Bioresources and Bioprocessing

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ISSN / EISSN : 2197-4365 / 2197-4365
Total articles ≅ 412
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Yu Xia, Zifeng Wu, Rui He, Yahui Gao, Yangyu Qiu, Qianqian Cheng, Xiaoyuan Ma, Zhouping Wang
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00395-1

Abstract:
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEN) are two predominant mycotoxins ubiquitously found in corn, peanuts, and other grains, which pose a great threat to human health. Therefore, safe and effective methods for detoxification of these mycotoxins are urgently needed. To achieve simultaneous degradation of multiple mycotoxins, a fusion enzyme ZPF1 was constructed by linking zearalenone hydrolase and manganese peroxidase with a linker peptide GGGGS. This fusion enzyme was secretory expressed successfully in the newly constructed food-grade recombinant strain Kluyveromyces lactis GG799(pKLAC1-ZPF1), and was investigated with the mycotoxins degradation efficiency in two reaction systems. Results showed that both AFB1 and ZEN can be degraded by ZPF1 in reaction system 1 (70.0 mmol/L malonic buffer with 1.0 mmol/L MnSO4, 0.1 mmol/L H2O2, 5.0 µg/mL AFB1 and ZEN, respectively) with the ratios of 46.46% and 38.76%, respectively. In reaction system 2 (50.0 mmol/L Tris–HCl, with 5.0 µg/mL AFB1 and ZEN, respectively), AFB1 cannot be degraded while ZEN can be degraded with the ratio of 35.38%. To improve the degradation efficiency of these mycotoxins, optimization of the induction and degradation conditions were fulfilled subsequently. The degradation ratios of AFB1 and ZEN by ZPF1 in reaction system 1 reached 64.11% ± 2.93% and 46.21% ± 3.17%, respectively. While in reaction system 2, ZEN was degraded by ZPF1 at a ratio of 41.45% ± 3.34%. The increases of degradation ratios for AFB1 and ZEN in reaction system 1 were 17.65% and 7.45%, respectively, while that for ZEN in reaction system 2 was 6.07%, compared with the unoptimized results.
Seedhabadee Ganeshan, Seon Hwa Kim, Vladimir Vujanovic
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-16; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00417-y

Abstract:
The benefit of microorganisms to humans, animals, insects and plants is increasingly recognized, with intensified microbial endophytes research indicative of this realization. In the agriculture industry, the benefits are tremendous to move towards sustainable crop production and minimize or circumvent the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The research leading to the identification of potential plant endophytes is long and arduous and for many researchers the challenge is ultimately in scale-up production. While many of the larger agriculture and food industries have their own scale-up and manufacturing facilities, for many in academia and start-up companies the next steps towards production have been a stumbling block due to lack of information and understanding of the processes involved in scale-up fermentation. This review provides an overview of the fermentation process from shake flask cultures to scale-up and the manufacturing steps involved such as process development optimization (PDO), process hazard analysis (PHA), pre-, in- and post-production (PIP) challenges and finally the preparation of a technology transfer package (TTP) to transition the PDO to manufacturing. The focus is on submerged liquid fermentation (SLF) and plant endophytes production by providing original examples of fungal and bacterial endophytes, plant growth promoting Penicillium sp. and Streptomyces sp. bioinoculants, respectively. We also discuss the concepts, challenges and future perspectives of the scale-up microbial endophyte process technology based on the industrial and biosafety research platform for advancing a massive production of next-generation biologicals in bioreactors.
Esteban Villamil-Galindo, Franco Van de Velde,
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00416-z

Abstract:
The post-harvest processing of strawberries generates considerable amounts of by-products that consist of the inedible parts of the fruit (sepal, calyx, stem, and non-marketable portion of the fruit), which is an environmental problem for local producers and industries. This study aimed to revalue these kinds of tissues through identifying and quantifying the genotype influence on the total phenolic content, phenolic profile, and the antioxidant activity of the by-products from three strawberry cultivars: ‘Festival’ (FE), ‘San Andreas ‘ (SA), and ‘Camino Real’ (CR). The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method, in-vitro antioxidant activity by the DPPH* radical scavenging method and the phenolic profile by PAD–HPLC. The different genotypes showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in total phenolic content (TPC), FE being the one with the highest TPC (14.97 g of gallic acid equivalents < GAE > /Kg of by-product < R >), followed by SA and CR cultivars. The antioxidant capacity of the SA and FE tissues were similar (p > 0.05) and higher (15.1–16.3 mmol Trolox equivalents < TE > /Kg R) than CR. Eight main phenolic compounds were identified and quantified on the three cultivars. Agrimoniin was the principal polyphenol (0.38–1.56 g/Kg R), and the cultivar FE had the highest concentration. This compound showed the highest correlation coefficient with the antioxidant capacity (R 2 0.87; p < 0.001). This study highlighted the impact of the multi-cultivar systems in strawberry production on the bioactive potential and the diversity of secondary metabolites obtained from strawberry agro-industrial by-products at a low cost.
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00406-1

