Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome

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ISSN / EISSN : 1758-5996 / 1758-5996
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1186)
Total articles ≅ 1,370
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Yang Yang, Li-Hua Zhao, Dan-Dan Li, Feng Xu, Xiao-Hua Wang, Chun-Feng Lu, Chun-Hua Wang, Chao Yu, Xiu-Lin Zhang, Li-Yan Ning, et al.
Published: 23 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00720-w

Background Deterioration of sleep quality has been reported to contribute to the incidence of diabetes and may be responsible for glycemic status in diabetes. The present study explored the relationship between sleep quality and glycemic variability in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods We recruited 111 patients with T2D for this cross-sectional study. Each patient underwent flash glucose monitoring for 14 days to obtain glycemic variability parameters, such as standard deviation of glucose (SD), coefficient of variation of glucose (CV), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), mean of daily differences (MODD), and time in glucose range of 3.9–10 mmol/L (TIR3.9–10). After 14 days of flash glucose monitoring, each patient received a questionnaire on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to evaluate subjective sleep quality. HbA1c was also collected to assess average glucose. Results HbA1c was comparable among the subgroups of PSQI score tertiles. Across ascending tertiles of PSQI scores, SD, CV and MAGE were increased, while TIR3.9–10 was decreased (p for trend < 0.05), but not MODD (p for trend = 0.090). Moreover, PSQI scores were positively correlated with SD, CV, MODD and MAGE (r = 0.322, 0.361, 0.308 and 0.354, respectively, p < 0.001) and were inversely correlated with TIR3.9–10 (r = − 0.386, p < 0.001). After adjusting for other relevant data by multivariate linear regression analyses, PSQI scores were independently responsible for SD (β = 0.251, t = 2.112, p = 0.041), CV (β = 0.286, t = 2.207, p = 0.033), MAGE (β = 0.323, t = 2.489, p = 0.018), and TIR3.9–10 (β = − 0.401, t = − 3.930, p < 0.001) but not for MODD (β = 0.188, t = 1.374, p = 0.177). Conclusions Increased glycemic variability assessed by flash glucose monitoring was closely associated with poor subjective sleep quality evaluated by the PSQI in patients with T2D.
Dikla Akselrod, Michael Friger,
Published: 18 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00717-5

Background Studies have found that HbA1C variability is an independent risk factor for diabetic complications in type 2 diabetic patients. This study aims to find factors contributing to higher HbA1C variability in the community. Methods The study was conducted in the southern district of Israel, in Clalit Health Services (CHS). The study population was type 2 diabetic individuals aged 40–70 years in 2005, with a follow-up period of 11 years, until 2015. The definition of HbA1C variability was done by the standard deviation from the average HbA1C value of the entire study period, which was calculated for each participant. The study population was divided into two groups, “variability group” with HbA1C SD > 1.2, and “comparison group” of participants with HbA1C SD ≤ 1.2. In the univariate analysis we used X2 or Fisher test for categorical variables and independent t-test for numeric continuous variables. In the multivariate analysis we used logistic regression as well as assessing for possible interactions. Statistical analysis was ascribed for p < 0.05. All the data was drawn from the computerized medical system used by all primary care physicians and nurses in CHS working in the community. Results The study population included 2866 participants, the average age was 58.6 years, 43.3% men and 56.7% women. Each participant had an average of 20.9 HbA1C measures in their computerized medical record during the 11 years of follow up. The mean HbA1C value was 7.8%. We found 632 patients (22%) with a high variability, whereas 2234 (78%) had a low variability of HbA1C. In the “variability group” there was a higher percentage of smokers, BMI ≥ 30 and a higher rate of visits to diabetic clinics compared to the “no variability” group. In the “variability group” we found a much higher use of insulin and ACE inhibitors. The highest frequency of variability was between HbA1c values of 8.1–8.5. The multivariate analysis showed that HbA1C variability was associated with insulin use (OR = 4.1, p < 0.001), with age (OR = 0.939, p < 0.001), and Ischemic heart disease (OR = 1.258, p = 0.03). BMI ≥ 30 was almost statistically significant (OR = 1.206, p = 0.063). Gender was statistically insignificant. Conclusions In conclusion, HbA1C variability might be used as an additional marker in Diabetes Mellitus type 2, reflecting the disease complexity characteristics and the patient’s lifestyle profile.
, Qian Tang, Yuru Wu, Qin Wan, Zhihong Zhang, Yong Xu, Jianhua Zhu, Ying Miao
Published: 15 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00718-4

