International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

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ISSN / EISSN : 16617827 / 16604601
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 12,979
Google Scholar h5-index: 68
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Juan Machimbarrena, Joaquín González-Cabrera, Jéssica Ortega-Barón, Marta Beranuy-Fargues, Aitor Álvarez-Bardón, Blanca Tejero
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203877

Abstract:The internet has been a breakthrough for adolescents in many ways, but its use can also become dysfunctional and problematic, leading to consequences for personal well-being. The main objective is to analyze profiles related to problematic internet use and its relationship with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). An analytical and cross-sectional study was carried out in a region of northern Spain. The sample comprised 12,285 participants. Sampling was random and representative. Mean age and standard deviation was 14.69 ± 1.73 (11–18 years). The Spanish versions of the Problematic and Generalized Internet Use Scale (GPIUS2) and of the Health-Related Quality of Life (KIDSCREEN-27) were used. Four profiles were detected (non-problematic use, mood regulator, problematic internet use, and severe problematic use). The prevalence of these last two profiles was 18.5% and 4.9%, respectively. Problematic internet use correlated negatively and significantly with HRQoL. The severe problematic use profile presented a significant decrease in all dimensions of HRQoL. Analyses were carried out to extract a diagnostic cut-off point for GPIUS2 (52 points). The results and practical implications are discussed.
Dussart Claude, Boulliat Caroline, Camal Isabelle, Bourgeois Denis, Carrouel Florence
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203878

Abstract:This study aims to evaluate the potential role of pillboxes used for the preparation and delivery of individual daily medical treatments in the drug circuit of the Military Instruction Hospital (France) as reservoirs of bacterial contaminants. Samples were obtained from 32 pillboxes after decontamination (T1), after preparation in the pharmacy (T2), after use in two different medical units (T3), and again after usual mechanical washing (T4). Qualitative (identification and antibiotic susceptibility) and quantitative (contamination rate and number of colony forming units—CFUs) bacteriological tests were performed. Susceptible and resistant strains of environmental saprophytes were identified. The pillbox contamination rate was relatively low at T1 (13%). It was significantly increased at T2 (63%, p = 0.001 vs. T1), again at T3 (88%, p < 0.05 vs. T2, p < 0.001 vs. T1), and finally decreased dramatically at T4 (31%, p < 0.001 vs. T3, p > 0.05 vs. T1). The number of CFUs was significantly increased at T2 compared with that of T1 (36.7 ± 13.4 and 5.36 ± 3.64, respectively, p < 0.001) and again at T3 (84.4 ± 19.4, p < 0.001 vs. T1 and T2) and was significantly reduced at T4 (7.0 ± 2.0 vs. T3, p < 0.001) to a level that was not significantly different from that at T1. So, the use of pillboxes to deliver individual medications to patients in the hospital is a potential risk factor for bacterial cross-contamination.
Hemin Song, Shuai Zhao, Wenwen Zhao, Hua Han
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203880

Abstract:The present study aims to explore the impact of career development support on job adaptation and withdrawal intention, and the multilevel moderating role of host country environmental factors. Through the questionnaire survey, we collected 242 expatriates’ data of 25 countries from China’s multinational corporations. Based on the constructed multilevel analysis model, we find: (1) career development support has a significant impact on job adaptation and withdrawal intention of expatriates; (2) job adaptation plays a mediating role between career development support and withdrawal intention; and (3) host country environment plays the multilevel moderating role between career development support and job adaptation. Through the multilevel model of host country environment, this study explores the mechanism of how career development support affects job adaptation and withdrawal intention. The conclusions enhance the understanding of the adaptation of expatriates and have important theoretical and practical reference value to achieve successful expatriate in the context of host country environment.
Seung-Kyoung Yang, Yeongmi Ha
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203879

Abstract:Exposure to work-related traumatic incidents in firefighters may result in positive psychological changes which are termed “posttraumatic growth”. This study aimed to construct structure equation modeling based on the model of posttraumatic growth in firefighters. Methods: A total of 226 firefighters who had experienced a work-related traumatic incident participated. The participants from three municipal fire departments and seven fire stations completed an anonymous survey asking about extraversion, optimism, calling in the workplace, problem-focused coping, deliberate rumination, and posttraumatic growth. The model fit indices were suitable for the recommended level. Seven of the 11 paths established in the initial hypothetical model were identified. The variables of deliberate rumination, problem-focused coping, and extraversion had a significant effect on the posttraumatic growth of firefighters, with an explanatory power of 38.7%. The findings show that it is important to develop strategies to enhance deliberate rumination and problem-focused coping for firefighters after work-related traumatic events.
Luis Leitão, Ana Pereira, Mauro Mazini, Gabriela Venturini, Yuri Campos, João Vieira, Jefferson Novaes, Jeferson Vianna, Sandro Da Silva, Hugo Louro
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203881

