Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN / EISSN : 2296-634X / 2296-634X
Current Publisher: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
Total articles ≅ 3,694
Latest articles in this journal
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.641162
Formation of mature bone-resorbing cells through osteoclastogenesis is required for the continuous remodeling and repair of bone tissue. In aging and disease this process may become aberrant, resulting in excessive bone degradation and fragility fractures. Interaction of receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) with its ligand RANKL activates the main signaling pathway for osteoclastogenesis. However, compelling evidence indicates that this pathway may not be sufficient for the production of mature osteoclast cells and that co-stimulatory signals may be required for both the expression of osteoclast-specific genes and the activation of osteoclasts. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), a regulator of osteoclast differentiation, provides one such co-stimulatory pathway. This review summarizes our present knowledge of osteoclastogenesis signaling and the role of OSCAR in the normal production of bone-resorbing cells and in bone disease. Understanding the signaling mechanism through this receptor and how it contributes to the production of mature osteoclasts may offer a more specific and targeted approach for pharmacological intervention against pathological bone resorption.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.640402
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in the self-renewal of stem cells. However, their significance and regulatory mechanisms in female germline stem cells (FGSCs) are largely unknown. Here, we identified an N 6-methyladenosine (m6A)-modified circRNA, circGFRα1, which is highly abundant in mouse ovary and stage-specifically expressed in mouse FGSC development. Knockdown of circGFRα1 in FGSCs significantly reduced their self-renewal. In contrast, overexpression of circGFRα1 enhanced FGSC self-renewal. Mechanistically, circGFRα1 promotes FGSC self-renewal by acting as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) that sponges miR-449, leading to enhanced GFRα1 expression and activation of the glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signaling pathway. Furthermore, circGFRα1 acts as a ceRNA based on METTL14-mediated cytoplasmic export through the GGACU motif. Our study should help to understand the mechanisms regulating germ cell development, add new evidence on the mechanism of action of circRNA, and deepen our understanding of the development of FGSCs.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.647522
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1) is an extracellular matrix metalloproteinase that plays an important role in the process of ovulation. According to previous studies, the expression level of ADAMTS1 in the granulosa cells of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients and the mechanism for regulating oocyte quality and embryonic development potential are still unclear. Our research clarified that ADAMTS1 was significantly increased in granulosa cells of PCOS patients as compared to ovulatory controls. After silencing ADAMTS1 in granulosa cells, cell proliferation and E2 secretion were significantly inhibited, which may be related to the down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) family genes and key genes involved in E2 synthesis. Through retrospective analysis of the clinical data, it was found that the expression level of ADAMTS1 was significantly positively correlated to the oocyte maturation rate and good-quality embryo rate in PCOS patients. The downregulation of ADAMTS1 in primary granulosa cells lead to the changes in the expression of marker genes for oocyte and embryonic quality. By using immunofluorescence staining, it was found ADAMTS1 was expressed in various stages of pre-implantation embryo but its expression level gradually decreases with the development of the embryo. In addition, the silence of ADAMTS1 in 3PN zygotes significantly prolonged the development time of the zygote to the morula stage. This is, to our knowledge, the first time to explored the mechanism by which ADAMST1 is involved in affecting the quality of oocytes and embryonic development potential, which will provide new evidence for further understanding of the follicular microenvironment and embryo development.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.657623
The increasing intensity of environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has increased public concern about its health effects. Of particular concern are the influences of RF-EMF exposure on the development of the brain. The mechanisms of how RF-EMF acts on the developing brain are not fully understood. Here, based on high-throughput RNA sequencing techniques, we revealed that transcripts related to neurite development were significantly influenced by 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure during neuronal differentiation. Exposure to RF-EMF remarkably decreased the total length of neurite and the number of branch points in neural stem cells-derived neurons and retinoic acid-induced Neuro-2A cells. The expression of Eph receptors 5 (EPHA5), which is required for neurite outgrowth, was inhibited remarkably after RF-EMF exposure. Enhancing EPHA5 signaling rescued the inhibitory effects of RF-EMF on neurite outgrowth. Besides, we identified that cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and RhoA were critical downstream factors of EPHA5 signaling in mediating the inhibitory effects of RF-EMF on neurite outgrowth. Together, our finding revealed that RF-EMF exposure impaired neurite outgrowth through EPHA5 signaling. This finding explored the effects and key mechanisms of how RF-EMF exposure impaired neurite outgrowth and also provided a new clue to understanding the influences of RF-EMF on brain development.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.661787