Background Previous studies that explored the relationship of serum albumin with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) have indicated inconsistent results. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluated the association between serum albumin and DPN, defined as vibration perception threshold (VPT) values ≥ 25 V and/or inability to feel the monofilament, in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 1465 T2DM patients aged ≥ 16 years, who completed the measurement of serum albumin and DPN screening between 2012 and 2015, were included in the cross-sectional study. Correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis models were used to evaluate the possible relationship between serum albumin and DPN. Results Patients with higher quartiles of serum albumin had significantly lower VPT values and prevalence of DPN compared with those with lower quartiles (P for trend < 0.01), and there was an inverse relationship between serum albumin and VPT values and prevalence of DPN (all P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of DPN was progressively decreased across serum albumin quartiles (P for trend < 0.01), and participants in the highest quartile of serum albumin were at a significantly decreased risk of DPN compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds rate: 0.311, 95% confidence intervals 0.134–0.724, P < 0.01). ROC analysis revealed that the optimal cutoff point of serum albumin for the prevalence of DPN was 39.95 g/L in patients with T2DM, with a sensitivity of 65.88% and a specificity of 66.7%. Conclusions Decreased levels of serum albumin might be correlated with increased risk of DPN in Chinese patients with T2DM. Future longitudinal studies with large samples are warranted to confirm our findings, and elucidate putative mechanisms for the association.
Freddy G. Eliaschewitz, Luis Henrique Canani
Published: 15 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00713-9

Background There is currently a large arsenal of antidiabetic drugs available to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, this is a serious chronic disease that affects millions of adults worldwide and is responsible for severe complications, comorbidities, and low quality of life when uncontrolled due mainly to delays in initiating treatment or inadequate therapy. This review article aims to clarify the therapeutic role of the oral formulation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) semaglutide in treating typical T2D patients. The discussion focused on metabolic, glycemic, and weight alteration effects and the safety of the therapy with this drug. Main text Therapy with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) promotes strategic changes in the pathophysiological pathway of T2D and improves the secretion of glucagon and insulin, which results in a reduction in blood glucose levels and the promotion of weight loss. Until recently, the only route for semaglutide administration was parenteral. However, an oral formulation of GLP-1 RA was recently developed and approved by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based on the Peptide Innovation for Early Diabetes Treatment (PIONEER) program results. A sequence of 10 clinical studies compared oral semaglutide with placebo or active standard-of-care medications (empagliflozin 25 mg, sitagliptin 100 mg, or liraglutide 1.8 mg) in different T2D populations. Conclusions Oral semaglutide effectively reduces glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and body weight in a broad spectrum of patients with T2D and shows cardiovascular safety. Oral semaglutide broadens therapy options and facilitates the adoption of earlier GLP-1 RA treatment once T2D patients present low rates of treatment discontinuation. The main adverse events reported were related to the gastrointestinal tract, common to GLP-1 RA class drugs.
, Giuseppina Salzano, Bruno Bombaci, Fortunato Lombardo
Published: 8 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00716-6

