ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2527-9319 / 2548-9747
Total articles ≅ 85
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Dwiyanti Kusumaningrum, Tria Anggita Hafsari, Lukman Syam
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia pp 200-216; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i2.17918

Abstract:
This exploratory research aims to elaborate the historical geography of sand mining in Jeneberang River and analyze its relation to urban development in South Sulawesi. This paper attempts to comprehensively explain and enrich the literature on Jeneberang start from physical setting of Jeneberang River to the history of Makassar and transformation of traditional houses to explain how sand perceived as a commodity and how sand mining has developed. We use a qualitative approach that emphasizes the interpretation of spatiotemporal morphology of sandbanks in Jeneberang River and investigate sand mining activities from time to time. The method consists of a study of Jeneberang historical literature, spatiotemporal analysis, in-depth interviews, and field observations. We find that sands have started to become a commodity since urban development began in South Sulawesi. With volcanic and marine sedimentary rocks dominate the region and the braided river morphology, Jeneberang River is rich of sand and gravel materials. The ‘modern’ architecture brought by the Dutch and South Sulawesi rebellion in 1950 has affected major transformation from wooden traditional houses to concrete-building houses, which indirectly affect the sand mining activities in Jeneberang. No more wooden and bamboo or palm leaves, but sand and gravel for concrete materials. In the current context, Makassar’s rapid urbanization and economic growth in have increased the demand of building materials from Jeneberang River. In addition, rapid urbanization has also been changed the livelihoods of local communities, especially in the suburb to cope with the urban development. Many people who previously work as farmers are now becoming sand miners because they perceive that sand mining is more profitable than agriculture.
Alem Febri Sonni, Muhammad Amrullah, Tuti Bahfiarti
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i2.14640

Abstract:
This article aims to explain the symbolic meaning in the process of making the traditional sandeq boat of the Mandar people. The data collection process was carried out from April to June 2017. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews with 6 purposively selected expert informants, as well as direct observation in the field. The results of this study indicate that the ritual that accompanies the making of the traditional sandeq boat is seen in three main stages, namely: at the beginning of boat building, in the process of making boats, and launching boats into the sea. The meaning contained in the implementation of the ritual is the hope that it will always be given safety in using the boat. In addition, the ritual also intends to ask for abundant sustenance from the process of going to sea later. The religious value of the Mandar people is clearly seen from every stage of the ritual carried out, using mantras and prayers as verbal messages adopted from the Quran and with Islamic nuances. In addition, nonverbal messages in the ritual of making sandeq boats are centered on the use of ussul or the knowledge system of the local community which is carried out with actions or symbolic objects to show their hopes or desires.
Chen Yanrenjing, Pande Made Kutanegara
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i2.18092

Abstract:
This article tries to analyze the acculturation process and acculturation strategies of Chinese students in Indonesia, particular in Yogyakarta. In recent years, the number of Chinese students studying abroad has increased rapidly, and Indonesia has also become one of the destinations. In response to the call of the “One Belt, One Road” policy, Chinese universities have established Indonesian language majors. More and more Chinese students come to Indonesia as exchange students, and at the same time are experiencing the process of acculturation. This research uses Yogyakarta as a research base and aims to propose strategies for the acculturation of Chinese students in Yogyakarta. The research uses ethnographic methods; literature reviews, participant observation, and structured interviews for data collection. The study found that in the early period, Chinese students had quite a lot of difficulty in adapting and acculturating with local people and culture. In the process of adaptation, Chinese students should improve the initiative of acculturation, cultivate new ideas and value systems, and learn to enjoy Indonesian customs.
Ikma Citra Ranteallo, , Meredian Alam, Lala Mulyowibowo Kolopaking, Djuara Pangihutan Lubis, Ervizal Amir Muhammad Zuhud, Imanuella Romaputri Andilolo, Azwar Hadi Nasution, Muchamad Zaenal Arifin
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i2.14713

