Indonesian Aquaculture Journal

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ISSN / EISSN : 0215-0883 / 2502-6577
Total articles ≅ 234
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Tatik Mufidah, Sukenda Sukenda, Widanarni Widanarni, Huda Salahudin Darusman, Angela Mariana Lusiastuti
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 73-85; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.17.1.2022.73-85

Abstract:
This research aimed to study the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection through two different routes of infection in African catfish and to find out the involvement of TNF-a in response to the infection. The experimental infection model was performed by clipping the caudal fin and immersing the fish in a medium with A. hydrophila and by intramuscular injection. Total plate count were used to investigate total and the distribution of A. hydrophila in the organs and TNF-a were observed using immune histochemistry. The results showed that the two types of infection were able to show typical A. hydrophila symptoms in experimental fish. Histological observation indicated that the two types of experimental infection resulted in systemic aeromoniasis infection. Total bacterial count results showed that A. hydrophila were detected three hours post-infection (hpi) in all organs, except for the kidney, in which detection started since hour 0, both in control and challenge fish. TNF-a were detected in all experimental fish and influenced by the number of bacteria, the function and tissue structure and of the organs. It can be concluded that artificial infection by clipping the caudal fin of Clarias gariepinus and immersing the fish in a medium with active A. hydrophila isolates cause systemic aeromoniasis infection in organs. Acute infection with Aeromonas hydrophila causes an increase in TNF-a production.
Yuni Puji Hastuti, Moh. Burhanuddin Mahmud, Yuli Siti Fatma, Ridwan Affandi, Kukuh Nirmala
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 61-72; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.17.1.2022.61-72

Abstract:
Sea cucumber Holothuria scabra was reared on a small scale with the addition of seaweed Gracilaria sp. as a phytoremediation agent. This research aimed to determine the effect of Gracilaria sp. on water quality, physiological response, and growth performance of H. scabra. Ten individuals of H. scabra with an initial length of 5 ± 0.09 cm and an initial weight of 7.6 ± 0.2 g were reared in a culture tank (20 cm x 30 cm x 20 cm) with 15 cm of water depth. Gracilaria sp. was floated on the culture tank at three weight levels with three replicates, i.e., low (15 g); medium (30 g); and high seaweed density (45 g), with the control (0 g), during the 30-day rearing period. Results showed no significant difference in water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) between all treatments except for pH. There were no significant differences in ammonia and nitrite concentrations and significant differences in nitrate concentration and total organic matter (TOM) between all treatments and the control. On day 30, the application of Gracilaria sp. exhibited a lower nitrate concentration than the control. Gracilaria sp. maintained the water quality in the culture tank within a tolerable range for H. scabra. On the physiological response of H. scabra, high seaweed density exhibited the lowest blood cholesterol and glucose levels on day 30 and the highest specific growth rate (SGR) in weight (0.59 ± 0.2%) and length (1.16 ± 0.09%). The survival rate of H. scabra in all treatments reached 100%, suggesting the indoor cultivation system in this experiment did not negatively affect the growth of H. scabra.
Qoriatul Ilma, Achmad Dinoto, Ninu Setianingrum, Mulyadi Mulyadi, Dwi Agustyani, Nani Radiastuti, Heddy Julistiono
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.17.1.2022.13-22

Abstract:
The presence of effective bacteria removing nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) is necessary to attenuate their toxicity to fish. The research was conducted to find bacteria that can be cultured and reduce nitrite, nitrate, and ammonium. Sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from bioballs of RAS biofilter and tested for their ability to reduce nitrite or nitrate concentrations. Using a simple indicator paper for nitrite and nitrate, four isolates that reduced nitrite and nitrate concentrations, namely K1NA3, K2NA3, CNA1, and PRO4NA1 were selected. The four isolates were then evaluated for the metabolism of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium compounds using the spectrophotometry method. Results showed that the isolates K1NA3, CNA1, and PRO4NA1 reduced nitrite concentration but produced ammonium, whereas K1NA3 isolate was able to reduce nitrate concentration but produced both nitrite and ammonium. Experiments in reducing ammonium levels in the synthetic waste media showed the ability of four isolates to reduce ammonium levels after six days despite producing nitrite. Based on the 16S rRNA gene analysis, these isolates have a close relationship to Pseudomonas otitidis (KINA3 and K2NA3), Acinetobacter cumulans (CNA1), and Vogesella perlucida (PRO 4NA1).
Teuku Fadlon Haser, Fauziah Azmi, Muh Saleh Nurdin, Suri Purnama Febri, Tri Heru Prihadi, Joel Aubin, Bahtiar Sah Putra, Riris Yuli Valentine, Deni Radona, Kurniawan Kurniawan, et al.
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 29-36; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.17.1.2022.29-36