Background A retrospective observational study was conducted to assess the prevalence of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in a large paediatric population of Southern Italy newly diagnosed with diabetes. Clinical and genetic features of the identified MODY patients were also described. Methods Genetic testing was performed in children and adolescents newly diagnosed with diabetes who presented autoantibody negativity and fasting C-peptide levels ≥ 0.8 ng/mL. Patients with a low insulin daily dose and optimal glycaemic control after two years from diabetes onset were also investigated for monogenic diabetes, regardless of their autoimmunity status and/or C-peptide levels. Results A prevalence of 6.5% of MODY was found. In particular, glucokinase-MODY was the most common type of MODY. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 years. Clinical presentation and biochemical data were heterogeneous also among patients belonging to the same MODY group. Conclusions We found a relatively high prevalence of MODY among paediatric patients with a new diagnosis of diabetes in comparison to literature data. Our findings highlight that a more detailed clinical evaluation along with easier and less expensive approachability to genetic testing may allow diagnosing an increasing number of MODY cases. A correct, prompt diagnosis is crucial to choose the most appropriate treatment and offer adequate genetic counselling.
A. Giandalia, A. Alibrandi, L. Giorgianni, F. Lo Piano, F. Consolo, G. Longo Elia, B. Asztalos, D. Cucinotta, G. Squadrito, G. T. Russo
Published: 8 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00715-7

Background Obesity-associated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is higher in women than in men with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Resistin, an adipokine secreted by adispose tissue, may contribute to this higher risk. Aims To explore the relationships among resistin levels and common inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers and CHD risk in obese post-menopausal T2DM women. Methods Serum levels of resistin, hsCRP, IL-6, Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM), homocysteine (tHcy), HOMA-IR and metabolic parameters were determined in a group of 132 T2DM women with and without documented CHD and in 55 non-diabetic women. Results Resistin, sVCAM, IL-6 and tHcy levels were comparable in T2DM and controls. CHD women showed higher resistin, sVCAM and tHcy levels than those without CHD, and for resistin this difference remained significant after age-adjustment (P = 0.013); conversely hsCRP were ~ 2X higher in T2DM women than in controls (P = 0.0132) without any difference according to CHD history. At univariate analysis resistin levels were significantly associated with age, waist circumference, hypertension, tHcy, hsPCR, sVCAM, IL-6, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine levels, but only creatinine, triglycerides, hsCRP, IL-6 and sVCAM were independently associated to resistin levels at stepwise regression analysis. Resistin levels were independently associated to CHD, increasing the risk by 1.15 times (0.986–1.344 95% CI), together with age, tHcy, LDL-C and hypertension. Conclusions Circulating resistin levels were comparable in obese/overweight T2DM and control women. In T2DM women, resistin levels correlated with markers of renal function, systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and were independently associated with a higher CHD risk.
Huiyun Wang, Yu Xia, Yanxia Zhang
Published: 8 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00719-3

Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the social economy and quality of life, and has become a major threat to human health. This observation aimed to study the possibility of serum HOTAIR as a diagnostic index in patients with T2DM and to explore the prognostic potential of HOTAIR in the development of T2DM. Methods The expression of HOTAIR in serum of 96 patients with T2DM and 82 healthy controls was detected by the qRT-PCR technique. The related biochemical indexes of all participants were determined, such as total cholesterol (TC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). The value of serum HOTAIR in the diagnosis of T2DM in the two groups was analyzed by the ROC curve. Moreover, the prognostic value of HOTAIR on T2DM was examined by the K-M curve and COX multivariate analysis. Results The results of the qRT-PCR analysis showed that the serum level of HOTAIR in patients with T2DM was significantly higher than that in healthy controls. ROC analysis showed that HOTAIR in serum was a diagnostic factor of T2DM. Further multivariate analysis showed that HOTAIR could be an independent biomarker in the prediction of chronic complications for T2DM patients, such as diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions We found the augment of HOTAIR expression was a character of T2DM. The high expression of serum HOTAIR was a potential non-invasive diagnostic marker and independent prognostic factor in patients with T2DM.
Claudia Eberle, Stefanie Stichling
Published: 7 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00705-9