Hair disorders such as alopecia and hirsutism often impact the social and psychological well-being of an individual. This also holds true for patients with severe burns who have lost their hair follicles (HFs). HFs stimulate proper wound healing and prevent scar formation; thus, HF research can benefit numerous patients. Although hair development and hair disorders are intensively studied, human HF development has not been fully elucidated. Research on human fetal material is often subject to restrictions, and thus development, disease, and wound healing studies remain largely dependent on time-consuming and costly animal studies. Although animal experiments have yielded considerable and useful information, it is increasingly recognized that significant differences exist between animal and human skin and that it is important to obtain meaningful human models. Human disease specific models could therefore play a key role in future therapy. To this end, hair organoids or hair-bearing skin-on-chip created from the patient’s own cells can be used. To create such a complex 3D structure, knowledge of hair genesis, i.e., the early developmental process, is indispensable. Thus, uncovering the mechanisms underlying how HF progenitor cells within human fetal skin form hair buds and subsequently HFs is of interest. Organoid studies have shown that nearly all organs can be recapitulated as mini-organs by mimicking embryonic conditions and utilizing the relevant morphogens and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Therefore, knowledge of the cellular and ECM proteins in the skin of human fetuses is critical to understand the evolution of epithelial tissues, including skin appendages. This review aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of the cellular changes occurring during human skin and HF development. We further discuss the potential implementation of this knowledge in establishing a human in vitro model of a full skin substitute containing hair follicles and the subsequent translation to clinical use.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.658460
Lymphocytes rearrange their shape, membrane receptors and organelles during cognate contacts with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Activation of T cells by APCs through pMHC-TCR/CD3 interaction (peptide-major histocompatibility complex-T cell receptor/CD3 complexes) involves different steps that lead to the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and organelles and, eventually, activation of nuclear factors allowing transcription and ultimately, replication and cell division. Both the positioning of the lymphocyte centrosome in close proximity to the APC and the nucleation of a dense microtubule network beneath the plasma membrane from the centrosome support the T cell’s intracellular polarity. Signaling from the TCR is facilitated by this traffic, which constitutes an important pathway for regulation of T cell activation. The coordinated enrichment upon T cell stimulation of the chaperonin CCT (chaperonin-containing tailless complex polypeptide 1; also termed TRiC) and tubulins at the centrosome area support polarized tubulin polymerization and T cell activation. The proteasome is also enriched in the centrosome of activated T cells, providing a mechanism to balance local protein synthesis and degradation. CCT assists the folding of proteins coming from de novo synthesis, therefore favoring mRNA translation. The functional role of this chaperonin in regulating cytoskeletal composition and dynamics at the immune synapse is discussed.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.668735
Autophagy is an important subcellular event engaged in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis via the degradation of cargo proteins and malfunctioning organelles. In response to cellular stresses, like nutrient deprivation, infection, and DNA damaging agents, autophagy is activated to reduce the damage and restore cellular homeostasis. One of the responses to cellular stresses is the DNA damage response (DDR), the intracellular pathway that senses and repairs damaged DNA. Proper regulation of these pathways is crucial for preventing diseases. The involvement of autophagy in the repair and elimination of DNA aberrations is essential for cell survival and recovery to normal conditions, highlighting the importance of autophagy in the resolution of cell fate. In this review, we summarized the latest information about autophagic recycling of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ribosomes (called mitophagy, ER-phagy, and ribophagy, respectively) in response to DNA damage. In addition, we have described the key events necessary for a comprehensive understanding of autophagy signaling networks. Finally, we have highlighted the importance of the autophagy activated by DDR and appropriate regulation of autophagic organelles, suggesting insights for future studies. Especially, DDR from DNA damaging agents including ionizing radiation (IR) or anti-cancer drugs, induces damage to subcellular organelles and autophagy is the key mechanism for removing impaired organelles.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.612774