Abstract:
Embryonic development of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer is a critical phase in the success of larval rearing production in a hatchery. Low production of larvae has been the drawback of the Asian seabass aquaculture owing to diseases and microbial infection to the eggs, causing low egg viability. This study aims to evaluate the effect of different doses of papaya leaf extracts during embryonic development to improve egg hatchability and larval survival. Six different doses of papaya leaf extracts of 2, 4, 6, 10, 20, and 25 mL were used as treatments arranged triplicates in five liter aquaria. The newly fertilized eggs (99 eggs) were immersed in each treatment for five minutes and fifteen seconds. Subsequently, the eggs were moved into 10 L incubation tanks, and samples were collected for embryogenesis observation. The hatchability of eggs was significantly different among treatments. The hatchability of larvae in group with dose of 4 mL was the best treatment (93.94 ± 0.1%) followed by 2 mL (93.88 ± 3%), and 6 mL (90.91 ± 3.0%). The different doses of papaya leaf extract significantly affected larval survival. The highest survival rate of larvae was 2 mL (93%) followed by 4 mL (90%) and 6 mL (70%). There was no significant difference in the hatching time of larvae. The fastest hatching time occurred at the dose of 6 mL about 13 hours and 30 minutes, followed by 2 mL and 4 mL treatment for about 14 hours. This study recommends that the doses of 2 mL or 4 mL of papaya leaf extracts have potential impacts on the improvement of larval rearing production for Asian seabass hatchery.
Rina Puji Astuti, , Rarastoeti Pratiwi, Suwarno Hadisusanto
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.17.1.2022.45-51

Abstract:
Pseudodiaptomus species are one of the copepods species as a superior live feed to date due to their nutrition and digestive enzyme contents. Some of them have been used as natural for rearing marine fish larvae. The purposes of this study were to compare the nutritional and protease activity between two species of Pseudodiaptomus originated from Indonesian waters, and to determine more superior species to cultivate. Two different feeds i.e. Thalassiosira sp. and milk powder were used to grow the Pseudodiaptomus species. Analysis of amino acids (AAs) and fatty acids (FAs) profiles were carried out for both the Pseudodiaptomus species samples and the feeds, while the protease activity assay was carried out only for the Pseudodiaptomus species samples. Results indicated that the nutritional and protease activity profiles of Pseudodiaptomus were affected by the types of feed. Pseudodiaptomus code P61 was more superior to Pseudodiaptomus code P71. This code P61 species contained a wide variety of essential fatty acids and exhibited stabile protease activity under the different feeding treatments. However, P61 contained a lower total AA content than P71. Both of them could be cultivated because they were complementary in nutrients to each other.
Isabelle Leite Bayona Perez, Ana Paula Dos Santos, Bárbara Araújo Martins
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 53-60; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.17.1.2022.53-60

Abstract:
The hight extractivism of marine fish to supply the demand of the aquarium market has worried the researchers and, in this context,, the aquaculture consists of an alternative to the problem. The family Chaetodontidae represents one of the main families of ornamental marine fish and has not received enough attention on their cultivation research. Considering the absence of this information about the butterflyfish Chaetodon striatus, the present work had the objective of obtaining information about the species in captivity. The fishes were kept in tanks of 100, 200, 300 and 1,000 L, with 6 fishes in each tank, with 3 repetitions for each volume, totaling 72 individuals and were observed for 30 days, being offered living small invertebrates and frozen and fresh mussels for the feeding. Also, for the attempt of reproduction in captivity, two couples, collected directly from the sea, with the entry of only two adults in the trap at a time, were used. Each couple was acclimated in a 100 L tank and we observed their behaviors for 8 hours a day. There was no mortality in tanks of 300 and 1,000 L and, for feeding, small invertebrates and fresh mussels were well accepted. Some behaviors were observed, most of which were already described for chaetodontids. This is the first report of C. striatus in captivity and this contribution may provide subsidies for a future technologi­cal package.
Asda Laining, Ike Trismawanti, Muhammad Chaidir Undu, Andi Sahrijanna, Andi Indra Jaya Asaad
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.17.1.2022.1-11

Abstract:
Two-phase feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of the carotenoid mixture on gonadal development and biochemical properties of several tissues of tiger shrimp. The treatments were diet enriched with (PC) and without carotenoid mixture (PO). Shrimp with an initial body weight of 31.7±1.3 g were allocated among four of 1,000 m2 concrete ponds with a density of 1 shrimp/m2 and fed tested diets for five months. Selected shrimps from the pond with a minimum weight of 80 g for females and 60 g for males were stocked into four 10-m3 concrete tanks at 15 pairs per tank. Natural mating rate and ovary development were not stimulated by the carotenoid supplement. However, it significantly improved (P<0.05) both ovary maturation and spermatophore formation of tiger shrimp from 76.7±1.4 to 86.7±0.0% and from 69.9 ±4.5 to 82.3±4.0%, respectively. Total carotenoid content in meat, oocyte and hepatopancreas of female tiger shrimp significantly (P<0.05) increased by supplementing carotenoid compared to the control diet. The total amino acid content in the spermatophore of shrimp fed the PC diet was significantly higher (73.82%) than in the PO diet (66.09%). The present study revealed the important effect of carotenoid feed during the pre-maturation stage on the reproductive performances of pond-reared tiger shrimp.
Azam Bachur Zaidy, Yuke Eliyani, Toni Ruchimat
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.17.1.2022.37-43

