Review of Scientific Instruments
ISSN / EISSN : 0034-6748 / 1089-7623
Published by: AIP Publishing (10.1063)
Total articles ≅ 53,565
Latest articles in this journal
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0090471
This paper proposes a new concept of phantom development, along with the utilization of new materials that can reproduce lung morphology and density. A lung substitute phantom using microspheres was fabricated; then, its dosimetric utility in radiotherapy was investigated, during which the density was adjusted to closely resemble the morphology of the actual human lung. Microspheres were used to reproduce alveoli, which are the main components of the lung. By changing the ratio of urethane, which is commonly used in soft tissue phantoms, to microspheres, we reproduced the density change of the lungs due to respiration. Here, we fabricated two slab-like lung substitutes to emulate commercially used phantoms. Although there is room for improvement in terms of practicality, the substitutes were easy to fabricate. Microscopic observation of the cut surface of the phantoms showed that the morphology of the phantoms mimicked the alveoli more faithfully than commercial phantoms. Furthermore, to compensate for the energy-independent mass attenuation and mass collision inhibition ability required by the tissue substitute phantom, we examined the physical properties of the phantom and confirmed that there was negligible energy dependence.
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0082131
A new type of compact high-resolution high-sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer for short-pulse intense gamma-rays (250 keV to 50 MeV) has been developed by combining the principles of scintillators and attenuation spectrometers. The first prototype of this scintillator attenuation spectrometer (SAS) was tested successfully in Trident laser experiments at LANL. Later versions have been used extensively in the Texas Petawatt laser experiments in Austin, TX, and more recently in OMEGA-EP laser experiments at LLE, Rochester, NY. The SAS is particularly useful for high-repetition-rate laser applications. Here, we give a concise description of the design principles, capabilities, and sample preliminary results of the SAS.
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0082970
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0091900
Vibration in the audio frequency band affects the performance of rotating gravity gradiometers used for airborne mineral exploration. This is probably due to translation to rotation coupling inside the gradiometer platform. It was found that the DC gravity gradient signal was proportional to the square of the third time derivative of position, or jerk squared. The demanding airborne environment for such instrumentation demands a light weight broadband acoustic shield and vibration isolator. This paper presents the design principles for such an isolator, based on vibration isolated spherical shell structures. Performance data are presented as well as flight test data that demonstrated a 14% gravity gradient noise reduction compared with an unshielded instrument.
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0087171
The monolithic Wolter mirror is an ideal optical device for focusing soft x rays to a submicron-sized spot, with the advantages of high efficiency, large acceptance, achromaticity, and robustness to alignment error. The fabrication process for this type of mirror has not been established because of the difficulty in highly accurate figure measurement of free-form surfaces with small radii of curvature and steep profiles. In this study, we employed tactile scanning measurement for surface characterization to fabricate a high-precision Wolter mirror. First, it was demonstrated that the touch probe measurement did not leave scratches on the raw surface of the mirror substrate. Next, the measurement capability of the surface profiler was assessed, and the data analysis conditions were determined. Finally, the Wolter mirror was fabricated through repeated figure correction based on the tactile measurement, and the figure error of the final surface was evaluated. Wave-optical simulations that used this error as reference suggested that the size of the beam focused by the mirror was equivalent to the theoretical value at 1000 eV. The reflected image with uniform intensity distribution obtained at SPring-8 also revealed the effectiveness of the present fabrication approach based on tactile measurement.
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0085971
This paper proposes an adaptive backstepping sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) to solve the problem that the tracking performance of the motion system of a permanent magnet spherical motor (PMSpM) is degraded due to the influence of external nonlinear disturbance. First, the dynamic model of the PMSpM under the compound interference is established. Second, an NDO and an adaptive backstepping sliding mode controller are designed to compensate for the external disturbances and modeling uncertainties, and the stability of the closed-loop system using the proposed method is confirmed through the Lyapunov theorem. Then, compared with the results of proportion differentiation control and conventional sliding mode control, the simulation results show that the proposed method can significantly reduce input signal chattering and improve the trajectory tracking performance of the PMSpM. Finally, experimental results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0084347
We introduce a simple method to extract the nuclear coherent and isotope incoherent, spin incoherent, and magnetic neutron scattering cross section components from powder scattering data measured using a single neutron beam polarization direction and a position-sensitive detector with large out-of-plane coverage. The method draws inspiration from polarized small-angle neutron scattering and contrasts with conventional so-called “ xyz” polarization analysis on wide-angle instruments, which requires measurements with three orthogonal polarization directions. The viability of the method is demonstrated on both simulated and experimental data for the classical “spin ice” system Ho2Ti2O7, the latter from the linear energy transfer direct geometry spectrometer at the International Science Information Service facility. The cross section components can be reproduced with good fidelity by either fitting the out-of-plane angle dependence around a Debye–Scherrer cone or grouping the data by angle and performing a matrix inversion. The limitations of the method and its practical uses are discussed.
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0061736
In this paper, we present an apparatus for studies into the photodetachment process of atomic negative ions. State-selective detection of the residual atom following the initial photodetachment step is achieved by combining resonant laser excitation of the photo-detached atom with electric field ionization. The resonance ionization technique in combination with a co-linear ion–laser beam geometry gives an experimental apparatus that has both high selectivity and sensitivity. In addition to measurements of a single selected partial photodetachment channel, the apparatus also can be used to study a manifold of photodetachment channels in which the residual atom is left in a high-lying Rydberg state and for investigation of the double electron-detachment process. Ion-optical simulations in SIMION are used to illustrate the operation of the apparatus for studying such processes. Successful performance of the apparatus against the simulation is demonstrated by a high resolution study of the photodetachment of cesium, where the sharp s-wave threshold of the photodetachment processes leaving the residual atom in the excited 6 p state was investigated.
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0090919
The VERsatile DIffractometer will set a new standard for a world-class magnetic diffractometer with versatility for both powder and single crystal samples and capability for wide-angle polarization analysis. The instrument will utilize a large single-frame bandwidth and will offer high-resolution at low momentum transfers and excellent signal-to-noise ratio. A horizontal elliptical mirror concept with interchangeable guide pieces will provide high flexibility in beam divergence to allow for a high-resolution powder mode, a high-intensity single crystal mode, and a polarized beam option. A major science focus will be quantum materials that exhibit emergent properties arising from collective effects in condensed matter. The unique use of polarized neutrons to isolate the magnetic signature will provide optimal experimental input to state-of-the-art modeling approaches to access detailed insight into local magnetic ordering.
Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0084047
A new shock tube facility has been designed, constructed, and characterized at the University of Central Florida. This facility is capable of withstanding pressures of up to 1000 atm, allowing for combustion diagnostics of extreme conditions, such as in rocket combustion chambers or in novel power conversion cycles. For studies with toxic gas impurities, the high initial pressures required the development of a gas delivery system to ensure the longevity of the facility and the safety of the personnel. Data acquisition and experimental propagation were implemented with remote access to ensure safety, paired with a LabVIEW- and Python-based user interface. Thus far, test pressures of 270 atm, blast pressures of 730 atm, and temperatures approaching 10 000 K have been achieved. The extreme limitations of this facility allow for emission spectroscopy to be performed during the oxidation of fuel mixtures, e.g., alkanes diluted in argon and carbon dioxide. Ignition delay times were determined and compared to simulations using chemical kinetic mechanisms. The design, experimental procedures, processes of analysis, and uncertainty determination are outlined, and typical pressure profiles are compared with a new gas dynamics solver and empirical correlations developed across multiple shock tube facilities. Preliminary reactive mixture analyses are included with further investigation of the mixtures outlined.