Abstract:Physical exercise results in very important benefits including preventing disease and promoting the quality of life of older individuals. Common interruptions and training cessation are associated with the loss of total health profile, and specifically cardiorespiratory fitness. Would detraining (DT) promote different effects in the cardiorespiratory and health profiles of trained and sedentary older women? Forty-seven older women were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG) (EG: n = 28, 70.3 ± 2.3 years; CG: n = 19, 70.1 ± 5.6 years). Oxygen uptake (VO2) and health profile assessments were conducted after the exercise program and after three months of detraining. The EG followed a nine-month multicomponent exercise program before a three-month detraining period. The CG maintained their normal activities. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant increases in total heath and VO2 (p < 0.01) profile over a nine-month exercise period in the EG and no significant increases in the CG. DT led to greater negative effects on total cholesterol (4.35%, p < 0.01), triglycerides (3.89%, p < 0.01), glucose (4.96%, p < 0.01), resting heart rate (5.15%, p < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (4.13%, p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (3.38%, p < 0.01), the six-minute walk test (7.57%, p < 0.01), Pulmonary Ventilation (VE) (10.16%, p < 0.01), the Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (9.78, p < 0.05), and VO2/heart rate (HR) (16.08%, p < 0.01) in the EG. DT may induce greater declines in total health profile and in VO2, mediated, in part, by the effectiveness of multicomponent training particularly developed for older women.
Li Zhang, Yanhan Chen, Yalan Lv, Xia Yang, Qianyu Yin, Li Bai, Yaling Luo, Manoj Sharma, Yong Zhao
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203882

Abstract:Background: Smoking is among the most preventable causes of death globally. Tobacco cessation can lessen the number of potential deaths. The China Tobacco Cessation Guidelines encourage medical staff to perform the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) when delivering tobacco dependence treatments to patients. Nursing students will develop to be nurses in the future and they have to finish 9 months of clinical practicum study in the last year at hospitals or care centers. However, the frequency of behaviors used to help smokers quit among Chinese nursing internship students is unclear. This study analyzed the rate of nurse interns’ performance of the 5As and which demographic characteristics, perceptions of smoking and knowledge predicted higher performance of the 5As. Methods: The cluster sampling method was used to select 13 teaching hospitals among 29. All nursing intern students were expected to finish the questionnaire about their 5As behaviors to help patients quit smoking. Their 5As performances were scored from one to five with 5 being the best and scores were summed. A multivariate linear mixed-effect model was employed to test the differences between their 5As. Results: Participating in the survey were 1358 interns (62.4% response rate). The average scores were as follows—Ask—3.15, Advise—2.75, Assess—2.67, Assist—2.58 and Arrange—2.42. A total of 56.3% students perceived that medical staff should perform the 5As routinely to help patients quit smoking. On the other hand, 52.1% viewed clinical preceptors as role models of the 5As. School education regarding tobacco control, smoking dependence treatment, self-efficacy and positive intentions were predictors of higher performance of the 5As (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Nursing internship students seldom administered tobacco dependence treatments to patients. It is essential to improve the corresponding education, skills and self-efficacy of the 5As. Meanwhile, clinical preceptors should procure more training in the responsibilities and skills related to tobacco cessation. In this way, clinical preceptors can be role models of the 5As and impart positive influences on interns.
Naser Alsharairi
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203852

Abstract:Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease which is associated with higher levels of systemic inflammation. The causes of asthma remain poorly understood. Unhealthy diet and food allergy are potential risk factors for developing asthma. The prevalence of asthma in the Arabian Gulf region (AGR), and Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar in particular, is higher than in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. In the AGR, diets tend to be of low nutritional value due to high levels of total energy, cholesterol, sodium, added sugars and saturated fat, and low levels of fiber, fruit and vegetables. A few studies that include children and adults in the AGR have suggested a potential link between unhealthy diets/specific food allergens and increased risk of asthma, however, the association of food allergy with asthma is still a controversial issue. The aim of this commentary is to consider the evidence from the AGR regarding the effects of diet/food allergy on asthma risk that may be used to make recommendations for future research.
Juan Carrasco, Sofía Pérez-Alenda, José Casaña, Emilio Soria-Olivas, Santiago Bonanad, Felipe Querol
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203851