In modern anti-cancer therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) the anti-angiogenic treatment targeting sprouting angiogenesis is firmly established for more than a decade. However, its clinical benefits still remain limited. As liver metastases (LM) represent the most common metastatic site of colorectal cancer and affect approximately one-quarter of the patients diagnosed with this malignancy, its treatment is an essential aspect for patients' prognosis. Especially in the perioperative setting, the application of anti-angiogenic drugs represents a therapeutic option that may be used in case of high-risk or borderline resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) in order to achieve secondary resectability. Regarding CRCLM, one reason for the limitations of anti-angiogenic treatment may be represented by vessel co-option (VCO), which is an alternative mechanism of blood supply that differs fundamentally from the well-known sprouting angiogenesis and occurs in a significant fraction of CRCLM. In this scenario, tumor cells hijack pre-existing mature vessels of the host organ independently from stimulating new vessels formation. This represents an escape mechanism from common anti-angiogenic anti-cancer treatments, as they primarily target the main trigger of sprouting angiogenesis, the vascular endothelial growth factor A. Moreover, the mechanism of blood supply in CRCLM can be deduced from their phenotypic histopathological growth pattern (HGP). For that, a specific guideline has already been implemented. These HGP vary not only regarding their blood supply, but also concerning their tumor microenvironment (TME), as notable differences in immune cell infiltration and desmoplastic reaction surrounding the CRCLM can be observed. The latter actually serves as one of the central criteria for the classification of the HGP. Regarding the clinically relevant effects of the HGP, it is still a topic of research whether the VCO-subgroup of CRCLM results in an impaired treatment response to anti-angiogenic treatment when compared to an angiogenic subgroup. However, it is well-proved, that VCO in CRCLM generally relates to an inferior survival compared to the angiogenic subgroup. Altogether the different types of blood supply result in a relevant influence on the patients' prognosis. This reinforces the need of an extended understanding of the underlying mechanisms of VCO in CRCLM with the aim to generate more comprehensive approaches which can target tumor vessels alternatively or even other components of the TME. This review aims to augment the current state of knowledge on VCO in CRCLM and other tumor entities and its impact on anti-angiogenic anti-cancer therapy.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.649875
The incidence of invasive fungal infections is increasing worldwide, resulting in more than 1.6 million deaths every year. Due to growing antifungal drug resistance and the limited number of currently used antimycotics, there is a clear need for novel antifungal strategies. In this context, great potential is attributed to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are part of the innate immune system of organisms. These peptides are known for their broad-spectrum activity that can be directed toward bacteria, fungi, viruses, and/or even cancer cells. Some AMPs act via rapid physical disruption of microbial cell membranes at high concentrations causing cell leakage and cell death. However, more complex mechanisms are also observed, such as interaction with specific lipids, production of reactive oxygen species, programmed cell death, and autophagy. This review summarizes the structure and mode of action of antifungal AMPs, thereby focusing on their interaction with fungal membranes.
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fcell.2021.647300
Although the largely positive intramembrane dipole potential (DP) may substantially influence the function of transmembrane proteins, its investigation is deeply hampered by the lack of measurement techniques suitable for high-throughput examination of living cells. Here, we describe a novel emission ratiometric flow cytometry method based on F66, a 3-hydroxiflavon derivative, and demonstrate that 6-ketocholestanol, cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol, saturated stearic acid (SA) and ω-6 γ-linolenic acid (GLA) increase, while ω-3 α-linolenic acid (ALA) decreases the DP. These changes do not correlate with alterations in cell viability or membrane fluidity. Pretreatment with ALA counteracts, while SA or GLA enhances cholesterol-induced DP elevations. Furthermore, ALA (but not SA or GLA) increases endo-lysosomal escape of penetratin, a cell-penetrating peptide. In summary, we have developed a novel method to measure DP in large quantities of individual living cells and propose ALA as a physiological DP lowering agent facilitating cytoplasmic entry of penetratin.