Abstract:
Protein is becoming an increasingly important resource for a variety of commercial applications. Yet, a large volume of protein is being wasted. Notably, livestock manure solids have a significant content of protein which is not only underutilized, but prone to runoff and eventual breakdown to reactive nitrogen compounds, contributing to eutrophication. It would be desirable to remove protein before it causes environmental hazards and then convert it to value-added commercial applications. We have developed a novel thermal hydrolysis process (THP) to extract crude protein from livestock manure solid, or manure digestate solid (MDS) in particular, without the use of any chemical. We demonstrate the versatility of our new process to control the molecular weight (MW) distribution of the extracted protein hydrolysate (PH). The antioxidant activity of the crude protein hydrolysate (CPH) has been examined through Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity Assay. The results have shown that our CPH had its antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radical similar to that of vitamin E and exhibited almost 7 times as strong inhibition against the hydroxyl radical as vitamin E. We also evaluated the nutritional value of our PH by analyzing its amino acid composition and the MW distribution through amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. The characterizations have revealed that the PH recovered from MDS had 2.5 times as much essential amino acids as soybean meal on dry matter basis, with the MW distribution ranging from over a 100 Da to 100 KDa. Finally, the protein powder was prepared from the extracted CPH solution and its composition was analyzed.
Maki Moriwaki-Takano, Chikako Asada, Yoshitosi Nakamura
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00414-1

Abstract:
Spiculisporic acid (SA) is a fatty acid-type biosurfactant with one lactone ring and two carboxyl groups. It has been used in metal removers and cosmetics, because of its low propensity to cause irritation to the skin, its anti-bacterial properties, and high surface activity. In the present study, we report an effective method for producing SA by selecting a high-producing strain and investigating the effective medium components, conditions, and environments for its culture. Among the 11 kinds of Talaromyces species, T. trachyspermus NBRC 32238 showed the highest production of a crystalline substance, which was determined to be SA using NMR. The strain was able to produce SA under acidic conditions from hexoses, pentoses, and disaccharides, with glucose and sucrose serving as the most appropriate substrates. Investigation of nitrogen sources and trace metal ions revealed meat extract and FeCl3 as components that promoted SA production. Upon comparing the two types of cultures with glucose in a baffle flask or aeration bioreactor, SA production was found to be slightly higher in the flask than in the reactor. In the bioreactor culture, sucrose was found to be an appropriate substrate for SA production, as compared to glucose, because with sucrose, the lag time until the start of SA production was shortened. Finally, fed-batch culture with sucrose resulted in 60 g/L of SA, with a total yield of 0.22 g SA/g sucrose and a productivity of 6.6 g/L/day.
Liyuan Zhang, Xiaomei Lin, Ting Wang, ,
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-15; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00413-2

Abstract:
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems have become an ideal choice for pathway prototyping, protein production, and biosensing, due to their high controllability, tolerance, stability, and ability to produce proteins in a short time. At present, the widely used CFPS systems are mainly based on Escherichia coli strain. Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium glutamate, and Vibrio natriegens are potential chassis cells for many biotechnological applications with their respective characteristics. Therefore, to expand the platform of the CFPS systems and options for protein production, four prokaryotes, E. coli, B. subtilis, C. glutamate, and V. natriegens were selected as host organisms to construct the CFPS systems and be compared. Moreover, the process parameters of the CFPS system were optimized, including the codon usage, plasmid synthesis competent cell selection, plasmid concentration, ribosomal binding site (RBS), and CFPS system reagent components. By optimizing and comparing the main influencing factors of different CFPS systems, the systems can be optimized directly for the most influential factors to further improve the protein yield of the systems. In addition, to demonstrate the applicability of the CFPS systems, it was proved that the four CFPS systems all had the potential to produce therapeutic proteins, and they could produce the receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein of SARS-CoV-2 with functional activity. They not only could expand the potential options for in vitro protein production, but also could increase the application range of the system by expanding the cell-free protein synthesis platform.
Yauhen V. Viazau, Ruslan G. Goncharik, Irina S. Kulikova, Evgeny A. Kulikov, Raif G. Vasilov, Alla A. Selishcheva
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00410-5