Background In 2019, a new virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was classified as a pandemic in a short period of time. In order to reduce the spread of COVID-19, many countries have imposed a lockdown with movement restrictions, social distancing and home confinement, which has affected routine healthcare activities and everyday life. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods We systematically identified studies by searching the databases Cochrane Library, MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, EMBASE, and CINAHL until April 2021. We included n = 33 observational studies of which n = 25 investigated T1D and n = 8 T2D. Results Overall, we analyzed n = 2881 T1D patients and n = 1823 T2D patients. Glycemic values in patients with T1D improved significantly during lockdown. Overall, n = 18 (72%) T1D studies indicated significant improvements in glycemic outcomes. Meta-analysis revealed a mean difference in HbA1c of − 0.05% (95% CI − 0.31 to 0.21) due to lockdown, and in time in range (TIR) of + 3.75% (95% CI 2.56 to 4.92). Lockdown determined a short-term worsening in glycemic values in patients with T2D. Overall, n = 4 (50%) publications observed deteriorations in glycemic control. Meta-analysis demonstrated a mean difference in HbA1c of + 0.14 (95% CI − 0.13 to 0.40) through the lockdown. Moreover, n = 3 (75%) studies reported a not significant deterioration in body weight. Conclusions Glycemic values in people with T1D significantly improved during COVID-19 lockdown, which may be associated with positive changes in self-care and digital diabetes management. In contrast, lockdown rather determined a short-term worsening in glycemic parameters in patients with T2D. Further research is required, particularly into the causes and effective T2D management during lockdown.
Jen-Hung Huang, Yung-Kuo Lin, Ting-Wei Lee, Han-Wen Liu, Yu-Mei Chien, Yu-Chun Hsueh, Yi-Jen Chen
Published: 6 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00714-8

Background Glucose monitoring is vital for glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures whole-day glucose levels. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a vital outcome predictor in patients with DM. Methods This study investigated the relationship between HbA1c and CGM, which remained unclear hitherto. Data of patients with DM (n = 91) who received CGM and HbA1c testing (1–3 months before and after CGM) were retrospectively analyzed. Diurnal and nocturnal glucose, highest CGM data (10%, 25%, and 50%), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), percent coefficient of variation (%CV), and continuous overlapping net glycemic action were compared with HbA1c values before and after CGM. Results The CGM results were significantly correlated with HbA1c values measured 1 (r = 0.69) and 2 (r = 0.39) months after CGM and 1 month (r = 0.35) before CGM. However, glucose levels recorded in CGM did not correlate with the HbA1c values 3 months after and 2–3 months before CGM. MAGE and %CV were strongly correlated with HbA1c values 1 and 2 months after CGM, respectively. Diurnal blood glucose levels were significantly correlated with HbA1c values 1–2 months before and 1 month after CGM. The nocturnal blood glucose levels were significantly correlated with HbA1c values 1–3 months before and 1–2 months after CGM. Conclusions CGM can predict HbA1c values within 1 month after CGM in patients with DM.
Yaqin Ai, Ruoxin Xu,
Published: 3 September 2021
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, Volume 13, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00707-7

Background Sarcopenia was a frequent chronic complication in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and previous evidence showed conflicting results regarding the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia in T2DM. In the current study, we aimed at systematically exploring the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia in patients with T2DM. Methods PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched to identify observational studies which investigated the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia in patients with T2DM. The quality of individual included studies was evaluated using The Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Pooled effects regarding prevalence and associated factors were calculated using random-effects models. The potential publication bias was assessed via funnel plot and Egger test. Results Twenty-eight studies involving 16,800 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with T2DM was 18% (95% CI 0.15–0.22; I2 = 97.4%). The pooled results showed that elder age (OR 4.73; 95% CI 4.30–5.19; I2 = 85.6%), male gender, chronic hyperglycemia (higher HbA1c) (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05–2.47; I2 = 99.2%) and osteoporosis (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05–2.47; I2 = 99.2%) was predictors for sarcopenia, whereas patients with lower BMI (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05–2.47; I2 = 99.2%) and metformin administrations (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05–2.47; I2 = 99.2%) were not prone to get sarcopenia. The funnel plot and statistical tests showed no obvious publication bias. Conclusions Sarcopenia was frequent in T2DM patients. Elder age, male gender and chronic hyperglycemia, Osteoporosis were significant risk factors for Sarcopenia. Lower BMI and metformin administrations were associated with lower risk of sarcopenia.
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