Abstract:
The proliferating public interest in conservation can be explored by monitoring what people say and what people do on social media platforms. YouTube is one of the resources for digital conservation studies as the users are allowed to archive and share content. Meanwhile, networks visualization provided by computer software is powerful to preserve vernacular languages since text(s) tagging is one of the main processes in gaining data. The present study aims to answer research questions using a transdisciplinary approach to sociology, ethnobotany, and communication science. Thus, this research enquires; (a) how might conservation of Toraja rice landraces be practiced continuously? (b) what are the current forms of conservation that are developed and accepted as Toraja socio-cultural activities? (c) how do social media platforms, YouTube, for instance, contribute to the conservation efforts in rice landraces? (d) what are the social implications of conservation education through social media? In order to answer the above questions, six different research methods, namely, observations, in-depth interview, mapping distribution of rice landrace varieties in six fields of studies, calculating Index of Cultural Significance on rice accessions for practicing conservation rice landrace. Digital conservation and conservation culturomics were also measured using NodeXL and API for visualizing the graph of YouTube videos network and calculating the frequency of words occurrence according to search string Toraja rice ritual. The outcome from the study indicates the current forms of conservation by cultivating and consuming rice landrace varieties on everyday life and ritual, as well as preserving rice and agriculture images on wood carving motifs, folk song, and folk dance. The digital conservation efforts are demonstrated by archiving and broadcasting rice rituals on YouTube videos. With an increase of frequency on word occurrences by Toraja language on hashtags on YouTube videos, the users were contributing to participatory culture for preserving vernacular language and promoting agricultural innovations in digital conservation ecosystems and environmental communication.
Andi Batara Al Isra
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i1.14294

Abstract:
The book review reveals the issue of modernity from James Ferguson’s Expectation of Modernity: Myths and Meanings of Urban Life on the Zambian Copperbelt which is dismantling and heart-breaking. This well-written and thick seven chapters book is based on Ferguson’s ethnographic fieldwork in Copperbelt, Zambia, between 1970s-1990s. The book introduced what is called the ethnography of decline, a way of understanding people’s point of view about their own experience of social, cultural, and economic ‘advance’ and ‘decline’. A very hard task for ethnographers since they must deal with the situation instead of working with people. Related to that, Ferguson also explores a concept called ‘abjection’, a process of being thrown (down) aside, expelled or discarded. Using this concept, he claims that modernity is quite similar to colonialism which brings the dichotomy of ‘the west’ and ‘the rest’ where the west is ‘modern’ and the rest is ‘savage’. Thus, globalization of economy brought by modernization has been experienced as abjection and disconnection, leading to a conclusion that modernity is no more than a myth that would never exist.
Thamrin Pawalluri, Darmawan Salman, Imam Mujahidin Fahmid, Hidayat Marmin, Arfenti Amir, Amruddin Ambo Enre
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia pp 112-120; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i1.14138

Abstract:
Local institutions that encourage self-organization to achieve shared goals are a characteristic of social capital. In Indonesia, social capital in farming communities is tudangsipulung or sitting one another in deciding various matters related to farming. However, tudangsipulung has been transformed. This study aims to determine the causes, processes, and consequences of social change in a tudangsipulung tradition. This research used a case study with a case unit in a village and collected data through in-depth interviews, field observations, and document reviews. The results showed that the cause of the change was an abandonment of traditional rituals in farming because farmers considered such rituals to delay activities and require cost to reduce the effectiveness and efficiency. In addition, there is also a shift in the position of actors, where the schedule of the planting, which indigenous knowledge possessed by traditional leaders previously determined, changed to the role of climatologists and officials from the government. The process of social change takes a long time and slowly, along with the social dynamics of the rice farming community, which makes tudangsipulung tradition a place to work together to achieve a shared goal for farmers. The process of social change has consequences for eliminating a need to give each other kindness and lack of trust among farmers.
Asvic Helida, Ervizal Amir Muhammad Zuhud
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia pp 66-81; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i1.12455