Abstract:
Biofloc technique is a method of fish culture using minimal water exchange and microbial aggregates formed within the culture media as fish supplementary feed. Biofloc as a protein source is currently not being considered part of the feeding dosage in catfish culture. This present work aimed to determine the effects of commercial feed reduction on growth performance, water quality, and hematology of catfish cultured in biofloc ponds. Fish with an average body weight of 7.53 ± 0.47 g were stocked in nine ponds with a stocking density of 100 fish/pond and reared for nine weeks. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with the following treatments: full feed + non-biofloc (C100) as control; 10% less feed + biofloc (B90); 20% less feed + biofloc (B80). As such, the total feed doses given daily per each treatment fish biomass were: 5% for C100, 4.5% for B90, and 4.0% for B80. Each treatment was arranged in triplicates. The results showed that all water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, TAN, and nitrite) and biofloc concentrations did not differ significantly among the treatments (P>0.05). Specific growth rate, survival rate, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio of the fish were also not significantly different (P>0.05). The weight gain of biofloc-treated fish in B90 and B80 reached 2.71% and 12.65%, respectively; which were higher than the control treatment during the treatment period. The feed conversion ratios of B90 and B80 were 14.39% and 7.58%, respectively; lower than the control treatment. The biofloc treatment did not adversely alter the fish’s blood cell profiles. This study revealed that feed reduction did not affect water quality in the ponds and blood cell profiles of the fish. Moreover, fish in the biofloc-treated ponds had higher weight gain and lower food conversion ratios compared to fish cultured in the non-treated biofloc ponds. This study suggests that using the biofloc system in catfish rearing can reduce the use of feed up to 10%-20% with similar biomass yield compared to the non-biofloc system.
Slamet Budi Prayitno, Bagus Rimbayu Ardie, Romi Novriadi, Vivi Endar Herawati, Seto Windarto
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 17, pp 23-28; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.17.1.2022.23-28

Abstract:
One of the problematic factors in the cultivation of vannamei shrimp is the outbreak of bacteria and viruses. One way to prevent infection is by strengthening the shrimp’s immune system. MOTIVTM is a fermented corn protein concentrate that has been reported to possess probiotic properties that can positively increase the disease resistance of shrimp. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of bioactive protein (MOTIVTM) on the total hemocyte count and shrimp survival rate. The study used an experimental method with a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications: A (commercial feed), B (7.5% MOTIV add of 1.5% krill meal instead of 9% fish meal), C (7.5% MOTIVTM add of 1% krill meal to replaces of 2% poultry meal and 6.5% fish meal), D (7.5% MOTIVTM to replaces of 3.5% poultry meal and 4% fish meal), and E (7.5% MOTIVTM to replaces of 7.5% poultry flour). Feeding was done four times/day based on shrimp biomass and weekly feed counts based on daily shrimp survival. The vannamei shrimp used was one gram with a population density of 15 shrimps/aquarium with an aquarium volume of 100 liters.Total shrimp hemocytes, survival, and water quality were all measured. Treatment C had the highest total hemocyte, averaging 4.1 x 107 cells/mL, whereas treatment B had the lowest, averaging 1.4 x 107 cells/mL. During the trial, only treatment C supported 100% survival.
Jojo Subagja, Emir Ma’Arif Imanudin, Kurniawan Kurniawan, Agoes Soeprijanto, Yunita Maemunah
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, Volume 16, pp 91-97; https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.16.2.2021.91-97

Abstract:
Temperature plays a pivotal role in the success of larvae production. Evaluation of the effects of different temperatures on growth, feed efficiency, and survival of domesticated Indonesian mahseer (Tor soro) larvae was carried out to determine an optimum rearing temperature. Five different temperature settings of 22°C, 24°C, 26°C, 28°C, and 30°C were used as the treatments arranged in triplicates, in indoor closed recirculating systems. The larvae were stocked in a rectangular glass tank with a stocking density of 150 larvae per tank and fed with a commercial feed (30% protein content) three times a day, about 10% per body weight over 61 days of observation. Measured parameters included the specific growth rate of total weight (SGRTW) and length (SGRTL), feed efficiency (FE), and survival rate (SR). The result showed that the treatments of different temperatures significantly affected the growth performance and feed efficiency of the larvae. The growth performance and feed efficiency of mahseer larva were much better at rearing temperature from 24°C to 28°C compared with those at 22°C and 30°C. There were no significant differences in SR in different temperatures tested. The SR was found to range from 86.44% to 100% in all treatments. Maintaining temperature ranging from 24°C to 28°C is the best rearing condition to achieve the optimum growth and feed efficiency of mahseer during the larval rearing period. The findings from this research could be set as a standard technique in larval rearing of Indonesian mahseer (Tor soro).
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