrusion. After contrasting alternative loop extrusion models, we explore whether topological loading or loop extrusion is more adept at explaining in vivo SMC complex function. SMC variants that experimentally separate topological loading from loop extrusion will in the future probe their respective contributions to chromosome biology.
, Nicola Crosetto,
Published: 5 January 2022
Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Volume 74, pp 7-12; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2021.12.001

Abstract:
A growing body of evidence points to a role of nuclear RNAs (nucRNAs) in shaping the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the genome within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. nucRNAs are non-homogeneously distributed within the nucleus where they can form global and local gradients that might contribute to instructing the formation and coordinating the function of different types of 3D genome structures. In this article, we highlight the available literature supporting a role of nucRNAs as 3D genome shapers and propose that nucRNA gradients are key mediators of genome structure and function.
Bhagyshree Jamge,
Published: 5 January 2022
Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Volume 74, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2021.12.002

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Anahí Binagui-Casas, , Charlène Guillot, Vicki Metzis, Dillan Saunders
Published: 28 October 2021
Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Volume 73, pp 133-140; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2021.08.003

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