Abstract:
Proverb of a community can indicate their level of knowledge on natural resource and forest management. These expressions are an effective way to learn about traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Differences or similarities in the knowledge systems of various ethnic groups can be found by comparing their expressions. This traditional ecological knowledge is passed down from generation to generation through oral tradition. Oral traditions are not always reliable because they depend on memory and oral transmission. However, unlike proverbs, old sayings and societal rules have more validity by their nature. Proverbs and old sayings are expressions of fundamental truths or practical perceptions based on common sense or cultural experience. The Kerinci community in Kerinci Regency, Jambi Province, is known to have these expressions, but it has not been documented. Therefore the significance of this research needs to be done. The maintenance of expressions of oral tradition is a task from generation to generation simultaneously so that the collection of expressions in the form of proverbs, proverbs, and local rules from a community group becomes essential for the development of science. This study aims to document and analyze the expressions of the people of Kerinci. The research method was carried out qualitatively with library research techniques and interviews with resource persons. The results show that there are 30 expressions of the Kerinci community consisting of proverbs and old rules. These expressions show that the people of Kerinci have the knowledge they get from nature and the ecosystem in which they live.
Dwi Wahyuningtyas, Ade Kusuma, Roziana Febrianita,
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia pp 47-65; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i1.11973

Abstract:
Private radio, which relies on programs with local cultural content in local languages, affects the success of reaching large audiences and financial benefits. In East Java, four private radios have the advantage of local cultural programs, namely Radio Jodhipati FM in Nganjuk, Radio Sritanjung FM in Banyuwangi, Radio Nada FM Sumenep, and Radio Media FM in Surabaya. This study aims to determine what cultural programs can increase the number of listeners and profitability on the four cultural radios. Furthermore, to find out why listeners like local cultural programs of each radio. This research on broadcast content on four cultural radios uses virtual ethnographic methods by collecting data, both offline and online. Researchers are involved in broadcasting activities on four cultural radios (offline) and listener interaction activities in the virtual world (online), namely Facebook and WhatsApp. This study conducted interviews with twelve informants representing radio management, local cultural figures, and loyal listeners. The results showed that each radio has excellent cultural programs with a solid appeal to maintain listener loyalty. The four cultural radios involve cultural experts in designing cultural programs. Listeners try to maintain local tastes because they realize that love for local culture is a strengthening of national identity, which is the richness of Indonesian culture.
Aswin Baharuddin, Adelita Lubis, Nurafiah Mustafa, Resky Ameliyah Arief, Achmad Firdaus Gassing, Mia Aulina Lubis
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia pp 24-35; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i1.12633

Abstract:
This research is an elaboration of the response of the coalition of NGOs and affected communities in rejecting the sand mining in Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi. This study aims to analyze the motives and methods of advocacy carried out by NGOs and affected communities. This study also tries to examine the factors that influence cohesiveness between those who are resistant to this extractive industry. This research uses a qualitative approach. We got data in this study through interviews, observations, and document reviews. This study found that the primary motive of the Save Coastal Alliance Against the Sea Sand Mine in Takalar expresses resistance from NGOs and affected communities on the economic and environmental effects of the extractive industry of sand mining. The advocacy method adopted includes four step strategies. The first is conducting political education for citizens; Second, build alliances with other NGOs and; Third is conducting a lawsuit and; Fourth, through non-litigation. The study also found that cohesiveness between NGOs and affected communities was the dynamics of each group internally. This has contributed to building the context of relations between NGOs and the community.
Akhmad Kadir, Agustina Ivonne Poli, Pawennari Hijjang, Usman Idris, Aisyah Ali, Fredrik Sokoy
ETNOSIA : Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia pp 36-46; https://doi.org/10.31947/etnosia.v6i1.13074

Abstract:
One model of ownership of access and the management of coastal and marine resources is a communal property widely applied to indigenous peoples who have ”hak ulayat” (customary rights) over coastal and marine areas. This article aims to analyze and deeply describe the traditional knowledge systems and coastal resource management of the Tobati-Enggros coastal fishermen. This research is a qualitative descriptive study using an ethnographic approach. The data collection techniques used were in-depth interviews and field observations. The data analysis is interpretive descriptive. The results showed the traditional maritime knowledge system in Tobati-Enggros fishers includes the nature of the marine coast, fishing gears, types of fishing, and fishing season. Management of Coastal Resources is also regulated in the Customary Authority under the leadership of ”Keondoafian” (tribal chief) by implementing Manjo in managing coastal resources. This shows that the existence of Manjo customary law and subsistence utilization patterns, based on traditional knowledge systems, the Tobati-Enggros fishing community has local wisdom values closely connected with the aim of marine conservation.
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