Applied Physics Letters

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ISSN / EISSN : 0003-6951 / 1077-3118
Published by: AIP Publishing (10.1063)
Total articles ≅ 129,570
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Abraham N. Buditama, Kevin Fitzell, Diana Chien, Christopher Ty Karaba, Shreya K. Patel, Hye Yeon Kang, ,
Published: 9 May 2022
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 120; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0090702

Abstract:
This manuscript examines the mechanism of strain-coupling in a multiferroic composite of mesoporous cobalt ferrite (CFO), conformally filled with lead zirconate titanate (PZT). We find that when the composites are electrically poled, remanent strain from the piezoelectric PZT layer can be transferred to the magnetostrictive CFO layer. X-ray diffraction shows that this strain transfer is greatest in the most porous samples, in agreement with magnetometry measurements, which show the greatest change in sample saturation magnetization in the most porous samples. Strain analysis shows that porosity both accommodates greater lattice strain and mitigates the effects of substrate clamping in thin film strain-coupled composites.
Ke Yin, Yuangen Huang, Chao Ma, Xianglin Hao, Xiaoke Gao, Xikui Ma,
Published: 9 May 2022
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 120; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0093982

Abstract:
In this article, we report a vector-network-analyzer-free and real-time LC wireless capacitance readout system based on perturbed nonlinear parity-time (PT) symmetry. The system is composed of two inductively coupled reader-sensor parallel RLC resonators with gain and loss, respectively. By searching for the real mode that requires the minimum saturation gain, the steady-state frequency evolution as a function of the sensor capacitance perturbation is analytically deduced. The proposed system can work in different modes by setting different perturbation points. In particular, at the exceptional point of PT symmetry, the system exhibits high sensitivity. Experimental demonstrations revealed the viability of the proposed readout mechanism by measuring the steady-state frequency of the reader resonator in response to the change of trimmer capacitor on the sensor side. Our findings could impact many emerging applications such as implantable medical device for health monitoring, parameter detection in harsh environment, sealed food packages, etc.
Fei Xie, Yuqiang Hu, Lingyun Li, Cao Wang, Qihui Liu, Nan Wang, Lihao Wang, Shuna Wang, Jiangong Cheng, Hao Chen, et al.
Published: 9 May 2022
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 120; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0089732

Abstract:
Miniaturization is a trend of development toward practical applications for diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers-based sensors. We demonstrate a compact diamond magnetic field sensor device using a standard microfabrication process. A single-crystal-diamond plate is embedded in a cavity formed with stacking of three silicon chips. Thermal compression bonding is implemented at silicon–silicon and diamond–silicon interfaces ensuring mechanical robustness. The specific construction volume for the essential sensor component is about 10 × 10 × 1.5 mm3. By integrating a gradient index lens pigtailed fiber to the sensor device, 532-nm laser light and emitted fluorescence share a common path for excitation and detection. An omega-shaped transmission line for applied microwave power is fabricated directly on the surface of diamond. The integrated sensor device exhibits an optimized sensitivity of 2.03 nT·Hz−1/2 and over twofold enhancement of fluorescence collection efficiency compared to bare diamond. Such a sensor is utilized to measure a magnetic field change caused by switching a household electrical appliance.
Kailian Dong, Hai Zhou, Meng Xiao, Pengbin Gui, Zheng Gao, Fang Yao, Wenlong Shao, Chenwei Liu, Chen Tao, Weijun Ke, et al.
Published: 9 May 2022
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 120; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0090569

Abstract:
All-inorganic Bi-based perovskites have attracted much attention due to their excellent stability, environmentally friendly, and low-cost solution processability. However, due to the large exciton binding energy and small light absorption coefficient, the performance of the Bi-based perovskite photodetector (PD) is far behind of the traditional Pb-based perovskite PDs. In this work, the lead-free all-inorganic Cs3Bi2I9 (CBI) perovskite single crystal was synthesized by a space-confined antisolvent-assisted crystallization method for high-performance, semi-transparent, and self-driven PDs with an ITO/SnO2/CBI/PTAA/Au/ITO structure. Electrical and optical properties of Au/ITO transparent electrode were studied considering its figure of merit and device quantum efficiency through optimizing the Au thickness. Finally, our optimized semi-transparent device showed excellent self-driven performance with a large on/off ratio of ∼5700, a high responsivity of 52.06 mA/W, a high detectivity of >1012 Jones, and a large linear dynamic range of up to 140.7 dB. In addition, our device demonstrated excellent characteristics to the weak light detection and the long-term stability. The Au/ITO electrode was adopted and tailored to balance the device performance and transparency, which provides a good route for developing high-performance and transparent devices in the future.
Hans He, Naveen Shetty, , Pascal Stadler, , , J. C. Miranda-Valenzuela, Rositsa Yakimova, ,
Published: 9 May 2022
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 120; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0090219