Abstract:
Thermo- and photoisomerization of astaxanthin was investigated in a model system (solutions in methanol and chloroform), and the dynamics of astaxanthin isomers and esters content was analyzed in Haematococcus pluvialis green algal cells exposed to factors inducing astaxanthin accumulation. In both systems, the astaxanthin isomerization process seems to be defined by a) the action of light (or heat), and b) the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium. Upon heating, the accumulation of Z-isomers occurred in a model system during the entire incubation period. For the first 5 h of illumination, both Z-isomers accumulated in the solutions up to 5%, and then their content decreased. The accumulated amount of the Z-isomers in the cells of H. pluvialis was found to reach 42% of the total content of astaxanthin initially, and then it decreased during the experiment. The results lead to a conclusion that both cultivation of H. pluvialis culture in specific conditions and heat treatment of the resulting extracts from it might be efficient for obtaining large amounts of economically useful astaxanthin Z-isomer.
Mohd. Afnan Ahmad, Arun Letchumanan, , Wan Nur Athirah Mazli, Juniza Md Saad
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00409-y

Abstract:
At present, biodiesel is known as an alternative fuel globally. It is also known that the purification of biodiesel before consumption is mandatory to comply with international standards. Commonly, purification using water washing generates a massive amount of wastewater with a high content of organic compounds that can harm the environment. Therefore, this study applied and tested a waterless method, i.e., the solvent-aided crystallization (SAC), to remove glycerol and other traces of impurities in the crude biodiesel. The parameters of coolant temperature, crystallization time, and stirring rate on the SAC system were investigated. It was discovered that with 14 °C coolant temperature, 300 RPM and higher cooling time result in the highest percentage of FAME up to 99.54%, which indicates that contaminants' presence is limited in the purified biodiesel. The use of 1-butanol as the solvent for crystallization process remarkably enhanced the separation and improved the higher biodiesel quality.
, H. Kasedde, M. Lubwama, J. B. Kirabira
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00407-0

Abstract:
The search for alternatives to fossil-based commercial activated carbon (AC) continues to reveal new eco-friendly potential precursors, among which is agricultural waste. The key research aspect in all these endeavors is empirical ascertainment of the core properties of the resultant AC to suit a particular purpose. These properties include: yield, surface area, pore volume, and the active surface groups. It is therefore pertinent to have process conditions controlled and tailored towards these properties for the required resultant AC. Pre-leaching cassava peels with NaOH followed by KOH activation and carbonization at holding temperatures (780 °C) above the melting point of K (760 °C) yielded mesoporous activated carbon with the highest surface area ever reported for cassava peel-based AC. The carbonization temperatures were between 480 and 780 °C in an activation–carbonization stepwise process using KOH as the activator at a KOH:peel ratio of 5:2 (mass basis). A 42% maximum yield of AC was realized along with a total pore volume of 0.756 cm3g−1 and BET surface area of 1684 m2g−1. The AC was dominantly microporous for carbonization temperatures below 780 °C, but a remarkable increase in mesopore volume (0.471 cm3g−1) relative to the micropore volume (0.281 cm3g−1) was observed at 780 °C. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the pre-treated cassava peels showed distortion in the C–H bonding depicting possible elaboration of more lignin from cellulose disruption by NaOH. A carboxylate stretch was also observed owing to the reaction of Na+ ions with the carboxyl group in the raw peels. FTIR showed possible absorption bands for the AC between 1425 and 1712 cm−1 wave numbers. Besides the botanical qualities of the cassava peel genotype used, pre-leaching the peels and also increasing holding activation temperature above the boiling point of potassium enabled the modified process of producing highly porous AC from cassava peel. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging showed well-developed hexagonal pores in the resultant AC and intercalated K profile in the carbon matrices, respectively.
, Faten A. Mostafa, Waill A. Elkhateeb
Bioresources and Bioprocessing, Volume 8, pp 1-17; doi:10.1186/s40643-021-00408-z

Abstract:
Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) is a filamentous micro-fungus that is used from centuries in fermentation of different foods in many countries all over the world. This valuable fungus is also a rich source of many bioactive secondary metabolites. Moreover, A. oryzae has a prestigious secretory system that allows it to secrete high concentrations of proteins into its culturing medium, which support its use as biotechnological tool in veterinary, food, pharmaceutical, and industrial fields. This review aims to highlight the significance of this valuable fungus in food industry, showing its generosity in production of nutritional and bioactive metabolites that enrich food fermented by it. Also, using A. oryzae as a biotechnological tool in the field of enzymes production was described. Furthermore, domestication, functional genomics, and contributions of A. oryzae in functional production of human pharmaceutical proteins were presented. Finally, future prospects in order to get more benefits from A. oryzae were discussed.
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