Abstract:Physical activity (PA) is highly beneficial for people with haemophilia (PWH), however, studies that objectively monitor the PA in this population are scarce. This study aimed to monitor the daily PA and analyse its evolution over time in a cohort of PWH using a commercial activity tracker. In addition, this work analyses the relationship between PA levels, demographics, and joint health status, as well as the acceptance and adherence to the activity tracker. Twenty-six PWH were asked to wear a Fitbit Charge HR for 13 weeks. According to the steps/day in the first week, data were divided into two groups: Active Group (AG; ≥10,000 steps/day) and Non-Active Group (NAG; p > 0.05) in PA levels or adherence to wristband were produced. Only the correlation between very active minutes and arthropathy was significant (r = −0.40, p = 0.045). Results of the questionnaire showed a high level of satisfaction. In summary, PWH are able to comply with the PA recommendations, and the Fitbit wristband is a valid tool for a continuous and long-term monitoring of PA. However, by itself, the use of a wristband is not enough motivation to increase PA levels.
Maura Kepper, Amanda Staiano, Peter Katzmarzyk, Rodrigo Reis, Amy Eyler, Derek Griffith, Michelle Kendall, Basant Elbanna, Kara Denstel, Stephanie Broyles
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203853

Abstract:Understanding factors that influence parenting decisions for outdoor play is necessary to promote physical activity during critical years for adolescent adjustment. This study explored physical and social environmental influences on parenting decisions and rules for their child’s outdoor play using semistructured in-depth interviews with parents (n = 30, 29 of whom were mothers) of adolescents. Mothers from low- (n = 16) and high-disadvantage (n = 13) neighborhood environments were recruited to identify environmental factors that resulted in parenting decisions that either promoted or hindered outdoor play and identify differences across neighborhood types. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Mothers limit their child’s independent play, as well as the location and time of outdoor play, due to both social and physical aspects of their neighborhood. Seven themes (safety, social norms, sense of control, social cohesion and neighborhood composition, walkability, and access to safe places for activity) were identified as influencers of parenting practices. Mothers in high-disadvantage neighborhoods reported facing greater neighborhood barriers to letting their child play outside without supervision. Physical and social neighborhood factors interact and differ in low- and high-disadvantage neighborhoods to influence parenting practices for adolescent’s outdoor play. Community-level interventions should target both physical and social environmental factors and be tailored to the neighborhood and target population, in order to attenuate parental constraints on safe outdoor play and ultimately increase physical activity and facilitate adolescent adjustment among developing youth.
Jacqueline Ramke, Fatima Kyari, Nyawira Mwangi, Mmpn Piyasena, Gvs Murthy, Clare Gilbert
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; doi:10.3390/ijerph16203854

Abstract:The Sustainable Development Goals aim to leave no one behind. We explored the hypothesis that women without a living spouse—including those who are widowed, divorced, separated, and never married—are a vulnerable group being left behind by cataract services. Using national cross-sectional blindness surveys from Nigeria (2005–2007; n = 13,591) and Sri Lanka (2012–2014; n = 5779) we categorized women and men by marital status (married/not-married) and place of residence (urban/rural) concurrently. For each of the eight subgroups we calculated cataract blindness, cataract surgical coverage (CSC), and effective cataract surgical coverage (eCSC). Not-married women, who were predominantly widows, experienced disproportionate cataract blindness—in Nigeria they were 19% of the population yet represented 56% of those with cataract blindness; in Sri Lanka they were 18% of the population and accounted for 54% of those with cataract blindness. Not-married rural women fared worst in access to services—in Nigeria their CSC of 25.2% (95% confidence interval, CI 17.8–33.8%) was far lower than the best-off subgroup (married urban men, CSC 80.0% 95% CI 56.3–94.3); in Sri Lanka they also lagged behind (CSC 68.5% 95% CI 56.6–78.9 compared to 100% in the best-off subgroup). Service quality was also comparably poor for rural not-married women—eCSC was 8.9% (95% CI 4.5–15.4) in Nigeria and 37.0% (95% CI 26.0–49.1) in Sri Lanka. Women who are not married are a vulnerable group who experience poor access to cataract services and high cataract blindness. To “leave no one behind”, multi-faceted strategies are needed to address their needs.