Abstract:
We show that epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (epigraphene) grown at high temperatures (T >1850 °C) readily acts as material for implementing solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) detectors with outstanding performance. We present centimeter-sized epigraphene metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) detectors with a peak external quantum efficiency of η ∼ 85% for wavelengths λ = 250–280 nm, corresponding to nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency when accounting for reflection losses. Zero bias operation is possible in asymmetric devices, with the responsivity to UV remaining as high as R = 134 mA/W, making this a self-powered detector. The low dark currents Io ∼ 50 fA translate into an estimated record high specific detectivity D = 3.5 × 1015 Jones. The performance that we demonstrate, together with material reproducibility, renders epigraphene technologically attractive to implement high-performance planar MSM devices with a low processing effort, including multi-pixel UV sensor arrays, suitable for a number of practical applications.
Haotian Wan, , Hwang-Pill Kim, , , Yohachi Yamashita,
Published: 9 May 2022
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 120; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0086057

Abstract:
The overpoling effect of alternating current poling (ACP) was studied on [001]-orientated rhombohedral Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.26PbTiO3 (PMN-0.26PT) single crystals. Our experimental results showed that the property enhancement from the ACP was remarkable only when the poling cycle number ( NL) was kept low. When ACP was continued after the saturation, dielectric and piezoelectric properties gradually dropped down to traditional direct current poled levels or even lower. Such a decrease in material properties caused by the large NL during ACP was defined as the “overpoling effect of ACP” in this study. The following lattice symmetry and domain structure characterization studies were performed through x-ray diffraction (XRD) and piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) to find the origin of the overpoling effect. The XRD measurements combined with temperature dependence of dielectric properties demonstrated that the field-induced phase transition continued when the samples became overpoled. Further PFM measurements illustrated that the domain density of the overpoled ACP sample was significantly lower than that of the normal one, while the “2R” domain configuration was maintained through the ACP process. In addition, the hysteresis loop characterization indicated large decreases in the coercive fields. The discovered overpoling effect of ACP could help us understand the mechanisms of ACP and optimize the ACP process.
Published: 9 May 2022
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 120; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0090284

Abstract:
Time-resolved dark-field imaging of alpha Fe2O3 nanoparticle and Ag nanowires using scattered electrons by selected crystal planes are realized by photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM) selecting probing electrons which absorb energy from a transient laser field during their passage through the target particles in a four-dimensional transmission electron microscope (4D-TEM). The high laser fluence illuminated on the particles causes significant part of probing swift electrons exchange energy with the laser light, creating enough PINEM electrons required for the dark-field imaging of particles with high spatiotemporal resolution at nanometer and femtosecond scale. Different from the bright-field PINEM imaging of particles where the outerspace with a close distance to the particle are illuminated by transmitted PINEM electrons, illumination is confined on the particles by selected scattered PINEM electrons, leading to a much more defined and sharp imaging of particles compared with a bright-field PINEM image. In combination with PINEM temporal gating and dark-field selective imaging, the PINEM dark-field imaging technique in the 4D-TEM enables the studies of structural dynamics of selective crystal planes or elements with high spatiotemporal resolution.
Ping Song, Sen Yao, Boxi Zhang, Bo Jiang, Shanshan Deng, Defeng Guo, , Denglu Hou
Published: 9 May 2022
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 120; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0091300

Abstract:
Large magnetization jumps (MJs) can realize an avalanched flip of the spin structure from a low spin state (antiferromagnetic) to a high spin state (ferromagnetic) and has potential applications in spin devices. Here, we report giant MJs in dual-antiferromagnetic hematite-ilmenite (Fe2O3)0.1(FeTiO3)0.9 (HI-9) solid solution. The obtained intensity of MJs (the ratio of an abrupt change in magnetization to saturation magnetization) increases to 53.3%, which is about twice as much as previously reported values in HI-9. These unusually large MJs are achieved by intentionally introducing multiscale distortions with high-stress compression deformation. Both experiments and Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the increase in MJs' intensity originates from the tunable atomic-scale and nano-scale distortions induced by crystal strain energy during the deformation process. Our findings provide an approach to modulate metamagnetic transitions and may inspire fresh ideas for creating high-performance antiferromagnetic materials.
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